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1.
JMIR Med Educ ; 6(2): e20963, 2020 Nov 18.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1183730

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: In December 2019, COVID-19 emerged and rapidly spread worldwide. Transmission of SARS-CoV-2, the virus that causes COVID-19, is high; as a result, countries worldwide have imposed rigorous public health measures, such as quarantine. This has involved the suspension of medical school classes globally. Medical school attachments are vital to aid the progression of students' confidence and competencies as future physicians. Since the outbreak of COVID-19, medical schools have sought ways to replace medical placements with virtual clinical teaching. OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to review the advantages and disadvantages of virtual medical teaching for medical students during the COVID-19 pandemic based on the current emerging literature. METHODS: A brief qualitative review based on the application and effectiveness of virtual teaching during the COVID-19 pandemic was conducted by referencing keywords, including medical student virtual teaching COVID-19, virtual undergraduate medical education, and virtual medical education COVID-19, in the electronic databases of PubMed and Google Scholar. A total of 201 articles were found, of which 34 were included in the study. Manual searches of the reference lists of the included articles yielded 5 additional articles. The findings were tabulated and assessed under the following headings: summary of virtual teaching offered, strengths of virtual teaching, and weaknesses of virtual teaching. RESULTS: The strengths of virtual teaching included the variety of web-based resources available. New interactive forms of virtual teaching are being developed to enable students to interact with patients from their homes. Open-access teaching with medical experts has enabled students to remain abreast of the latest medical advancements and to reclaim knowledge lost by the suspension of university classes and clinical attachments. Peer mentoring has been proven to be a valuable tool for medical students with aims of increasing knowledge and providing psychological support. Weaknesses of virtual teaching included technical challenges, confidentiality issues, reduced student engagement, and loss of assessments. The mental well-being of students was found to be negatively affected during the pandemic. Inequalities of virtual teaching services worldwide were also noted to cause differences in medical education. CONCLUSIONS: In the unprecedented times of the COVID-19 pandemic, medical schools have a duty to provide ongoing education to medical students. The continuation of teaching is crucial to enable the graduation of future physicians into society. The evidence suggests that virtual teaching is effective, and institutions are working to further develop these resources to improve student engagement and interactivity. Moving forward, medical faculties must adopt a more holistic approach to student education and consider the mental impact of COVID-19 on students as well as improve the security and technology of virtual platforms.

2.
Clin Infect Dis ; 71(16): 2150-2157, 2020 11 19.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1153175

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Thymosin alpha 1 (Tα1) had been used in the treatment of viral infections as an immune response modifier for many years. However, clinical benefits and the mechanism of Tα1 treatment for COVID-19 patients are still unclear. METHODS: We retrospectively reviewed the clinical outcomes of 76 severe COVID-19 cases admitted to 2 hospitals in Wuhan, China, from December 2019 to March 2020. The thymus output in peripheral blood mononuclear cells from COVID-19 patients was measured by T-cell receptor excision circles (TRECs). The levels of T-cell exhaustion markers programmed death-1 (PD-1) and T-cell immunoglobulin and mucin domain protein 3 (Tim-3) on CD8+ T cells were detected by flow cytometry. RESULTS: Compared with the untreated group, Tα1 treatment significantly reduced the mortality of severe COVID-19 patients (11.11% vs 30.00%, P = .044). Tα1 enhanced blood T-cell numbers in COVID-19 patients with severe lymphocytopenia. Under such conditions, Tα1 also successfully restored CD8+ and CD4+ T-cell numbers in elderly patients. Meanwhile, Tα1 reduced PD-1 and Tim-3 expression on CD8+ T cells from severe COVID-19 patients compared with untreated cases. It is of note that restoration of lymphocytopenia and acute exhaustion of T cells were roughly parallel to the rise of TRECs. CONCLUSIONS: Tα1 treatment significantly reduced mortality of severe COVID-19 patients. COVID-19 patients with counts of CD8+ T cells or CD4+ T cells in circulation less than 400/µL or 650/µL, respectively, gained more benefits from Tα1. Tα1 reversed T-cell exhaustion and recovered immune reconstitution through promoting thymus output during severe acute respiratory syndrome-coronavirus 2 infection.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/mortality , Lymphopenia/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Thymalfasin/metabolism , Adult , Aged , CD4-Positive T-Lymphocytes/metabolism , CD8-Positive T-Lymphocytes/metabolism , COVID-19/virology , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Retrospective Studies , Thymalfasin/genetics , Thymus Gland/metabolism
3.
Antioxidants (Basel) ; 9(9)2020 Sep 21.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1121263

