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3.
Muscle Nerve ; 62(2): 254-258, 2020 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2209145

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has rapidly become a global pandemic, but little is known about its potential impact on patients with myasthenia gravis (MG). METHODS: We studied the clinical course of COVID-19 in five hospitalized patients with autoimmune MG (four with acetylcholine receptor antibodies, one with muscle-specific tyrosine kinase antibodies) between April 1, 2020-April 30-2020. RESULTS: Two patients required intubation for hypoxemic respiratory failure, whereas one required significant supplemental oxygen. One patient with previously stable MG had myasthenic exacerbation. One patient treated with tocilizumab for COVID-19 was successfully extubated. Two patients were treated for MG with intravenous immunoglobulin without thromboembolic complications. DISCUSSION: Our findings suggest that the clinical course and outcomes in patients with MG and COVID-19 are highly variable. Further large studies are needed to define best practices and determinants of outcomes in this unique population.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Monoclonal, Humanized/therapeutic use , Coronavirus Infections/therapy , Hypoxia/therapy , Immunoglobulins, Intravenous/therapeutic use , Immunologic Factors/therapeutic use , Myasthenia Gravis/therapy , Pneumonia, Viral/therapy , Respiratory Insufficiency/therapy , Adult , Aged, 80 and over , Betacoronavirus , COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections/complications , Coronavirus Infections/drug therapy , Disease Progression , Female , Humans , Hypoxia/etiology , Immunosuppressive Agents/therapeutic use , Intubation, Intratracheal , Male , Middle Aged , Myasthenia Gravis/complications , Myasthenia Gravis/immunology , Oxygen Inhalation Therapy , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/complications , Receptor Protein-Tyrosine Kinases/immunology , Receptors, Cholinergic/immunology , Respiration, Artificial , Respiratory Insufficiency/etiology , SARS-CoV-2
4.
Am J Med Case Rep ; 9(3): 198-200, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2217613

ABSTRACT

Guillain-Barré syndrome (GBS) in an immune mediated disease that affects peripheral nerves with possible life-threatening complications. GBS has multiple subtypes including acute inflammatory demyelinating polyradiculoneuropathy (AIDP), acute motor axonal neuropathy (AMAN) and acute motor sensory axonal neuropathy (AMSAN), which can make GBS difficult to diagnose. GBS commonly presents after viral infections such as influenza virus, campylobacter jejuni, and zika virus. GBS commonly presents with a prolonged clinical course leading to increased morbidity among affected patients. It is not surprising that COVID-19 has been connected with multiple cases of GBS, which may alter the recovery course for several patients post-COVID. In this report, we present a case of 69-year-old-female who presented with progressive motor weakness and loss of sensation in her extremities after testing positive for antibodies to COVID-19 one-month prior to presentation. Her presentation and treatment of GBS in the setting of COVID-19 is an example of one of the many COVID-19 complications and sheds light on the prolonged recovery course that we may experience as clinicians in the wake of this pandemic.

5.
Diagn Interv Radiol ; 27(3): 344-349, 2021 May.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2217337

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) first emerged in China and rapidly spread in the world causing a pandemic. Chest computed tomography (CT) continues to play an important role in the diagnosis and follow-up of the disease due to shortcomings of the real-time reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction test, which is the gold standard in the diagnosis of this disease. Typical chest CT findings of COVID-19 pneumonia have been widely reported in the literature. However, atypical findings such as central involvement, peribronchovascular involvement, isolated upper lobe involvement, nodular involvement, lobar consolidation, solitary involvement, pleural and pericardial fluid, and subpleural sparing can also be seen. Knowing these atypical findings is important to avoid misdiagnosis. This review summarizes the atypical findings that can be seen in the course of the disease and may be confused with other diseases.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/diagnostic imaging , Lung/diagnostic imaging , Tomography, X-Ray Computed/methods , Humans , SARS-CoV-2
6.
Diagn Interv Radiol ; 27(3): 336-343, 2021 May.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2217336

