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1.
Transplant Direct ; 6(7): e572, 2020 Jul.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1794966

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The early effects of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) on transplantation are dramatic: >75% of kidney and liver programs are either suspended or operating under major restrictions. To resume transplantation, it is important to understand the prevalence of COVID-19 among transplant recipients, donors, and healthcare workers (HCWs) and its associated mortality. METHODS: To investigate this, we studied severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 diagnostic test results among patients with end-stage renal disease or kidney transplants from the Johns Hopkins Health System (n = 235), and screening test results from deceased donors from the Southwest Transplant Alliance Organ Procurement Organization (n = 27), and donors, candidates, and HCWs from the National Kidney Registry and Viracor-Eurofins (n = 253) between February 23 and April 15, 2020. RESULTS: We found low rates of COVID-19 among donors and HCWs (0%-1%) who were screened, higher rates of diagnostic tests among patients with end-stage renal disease or kidney transplant (17%-20%), and considerable mortality (7%-13%) among those who tested positive. CONCLUSIONS: These findings suggest the threat of COVID-19 for the transplant population is significant and ongoing data collection and reporting is critical to inform transplant practices during and after the pandemic.

2.
Exp Clin Transplant ; 19(7): 744-748, 2021 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1323413

ABSTRACT

Acute respiratory distress syndrome remains the main cause of death among people with COVID-19. Although many immunomodulatory and antiviral drug therapies have been tested, the only effective therapy against severe COVID-19 pneumonia among the general population is a regimen of high-dose corticosteroids for cases of severe associated inflammation. In solid-organ transplant recipients with long-term immunosuppression, data on disease presentation and evolution are scarce, and the benefit of high-dose corticosteroids remains uncertain for cases of severe COVID-19 pneumonia. Here, we report 2 cases of COVID-19-related acute respiratory distress syndrome that occurred in lung transplant recipients in March and April 2020, respectively. Both cases of acute respiratory distress syndrome occurred in patients with long-term azithromycin treatment prescribed to prevent chronic allograft dysfunction. Acute respiratory distress syndrome was associated with severe inflammation and was cured after early administration of high-dose corticosteroids in both cases, with progressive and complete resolution of lung lesions evidenced on thoracic computed tomography scan. Our findings support the benefit of early high-dose corticosteroids in COVID-19-related acute respiratory distress syndrome with hyperinflammation in patients with long-term immunosuppression such as lung transplant recipients.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/drug therapy , Lung Transplantation , Methylprednisolone/therapeutic use , Postoperative Complications/drug therapy , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/drug therapy , COVID-19/complications , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Postoperative Complications/virology , Remission Induction , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/virology
3.
Transplant Proc ; 53(4): 1245-1248, 2021 May.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1030237

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Transplant recipients are prone to developing severe infections because of immunosuppression. Therefore, studying the manifestation of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection in transplant recipients is of particular importance. METHODS: One hundred twelve transplant patients consecutively visiting the outpatient department of 2 German transplant centers were included in this study after providing written informed consent. The patients were interviewed about coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) symptoms and history. Nasopharyngeal swabs were analyzed by SARS-CoV-2 reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). SARS-CoV-2 IgG and IgA were measured concomitantly in patient sera by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. RESULTS: The risk of severe COVID-19 according to 2 recent scores differed among the analyzed patients. All patients were well educated about their presumed higher risk of a severe COVID-19 and described performing self-isolation wherever possible. Nevertheless, 20 patients reported contact with someone suspected of having COVID-19 or who tested positive shortly thereafter (18%). Despite this relatively high exposure, no clinically relevant case of COVID-19 was reported. Though SARS-CoV-2 IgG and IgA were found in 3 patients (3%); 2 patients were asymptomatic and only 1 had mild COVID-19 symptoms and positive RT-PCR 4 weeks earlier. There were no occult SARS-CoV-2 infections, as demonstrated by negative PCR tests. CONCLUSION: Despite the high exposure level, the incidence of COVID-19 remained very low. Because of the differences in COVID-19 risk, balancing risk exposure and quality of life should be recommended.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/diagnosis , Transplant Recipients/statistics & numerical data , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Antibodies, Viral/blood , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/virology , Female , Germany/epidemiology , Humans , Immunoglobulin A/blood , Immunoglobulin G/blood , Male , Middle Aged , Organ Transplantation , Prevalence , RNA, Viral/analysis , Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification
4.
Am J Transplant ; 21(5): 1825-1837, 2021 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-887353

ABSTRACT

We report the nationwide experience with solid organ transplant (SOT) and hematopoietic stem cell transplant (HSCT) recipients diagnosed with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) in Spain until 13 July 2020. We compiled information for 778 (423 kidney, 113 HSCT, 110 liver, 69 heart, 54 lung, 8 pancreas, 1 multivisceral) recipients. Median age at diagnosis was 61 years (interquartile range [IQR]: 52-70), and 66% were male. The incidence of COVID-19 in SOT recipients was two-fold higher compared to the Spanish general population. The median interval from transplantation was 59 months (IQR: 18-131). Infection was hospital-acquired in 13% of cases. No donor-derived COVID-19 was suspected. Most patients (89%) were admitted to the hospital. Therapies included hydroxychloroquine (84%), azithromycin (53%), protease inhibitors (37%), and interferon-ß (5%), whereas immunomodulation was based on corticosteroids (41%) and tocilizumab (21%). Adjustment of immunosuppression was performed in 85% of patients. At the time of analysis, complete follow-up was available from 652 patients. Acute respiratory distress syndrome occurred in 35% of patients. Ultimately, 174 (27%) patients died. In univariate analysis, risk factors for death were lung transplantation (odds ratio [OR]: 2.5; 95% CI: 1.4-4.6), age >60 years (OR: 3.7; 95% CI: 2.5-5.5), and hospital-acquired COVID-19 (OR: 3.0; 95% CI: 1.9-4.9).


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation , Organ Transplantation , Transplant Recipients , COVID-19/mortality , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , SARS-CoV-2 , Spain/epidemiology
5.
Transplant Proc ; 52(9): 2607-2613, 2020 Nov.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-708645

ABSTRACT

The concerns generated by coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic are having profound impact on solid organ transplantation (SOT). Non-pharmaceutical interventions (NPI) are currently the only measures available to contain COVID-19 in the general population and in more vulnerable recipients of any organ transplant. In this cross-sectional case control study from a patient survey undertaken in 2 transplant centers (TxC) in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia and Italy, we aimed to appraise awareness of the NPI implemented by respective these governments. We have also evaluated the impact of COVID-19 on our kidney transplant (KT) recipients and a control group of kidney living donors (KLD). In our series, there were zero cases of COVID-19 among 111 KT recipients and 70 KLD of the control group. Demography, transplant type, immunosuppression regimes, and, importantly, the different COVID-19 prevalence in the 2 regions of the TxC did not appear to influence incidence of COVID-19 in our KT recipients. The absence of COVID-19 cases in our series was unexpected. Our findings suggest that awareness of NPI is associated with a successful containment of COVID-19 in vulnerable, immunosuppressed KT recipients.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus/immunology , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Immunocompromised Host/immunology , Kidney Transplantation/adverse effects , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Postoperative Complications/epidemiology , Adult , COVID-19 , Case-Control Studies , Coronavirus Infections/immunology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , Humans , Incidence , Italy/epidemiology , Living Donors/statistics & numerical data , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/immunology , Postoperative Complications/immunology , Postoperative Complications/virology , Prevalence , SARS-CoV-2 , Saudi Arabia/epidemiology , Tissue and Organ Harvesting/adverse effects , Tissue and Organ Procurement/statistics & numerical data
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