ABSTRACT

Due to its high degree of contagiousness and like almost no other virus, SARS-CoV-2 has put the health of the world population on alert. COVID-19 can provoke an acute inflammatory process and uncontrolled oxidative stress, which predisposes one to respiratory syndrome, and in the worst case, death. Recent evidence suggests the mechanistic role of mitochondria and vitamin D in the development of COVID-19. Indeed, mitochondrial dynamics contribute to the maintenance of cellular homeostasis, and its uncoupling involves pathological situations. SARS-CoV-2 infection is associated with altered mitochondrial dynamics with consequent oxidative stress, pro-inflammatory state, cytokine production, and cell death. Furthermore, vitamin D deficiency seems to be associated with increased COVID-19 risk. In contrast, vitamin D can normalize mitochondrial dynamics, which would improve oxidative stress, pro-inflammatory state, and cytokine production. Furthermore, vitamin D reduces renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system activation and, consequently, decreases ROS generation and improves the prognosis of SARS-CoV-2 infection. Thus, the purpose of this review is to deepen the knowledge about the role of mitochondria and vitamin D directly involved in the regulation of oxidative stress and the inflammatory state in SARS-CoV-2 infection. As future prospects, evidence suggests enhancing the vitamin D levels of the world population, especially of those individuals with additional risk factors that predispose to the lethal consequences of SARS-CoV-2 infection.

4.
J Clin Invest ; 130(12): 6417-6428, 2020 12 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1112385

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUNDCorticosteroids are widely used in patients with COVID 19, although their benefit-to-risk ratio remains controversial.METHODSPatients with severe COVID-19-related acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) were included from December 29, 2019 to March 16, 2020 in 5 tertiary Chinese hospitals. Cox proportional hazards and competing risks analyses were conducted to analyze the impact of corticosteroids on mortality and SARS-CoV-2 RNA clearance, respectively. We performed a propensity score (PS) matching analysis to control confounding factors.RESULTSOf 774 eligible patients, 409 patients received corticosteroids, with a median time from hospitalization to starting corticosteroids of 1.0 day (IQR 0.0-3.0 days) . As compared with usual care, treatment with corticosteroids was associated with increased rate of myocardial (15.6% vs. 10.4%, P = 0.041) and liver injury (18.3% vs. 9.9%, P = 0.001), of shock (22.0% vs. 12.6%, P < 0.001), of need for mechanical ventilation (38.1% vs. 19.5%, P < 0.001), and increased rate of 28-day all-cause mortality (44.3% vs. 31.0%, P < 0.001). After PS matching, corticosteroid therapy was associated with 28-day mortality (adjusted HR 1.46, 95% CI 1.01-2.13, P = 0.045). High dose (>200 mg) and early initiation (≤3 days from hospitalization) of corticosteroid therapy were associated with a higher 28-day mortality rate. Corticosteroid use was also associated with a delay in SARS-CoV-2 coronavirus RNA clearance in the competing risk analysis (subhazard ratio 1.59, 95% CI 1.17-2.15, P = 0.003).CONCLUSIONAdministration of corticosteroids in severe COVID-19-related ARDS is associated with increased 28-day mortality and delayed SARS-CoV-2 coronavirus RNA clearance after adjustment for time-varying confounders.FUNDINGNone.


Subject(s)
Adrenal Cortex Hormones/administration & dosage , Adrenal Cortex Hormones/adverse effects , COVID-19/drug therapy , COVID-19/mortality , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/drug therapy , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/mortality , Aged , COVID-19/complications , Disease-Free Survival , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/etiology , Retrospective Studies , Severity of Illness Index , Survival Rate
5.
Ann Surg ; 2020 Dec 22.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1101934

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: COVID-19 can cause acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) that is rapidly progressive, severe, and refractory to conventional therapies. Extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) can be used as a supportive therapy to improve outcomes but evidence-based guidelines have not been defined. SUMMARY BACKGROUND DATA: Initial mortality rates associated with ECMO for ARDS in COVID-19 were high, leading some to believe that there was no role for ECMO in this viral illness. With more experience, outcomes have improved. The ideal candidate, timing of cannulation, and best post-cannulation management strategy, however, has not yet been defined. METHODS: We conducted a retrospective review from April 1 to July 31 2020 of the first 25 patients with COVID-19 associated ARDS placed on V-V ECMO at our institution. We analyzed the differences between survivors to hospital discharge and those who died. Modified Poisson regression was used to model adjusted risk factors for mortality. RESULTS: 44% of patients (11/25) survived to hospital discharge. Survivors were significantly younger (40.5 years vs. 53.1 years; p < 0.001) with no differences between cohorts in mean body mass index, diabetes, or PaO2:FiO2 at cannulation. Survivors had shorter duration from symptom onset to cannulation (12.5 days vs. 19.9 days, p = 0.028) and shorter duration of intensive care unit (ICU) length of stay (LOS) prior to cannulation (5.6 days vs. 11.7 days, p = 0.045). Each day from ICU admission to cannulation increased the adjusted risk of death by 4% and each year increase in age increased the adjusted risk 6%. CONCLUSIONS: ECMO has a role in severe, refractory ARDS associated with COVID-19. Increasing age and time from ICU admission were risk factors for mortality and should be considered in patient selection. Further studies are needed to define best practices for V-V ECMO use in COVID-19.