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: This study aims to identify chest computed tomography (CT) characteristics of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), investigate the association between CT findings and laboratory or demographic findings, and compare the accuracy of chest CT with reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). METHODS: Overall, 120 of 159 consecutive cases isolated due to suspected COVID-19 at our hospital between 17 and 25 March 2020 were included in this retrospective study. All patients underwent both chest CT and RT-PCR at first admission. The patients were divided into two groups: laboratory-confirmed COVID-19 and clinically diagnosed COVID-19. Clinical findings, laboratory findings, radiologic features and CT severity index (CT-SI) of the patients were noted. The sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value (PPV), negative predictive value (NPV), and accuracy of chest CT were calculated for the diagnosis of COVID-19, using RT-PCR as reference. RESULTS: The laboratory-confirmed and clinically diagnosed COVID-19 groups consisted of 69 (M/F 43/26, mean age 50.9±14.0 years) and 51 patients (M/F 24/27, mean age 50.9±18.8 years), respectively. Dry cough (62.3% vs. 52.9%), fever (30.4% vs. 25.5%) and dyspnea (23.2% vs. 27.5%) were the most common admission symptoms in the laboratory-confirmed and clinically diagnosed COVID-19 groups, respectively. Bilateral multilobe involvement (83.1% vs. 57.5%), peripheral distribution (96.9% vs. 97.5%), patchy shape (75.4% vs. 70.0%), ground-glass opacities (GGO) (96.9% vs. 100.0%), vascular enlargement (56.9% vs. 50.0%), intralobular reticular density (40.0% vs. 40.0%) and bronchial wall thickening (27.7% vs. 45.0%) were the most common CT findings in the laboratory-confirmed and clinically diagnosed COVID-19 subgroups, respectively. Except for the bilateral involvement and white blood cell (WBC) count, no difference was found between the clinical, laboratory, and parenchymal findings of the two groups. Positive correlation was found between CT-SI and, lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) and C-reactive protein (CRP) values in the laboratory-confirmed COVID-19 subgroup. Chest CT and RT-PCR positivity rates among patients with suspected COVID-19 were 87.5% (105/120) and 57.5% (69/120), respectively. The sensitivity, specificity, PPV, NPV and accuracy rates of chest CT were determined as 94.2% (95% confidence interval [CI], 85.8-98.4), 21.57% (95% CI, 11.3-35.3), 61.90% (95% CI, 58.2-65.5), 73.3% (95% CI, 48.2-89.1) and 63.3% (95% CI, 54.1-71.9), respectively. CONCLUSION: Chest CT has high sensitivity and low specificity in the diagnosis of COVID-19. The clinical, laboratory, and CT findings of laboratory-confirmed and clinically diagnosed COVID-19 patients are similar.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Nucleic Acid Testing/methods , COVID-19 Nucleic Acid Testing/statistics & numerical data , COVID-19/diagnosis , Lung/diagnostic imaging , Tomography, X-Ray Computed/methods , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , COVID-19/diagnostic imaging , Female , Humans , Laboratories , Male , Middle Aged , Patient Admission , Reproducibility of Results , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Young Adult
7.
Front Psychiatry ; 11: 571179, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2199300

ABSTRACT

The 2019 novel coronavirus (COVID-19) pandemic is associated with increases in psychiatric morbidity, including depression. It is unclear if people with depressive symptoms understand or apply COVID-19 information differently to the general population. Therefore, this study aimed to examine associations between depression, health beliefs, and face mask use during the COVID-19 pandemic among the general population in Hong Kong. This study gathered data from 11,072 Hong Kong adults via an online survey. Respondents self-reported their demographic characteristics, depressive symptoms (PHQ-9), face mask use, and health beliefs about COVID-19. Hierarchical logistic regression was used to identify independent variables associated with depression. The point-prevalence of probable depression was 46.5% (n = 5,150). Respondents reporting higher mask reuse (OR = 1.24, 95%CI 1.17-1.34), wearing masks for self-protection (OR = 1.03 95%CI 1.01-1.06), perceived high susceptibility (OR = 1.15, 95%CI 1.09-1.23), and high severity (OR = 1.33, 95%CI 1.28-1.37) were more likely to report depression. Depression was less likely in those with higher scores for cues to action (OR = 0.82, 95%CI 0.80-0.84), knowledge of COVID-19 (OR = 0.95, 95%CI 0.91-0.99), and self-efficacy to wear mask properly (OR = 0.90 95%CI 0.83-0.98). We identified a high point-prevalence of probable major depression and suicidal ideation during the COVID-19 outbreak in Hong Kong, but this should be viewed with caution due to the convenience sampling method employed. Future studies should recruit a representative probability sample in order to draw more reliable conclusions. The findings highlight that COVID-19 health information may be a protective factor of probable depression and suicidal ideation during the pandemic. Accurate and up-to-date health information should be disseminated to distressed and vulnerable subpopulations, perhaps using digital health technology, and social media platforms to prompt professional help-seeking behavior.