6.
An Sist Sanit Navar ; 43(2): 251-254, 2020 Aug 31.
Article in Spanish | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1080494

ABSTRACT

Infection caused by SARS-CoV-2 (COVID-19) is associated with an increased risk of thromboembolic disease. So-me authors recommend anticoagulation at therapeutic doses for, at least, the most severely ill patients; this practice is not free of risks, which is why only thromboembolic prophylaxis is recommended by other consensuses. In the case of previously anticoagulated patients, changing the oral anticoagulant for a low molecular weight heparin (LMWH) is generally recommended. We present the cases of two patients admitted due to COVID-19, without serious clinical data, in whom anticoagulation (acenocoumarol and rivaroxaban, respectively) was replaced by LMWH at therapeutic doses, both presenting abdominal bleeding. This type of bleeding is an infrequent complication in anticoagulated patients, but the concurrence of two cases in a short period of time in the context of the COVID-19 pandemic leads us to consider that there is not yet any clear evidence on therapeutic anticoagulation in SARS-CoV-2 infection.


Subject(s)
Anticoagulants/adverse effects , Betacoronavirus , Coronavirus Infections/complications , Hematoma/chemically induced , Pneumonia, Viral/complications , Venous Thromboembolism/prevention & control , Venous Thromboembolism/virology , Abdomen , Acenocoumarol/adverse effects , Acenocoumarol/therapeutic use , Aged, 80 and over , Anticoagulants/therapeutic use , COVID-19 , Female , Hematoma/diagnosis , Heparin, Low-Molecular-Weight/adverse effects , Heparin, Low-Molecular-Weight/therapeutic use , Humans , Pandemics , Rivaroxaban/adverse effects , Rivaroxaban/therapeutic use , SARS-CoV-2 , Venous Thromboembolism/drug therapy
7.
Cardiovasc Res ; 116(14): 2207-2215, 2020 12 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1048209

ABSTRACT

AIMS: Coronavirus disease 2019 is caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) and has emerged as a global pandemic. SARS-CoV-2 infection can lead to elevated markers of cardiac injury associated with higher risk of mortality. It is unclear whether cardiac injury is caused by direct infection of cardiomyocytes or is mainly secondary to lung injury and inflammation. Here, we investigate whether cardiomyocytes are permissive for SARS-CoV-2 infection. METHODS AND RESULTS: Two strains of SARS-CoV-2 infected human induced pluripotent stem cell-derived cardiomyocytes as demonstrated by detection of intracellular double-stranded viral RNA and viral spike glycoprotein expression. Increasing concentrations of viral RNA are detected in supernatants of infected cardiomyocytes, which induced infections in Caco-2 cell lines, documenting productive infections. SARS-CoV-2 infection and induced cytotoxic and proapoptotic effects associated with it abolished cardiomyocyte beating. RNA sequencing confirmed a transcriptional response to viral infection as demonstrated by the up-regulation of genes associated with pathways related to viral response and interferon signalling, apoptosis, and reactive oxygen stress. SARS-CoV-2 infection and cardiotoxicity was confirmed in a 3D cardiosphere tissue model. Importantly, viral spike protein and viral particles were detected in living human heart slices after infection with SARS-CoV-2. Coronavirus particles were further observed in cardiomyocytes of a patient with coronavirus disease 2019. Infection of induced pluripotent stem cell-derived cardiomyocytes was dependent on cathepsins and angiotensin-converting enzyme 2, and was blocked by remdesivir. CONCLUSION: This study demonstrates that SARS-CoV-2 infects cardiomyocytes in vitro in an angiotensin-converting enzyme 2- and cathepsin-dependent manner. SARS-CoV-2 infection of cardiomyocytes is inhibited by the antiviral drug remdesivir.


Subject(s)
Apoptosis , COVID-19/virology , Heart Diseases/virology , Myocytes, Cardiac/virology , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Adenosine Monophosphate/analogs & derivatives , Adenosine Monophosphate/pharmacology , Alanine/analogs & derivatives , Alanine/pharmacology , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/metabolism , Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , Apoptosis/drug effects , COVID-19/drug therapy , COVID-19/metabolism , COVID-19/pathology , Caco-2 Cells , Cathepsins/metabolism , Heart Diseases/drug therapy , Heart Diseases/metabolism , Heart Diseases/pathology , Host-Pathogen Interactions , Humans , Myocytes, Cardiac/drug effects , Myocytes, Cardiac/metabolism , Myocytes, Cardiac/pathology , Reactive Oxygen Species/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects , Signal Transduction
8.
Cureus ; 12(12): e12290, 2020 Dec 26.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1029534

ABSTRACT

Introduction Cytokine release syndrome in COVID-19 is characterized by hyperinflammation, which manifests as acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS), multiorgan failure, and high inflammatory parameters. Tocilizumab, an interleukin 6 (IL-6) antagonist has been used in COVID-19 ARDS with conflicting results from different parts of the world. Objective To study the treatment outcomes with tocilizumab in patients with COVID-19 ARDS and hyperinflammation using the World Health Organization (WHO) COVID-19 ordinal scale. Methods An observational study was conducted from Feb 2020 to May 2020 on COVID-19 ARDS patients with hyperinflammation. Results A total of 244 patients with COVID-19 were admitted, out of which 107 had ARDS. Thirty patients had both ARDS and hyperinflammation and received tocilizumab. The mean age was 62.5 years (SD: 13.5) and the majority were male (83%). The mean CRP pre-treatment was 217.5 mg/L and post 48 to 72 hours of tocilizumab treatment was 98.5 mg/L. Twenty-one patients (70%) also received concomitant intravenous (IV) methylprednisolone. Of the 30 patients, seven died and 20 recovered. Ten patients required intensive care unit admission and nine developed nosocomial infections. COVID-19-associated aspergillosis was diagnosed in three patients post tocilizumab treatment. Mortality was significantly higher in patients who developed a nosocomial infection and who required intermittent positive pressure ventilation (IPPV). Post-treatment, clinical improvement was observed in patients who had a median score of 5 on the WHO ordinal scale. Conclusion Our study supports the use of tocilizumab in COVID-19 ARDS patients with a pre-treatment median WHO ordinal severity score of 5 and recommends the monitoring of nosocomial infections and opportunistic infections.

9.
J Chir Visc ; 157(3): S13-S19, 2020 Jun.
Article in French | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1026067

ABSTRACT

Introduction: The COVID-19 pandemic imposed a drastic reduction in surgical activity in order to respond to the influx of hospital patients and to protect uninfected patients by avoiding hospitalization. However, little is known about the risk of infection during hospitalization or its consequences. The aim of this work was to report a series of patients hospitalized on digestive surgery services who developed a nosocomial infection with SARS-Cov-2 virus. Methods: This is a non-interventional retrospective study carried out within three departments of digestive surgery. The clinical, biological and radiological data of the patients who developed a nosocomial infection with SARS-Cov-2 were collected from the computerized medical record. Results: From March 1, 2020 to April 5, 2020, among 305 patients admitted to digestive surgery departments, 15 (4.9 %) developed evident nosocomial infection with SARS-Cov-2. There were nine men and six women, with a median age of 62 years (35-68 years). All patients had co-morbidities. The reasons for hospitalization were: surgical treatment of cancer (n = 5), complex emergencies (n = 5), treatment of complications linked to cancer or its treatment (n = 3), gastroplasty (n = 1), and stoma closure (n = 1). The median time from admission to diagnosis of SARS-Cov-2 infection was 34 days (5-61 days). In 12 patients (80%), the diagnosis was made after a hospital stay of more than 14 days (15-63 days). At the end of the follow-up, two patients had died, seven were still hospitalized with two of them on respiratory assistance, and six patients were discharged post-hospitalization. Conclusions: The risk of SARS-Cov-2 infection during hospitalization or following digestive surgery is a real and potentially serious risk. Measures are necessary to minimize this risk in order to return to safe surgical activity.

10.
Arch Med Res ; 51(7): 631-635, 2020 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1023470

ABSTRACT

The novel coronavirus 2019-nCoV (SARS-CoV-2) infection that emerged in China in December 2019 has rapidly spread to become a global pandemic. This article summarizes the potential benefits of erythropoietin (EPO) in alleviating SARS-CoV-2 pathogenesis which is now called COVID-19. As with other coronavirus infection, the lethality of COVID-19 is associated with respiratory dysfunction due to overexpression of proinflammatory cytokines induced by the host immune responses. The resulting cytokine storm leads to the development of acute lung injury/acute respiratory distress syndrome (ALI/ARDS). Erythropoietin, well known for its role in the regulation of erythropoiesis, may have protective effects against ALI/ARDS induced by viral and other pathogens. EPO exerts antiapoptotic and cytoprotective properties under various pathological conditions. With a high safety profile, EPO promotes the production of endothelial progenitor cells and reduce inflammatory processes through inhibition of the nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) and JAK-STAT3 signaling pathways. Thus, it may be considered as a safe drug candidate for COVID-19 patients if given at the early stage of the disease. The potential effects of erythropoietin on different aspects of ALI/ARDS associated with SARS-CoV-2 infection are reviewed.


Subject(s)
Acute Lung Injury , Anti-Inflammatory Agents/therapeutic use , COVID-19 , Erythropoietin/therapeutic use , Respiratory Distress Syndrome , Acute Lung Injury/drug therapy , Acute Lung Injury/virology , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/drug therapy , Cytokine Release Syndrome/drug therapy , Cytokine Release Syndrome/virology , Humans , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/drug therapy , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/virology , SARS-CoV-2
11.
Cureus ; 12(11): e11749, 2020 Nov 28.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1011751

ABSTRACT

Objective The study aims to describe the clinical characteristics and outcomes of patients with COVID-19 related acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) who developed pneumothorax. Design and setting A retrospective chart review was performed of the electronic medical record. Patients were included if they were identified as having confirmed COVID-19 as well as pneumothorax from March 16, 2020 to May 31, 2020. Patients' demographic and clinical characteristics, mechanical ventilator parameters, lung compliance measurements and outcomes during hospitalization were collected. This case series was conducted in intensive care units at two large tertiary care centers within the Northwell Health System, located in New York State. Patients A total of 75 patients were identified who were predominantly male (73.3%) with an average age of 62.8 years. Thirty (40%) were Hispanic, 20 (26.7%) were White, 16 (21.3%) were Asian, and nine (12%) were Black. Common comorbid conditions were hypertension (52%), diabetes mellitus (26.7%), hyperlipidemia (32.0%), and chronic pulmonary disease (8, 10.7%). Measurements and main results Most of the patients were diagnosed with pneumothorax while on mechanical ventilation (92%) despite overall adherence with lung-protective ventilation strategies. Average tidal volume was 6.66 mL/kg) of ideal body weight. The average positive end-expiratory pressure (PEEP) was 10.83 (cm) H2O. Lung compliance was poor, with average peak and plateau pressures of 41.9 cm H2O and 35.2 cm H2O, respectively. Inpatient mortality was high in these patients (76%). Conservative management with initial observation had a success rate (73.3%) with similar mortality and shorter length of stay (LOS) on average. Significant factors in the conservatively managed group included lack of tension physiology, the smaller size of pneumothorax, lack of underlying diabetes, presence of pneumomediastinum, and not being on mechanical ventilation during diagnosis. Conclusion Despite overall adherence to best practice ventilator management in ARDS, we observed a large number of pneumothoraces during the COVID-19 pandemic. Conservative management may be appropriate if there are no clinical signs or symptoms of tension physiology and pneumothorax size is small.

12.
J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry ; 91(10): 1105-1110, 2020 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1006236

ABSTRACT

A systematic review from 1 January to 30 June 2020 revealed 42 patients with Guillain-Barré syndrome (GBS) associated with SARS-CoV-2 infection. Single cases and small series were reported from 13 countries, the majority from Europe (79.4%) and especially from Italy (30.9%). SARS-CoV-2 infection was demonstrated by nasopharyngeal swab (85.7%) and serology (14.3%). Median time between COVID-19 and GBS onset in 36 patients was 11.5 days (IQR: 7.7-16). The most common clinical features were: limb weakness (76.2%), hypoareflexia (80.9 %), sensory disturbances (66.7 %) and facial palsy (38.1%). Dysautonomia occurred in 19%, respiratory failure in 33.3% and 40.5% of patients were admitted in intensive care unit. Most patients (71.4%) had the classical clinical presentation but virtually all GBS variants and subtypes were reported. Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) albumin-cytological dissociation was found in 28/36 (77.8%) and PCR for SARS-CoV-2 was negative in 25/25 patients. Electrodiagnosis was demyelinating in 80.5% and levels 1 and 2 of Brighton criteria of diagnostic certainty, when applicable, were fulfilled in 94.5% patients. Antiganglioside antibodies were positive in only 1/22 patients. Treatments were intravenous immunoglobulin and/or plasma exchange (92.8%) with, at short-time follow-up, definite improvement or recovery in 62.1% of patients. One patient died. In conclusion, the most frequent phenotype of GBS in SARS-CoV-2 infection is the classical sensorimotor demyelinating GBS responding to the usual treatments. The time interval between infectious and neuropathic symptoms, absence of CSF pleocytosis and negative PCR support a postinfectious mechanism. The abundance of reports suggests a pathogenic link between SARS-CoV-2 infection and GBS but a case-control study is greatly needed.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus , Coronavirus Infections/complications , Guillain-Barre Syndrome/diagnosis , Guillain-Barre Syndrome/virology , Pneumonia, Viral/complications , Adult , Aged , COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections/diagnosis , Coronavirus Infections/therapy , Female , Guillain-Barre Syndrome/therapy , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnosis , Pneumonia, Viral/therapy , SARS-CoV-2 , Young Adult
13.
Front Pharmacol ; 11: 602999, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1000125

ABSTRACT

The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has become the number one health problem worldwide. As of August 2020, it has affected more than 18 million humans and caused over 700,000 deaths worldwide. COVID-19 is an infectious disease that can lead to severe acute respiratory syndrome. Under certain circumstances, the viral infection leads to excessive and uncontrolled inflammatory response, which is associated with the massive release of inflammatory cytokines in pulmonary alveolar structures. This phenomenon has been referred to as the "cytokine storm," and it is closely linked to lung injury, acute respiratory syndrome and mortality. Unfortunately, there is currently no vaccine available to prevent the infection, and no effective treatment is available to reduce the mortality associated with the severe form of the disease. The cytokine storm associate with COVID-19 shows similarities with those observed in other pathologies such as sepsis, acute respiratory distress syndrome, acute lung injury and other viral infection including severe cases of influenza. However, the specific mechanisms that cause and modulate the cytokine storm in the different conditions remain to be determined. micro-RNAs are important regulators of gene expression, including key inflammatory cytokines involved in the massive recruitment of immune cells to the lungs such as IL1ß, IL6, and TNFα. In recent years, it has been shown that nutraceutical agents can modulate the expression of miRs involved in the regulation of cytokines in various inflammatory diseases. Here we review the potential role of inflammatory-regulating-miRs in the cytokine storm associated with COVID-19, and propose that nutraceutical agents may represent a supportive therapeutic approach to modulate dysregulated miRs in this condition, providing benefits in severe respiratory diseases.

14.
Endocr Metab Immune Disord Drug Targets ; 2020 12 28.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-999951

ABSTRACT

COVID-19 (Virus named as severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2)) is a pandemic disease characterized with respiratory infection caused by coronavirus. It has worldwide after an outbreak began in Wuhan, China, in December 2019. SARS-CoV-2 has infected more than 15 million people globally. The disease severity and mortality increased in patients with heart-related comorbidities. Cardiovascular disease patients are more susceptible and infected with SARS-CoV-2. Early screening and managements these patients prevent or ameliorate adverse outcomes. Several treatments have been used to combat these effects as previously seen in MERS and SARS. This review will cover the association of cardiovascular diseases with COVID 19. It showed that cardiovascular diseases are common in patients with COVID- 19. Increased attention to highlight the gaps should be paid to the care of this unique group of patients.

15.
Ann Intensive Care ; 10(1): 151, 2020 Nov 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-992558

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: In COVID-19 patients with severe acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS), the relatively preserved respiratory system compliance despite severe hypoxemia, with specific pulmonary vascular dysfunction, suggests a possible hemodynamic mechanism for VA/Q mismatch, as hypoxic vasoconstriction alteration. This study aimed to evaluate the capacity of inhaled nitric oxide (iNO)-almitrine combination to restore oxygenation in severe COVID-19 ARDS (C-ARDS) patients. METHODS: We conducted a monocentric preliminary pilot study in intubated patients with severe C-ARDS. Respiratory mechanics was assessed after a prone session. Then, patients received iNO (10 ppm) alone and in association with almitrine (10 µg/kg/min) during 30 min in each step. Echocardiographic and blood gases measurements were performed at baseline, during iNO alone, and iNO-almitrine combination. The primary endpoint was the variation of oxygenation (PaO2/FiO2 ratio). RESULTS: Ten severe C-ARDS patients were assessed (7 males and 3 females), with a median age of 60 [52-72] years. Combination of iNO and almitrine outperformed iNO alone for oxygenation improvement. The median of PaO2/FiO2 ratio varied from 102 [89-134] mmHg at baseline, to 124 [108-146] mmHg after iNO (p = 0.13) and 180 [132-206] mmHg after iNO and almitrine (p < 0.01). We found no correlation between the increase in oxygenation caused by iNO-almitrine combination and that caused by proning. CONCLUSION: In this pilot study of severe C-ARDS patients, iNO-almitrine combination was associated with rapid and significant improvement of oxygenation. These findings highlight the role of pulmonary vascular function in COVID-19 pathophysiology.

16.
Crit Care ; 24(1): 699, 2020 12 18.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-992531

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Data on incidence of ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP) and invasive pulmonary aspergillosis in patients with severe SARS-CoV-2 infection are limited. METHODS: We conducted a monocenter retrospective study comparing the incidence of VAP and invasive aspergillosis between patients with COVID-19-related acute respiratory distress syndrome (C-ARDS) and those with non-SARS-CoV-2 viral ARDS (NC-ARDS). RESULTS: We assessed 90 C-ARDS and 82 NC-ARDS patients, who were mechanically ventilated for more than 48 h. At ICU admission, there were significantly fewer bacterial coinfections documented in C-ARDS than in NC-ARDS: 14 (16%) vs 38 (48%), p < 0.01. Conversely, significantly more patients developed at least one VAP episode in C-ARDS as compared with NC-ARDS: 58 (64%) vs. 36 (44%), p = 0.007. The probability of VAP was significantly higher in C-ARDS after adjusting on death and ventilator weaning [sub-hazard ratio = 1.72 (1.14-2.52), p < 0.01]. The incidence of multi-drug-resistant bacteria (MDR)-related VAP was significantly higher in C-ARDS than in NC-ARDS: 21 (23%) vs. 9 (11%), p = 0.03. Carbapenem was more used in C-ARDS than in NC-ARDS: 48 (53%), vs 21 (26%), p < 0.01. According to AspICU algorithm, there were fewer cases of putative aspergillosis in C-ARDS than in NC-ARDS [2 (2%) vs. 12 (15%), p = 0.003], but there was no difference in Aspergillus colonization. CONCLUSIONS: In our experience, we evidenced a higher incidence of VAP and MDR-VAP in C-ARDS than in NC-ARDS and a lower risk for invasive aspergillosis in the former group.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/microbiology , Intensive Care Units , Pneumonia, Ventilator-Associated/microbiology , Respiration, Artificial/adverse effects , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/microbiology , Adult , Case-Control Studies , Female , Humans , Invasive Pulmonary Aspergillosis/diagnosis , Male , Middle Aged , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors
17.
Cells ; 9(10)2020 09 28.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-982828

ABSTRACT

The vitamin K-dependent factors protein S (PROS1) and growth-arrest-specific gene 6 (GAS6) and their tyrosine kinase receptors TYRO3, AXL, and MERTK, the TAM subfamily of receptor tyrosine kinases (RTK), are key regulators of inflammation and vascular response to damage. TAM signaling, which has largely studied in the immune system and in cancer, has been involved in coagulation-related pathologies. Because of these established biological functions, the GAS6-PROS1/TAM system is postulated to play an important role in SARS-CoV-2 infection and progression complications. The participation of the TAM system in vascular function and pathology has been previously reported. However, in the context of COVID-19, the role of TAMs could provide new clues in virus-host interplay with important consequences in the way that we understand this pathology. From the viral mimicry used by SARS-CoV-2 to infect cells, to the immunothrombosis that is associated with respiratory failure in COVID-19 patients, TAM signaling seems to be involved at different stages of the disease. TAM targeting is becoming an interesting biomedical strategy, which is useful for COVID-19 treatment now, but also for other viral and inflammatory diseases in the future.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/complications , Intercellular Signaling Peptides and Proteins/metabolism , Pneumonia, Viral/complications , Protein S/metabolism , Thrombosis/etiology , Adaptive Immunity , Animals , COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections/blood , Coronavirus Infections/immunology , Hemostasis , Humans , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/blood , Pneumonia, Viral/immunology , Thrombosis/blood , Thrombosis/immunology , c-Mer Tyrosine Kinase/metabolism
18.
Environ Health Perspect ; 128(9): 95001, 2020 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-982506

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Studies have reported that ambient air pollution is associated with an increased risk of developing or dying from coronavirus-2 (COVID-19). Methodological approaches to investigate the health impacts of air pollution on epidemics should differ from those used for chronic diseases, but the methods used in these studies have not been appraised critically. OBJECTIVES: Our study aimed to identify and critique the methodological approaches of studies of air pollution on infections and mortality due to COVID-19 and to identify and critique the methodological approaches of similar studies concerning severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS). METHODS: Published and unpublished papers of associations between air pollution and developing or dying from COVID-19 or SARS that were reported as of 10 May 2020 were identified through electronic databases, internet searches, and other sources. RESULTS: All six COVID-19 studies and two of three SARS studies reported positive associations. Two were time series studies that estimated associations between daily changes in air pollution, one was a cohort that assessed associations between air pollution and the secondary spread of SARS, and six were ecological studies that used area-wide exposures and outcomes. Common shortcomings included possible cross-level bias in ecological studies, underreporting of health outcomes, using grouped data, the lack of highly spatially resolved air pollution measures, inadequate control for confounding and evaluation of effect modification, not accounting for regional variations in the timing of outbreaks' temporal changes in at-risk populations, and not accounting for nonindependence of outcomes. DISCUSSION: Studies of air pollution and novel coronaviruses have relied mainly on ecological measures of exposures and outcomes and are susceptible to important sources of bias. Although longitudinal studies with individual-level data may be imperfect, they are needed to adequately address this topic. The complexities involved in these types of studies underscore the need for careful design and for peer review. https://doi.org/10.1289/EHP7411.


Subject(s)
Air Pollution/adverse effects , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome/epidemiology , Air Pollution/analysis , Bias , COVID-19 , Disease Outbreaks , Epidemiologic Studies , Humans , Pandemics , Research Design , Risk Factors
19.
Biofactors ; 46(6): 927-933, 2020 Nov.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-966303

ABSTRACT

Recent articles report elevated markers of coagulation, endothelial injury, and microthromboses in lungs from deceased COVID-19 patients. However, there has been no discussion of what may induce intravascular coagulation. Platelets are critical in the formation of thrombi and their most potent trigger is platelet activating factor (PAF), first characterized by Demopoulos and colleagues in 1979. PAF is produced by cells involved in host defense and its biological actions bear similarities with COVID-19 disease manifestations. PAF can also stimulate perivascular mast cell activation, leading to inflammation implicated in severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS). Mast cells are plentiful in the lungs and are a rich source of PAF and of inflammatory cytokines, such as IL-1ß and IL-6, which may contribute to COVID-19 and especially SARS. The histamine-1 receptor antagonist rupatadine was developed to have anti-PAF activity, and also inhibits activation of human mast cells in response to PAF. Rupatadine could be repurposed for COVID-19 prophylaxis alone or together with other PAF-inhibitors of natural origin such as the flavonoids quercetin and luteolin, which have antiviral, anti-inflammatory, and anti-PAF actions.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/prevention & control , Cyproheptadine/analogs & derivatives , Disseminated Intravascular Coagulation/prevention & control , Platelet Activating Factor/antagonists & inhibitors , Pulmonary Embolism/prevention & control , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome/prevention & control , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , Blood Platelets/drug effects , Blood Platelets/pathology , Blood Platelets/virology , COVID-19/blood , COVID-19/pathology , COVID-19/virology , Cyproheptadine/therapeutic use , Disseminated Intravascular Coagulation/blood , Disseminated Intravascular Coagulation/pathology , Disseminated Intravascular Coagulation/virology , Gene Expression Regulation , Humans , Inflammation , Interleukin-1beta/genetics , Interleukin-1beta/metabolism , Interleukin-6/genetics , Interleukin-6/metabolism , Lung/drug effects , Lung/pathology , Lung/virology , Luteolin/therapeutic use , Mast Cells/drug effects , Mast Cells/pathology , Mast Cells/virology , Platelet Activating Factor/genetics , Platelet Activating Factor/metabolism , Pulmonary Embolism/blood , Pulmonary Embolism/pathology , Pulmonary Embolism/virology , Quercetin/therapeutic use , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects , Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome/blood , Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome/pathology , Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome/virology
20.
J Family Reprod Health ; 14(3): 158-165, 2020 Sep.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-963448

ABSTRACT

Objective: The coronavirus disease 19 (COVID-19) is a highly transmittable and pathogenic viral infection, causes severe acute respiratory syndrome and was spread throughout the world in early 2020. The effects of vitamin and micronutrient supplements on the prevention and treatment of COVID- 19 seems challenging in scientific considerations. On the other side generally, experts warn against over-consumption of these supplements. Materials and methods: This study aimed to investigate the vitamin and micronutrient supplementation usage pattern in past history of patients with COVID-19 via a cross-sectional inquiry. Totally 510 patients referring to the infectious disease clinic of Imam Khomeini Hospital in Tehran from March 2020 to May 2020 were recruited. The inclusion criterion was suspected patients for COVID-19 based on clinical findings and CT scans of the lung. The infected patients included both inpatients (171) and outpatients (339). Demographic information, clinical signs, and the supplement pattern use were collected through a questionnaire and the data were statistically analyzed. Results: Vitamin D3 intake was reported in 30% (103 patients) of outpatients and 16.5% (28 patients) of hospitalized patients, which is statistically significant (P=0.001). It shows that, the frequency of vitamin D3 consumption in the outpatient group was higher than inpatient group. This significant difference has also been shown in zinc consumption, in 29 patients (9%) outpatients versus 4 patients (2%) inpatients were reported (P=0.007). Multi nominal regression showed that vitamin D3 intake has a supportive effect and reduces the risk of exacerbation and worsening of the disease. (OR=0.291; 95% CI 0.102-.0834, P=0.022). Conclusion: According to the results of the present study and the findings of other studies, considering the supportive effect of vitamin D3 in reducing the severity of infectious diseases; Clinical trials with an appropriate sample size are recommended to investigate the functional role of this vitamin in improving viral diseases of the respiratory tract.

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