8.
Front Psychiatry ; 11: 565520, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2199287

ABSTRACT

Background: Nurses at the frontline of caring for COVID-19 patients might experience mental health challenges and supportive coping strategies are needed to reduce their stress and burnout. The aim of this study was to identify stressors and burnout among frontline nurses caring for COVID-19 patients in Wuhan and Shanghai and to explore perceived effective morale support strategies. Method: A cross-sectional survey was conducted in March 2020 among 110 nurses from Zhongshan Hospital, Shanghai, who were deployed at COVID-19 units in Wuhan and Shanghai. A COVID-19 questionnaire was adapted from the previous developed "psychological impacts of SARS" questionnaire and included stressors (31 items), coping strategies (17 items), and effective support measures (16 items). Burnout was measured with the Maslach Burnout Inventory. Results: Totally, 107 (97%) nurses responded. Participants mean age was 30.28 years and 90.7% were females. Homesickness was most frequently reported as a stressor (96.3%). Seven of the 17 items related to coping strategies were undertaken by all participants. Burnout was observed in the emotional exhaustion and depersonalization subscales, with 78.5 and 92.5% of participants presenting mild levels of burnout, respectively. However, 52 (48.6%) participants experienced a severe lack of personal accomplishment. Participants with longer working hours in COVID-19 quarantine units presented higher emotional exhaustion (OR = 2.72, 95% CI 0.02-5.42; p = 0.049) and depersonalization (OR = 1.14, 95% CI 0.10-2.19; p = 0.033). Participants with younger age experienced higher emotional exhaustion (OR = 2.96, 95% CI 0.11-5.82; p = 0.042) and less personal accomplishment (OR = 3.80, 95% CI 0.47-7.13; p = 0.033). Conclusions: Nurses in this study experienced considerable stress and the most frequently reported stressors were related to families. Nurses who were younger and those working longer shift-time tended to present higher burnout levels. Psychological support strategies need to be organized and implemented to improve mental health among nurses during the COVID-19 pandemic.

9.
mSphere ; 5(3)2020 06 24.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2193484

ABSTRACT

The contamination of patients' surroundings by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) remains understudied. We sampled the surroundings and the air of six negative-pressure non-intensive care unit (non-ICU) rooms in a designated isolation ward in Chengdu, China, that were occupied by 13 laboratory-confirmed coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) patients who had returned from overseas travel, including 2 asymptomatic patients. A total of 44 of 112 (39.3%) surface samples were positive for SARS-CoV-2 as detected by real-time PCR, suggesting extensive contamination, although all of the air samples were negative. In particular, in a single room occupied by an asymptomatic patient, four sites were SARS-CoV-2 positive, highlighting that asymptomatic COVID-19 patients do contaminate their surroundings and impose risks for others with close contact. Placement of COVID-19 patients in rooms with negative pressure may bring a false feeling of safety, and the importance of rigorous environment cleaning should be emphasized.IMPORTANCE Although it has been well recognized that the virus SARS-CoV-2, the causative agent of COVID-19, can be acquired by exposure to fomites, surprisingly, the contamination of patients' surroundings by SARS-CoV-2 is largely unknown, as there have been few studies. We performed an environmental sampling study for 13 laboratory-confirmed COVID-19 patients and found extensive contamination of patients' surroundings. In particular, we found that asymptomatic COVID-19 patients contaminated their surroundings and therefore imposed risks for other people. Environment cleaning should be emphasized in negative-pressure rooms. The findings may be useful to guide infection control practice to protect health care workers.


Subject(s)
Asymptomatic Infections/epidemiology , Betacoronavirus/isolation & purification , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Environmental Exposure , Environmental Microbiology , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , COVID-19 , Containment of Biohazards/methods , Coronavirus Infections/pathology , Environment , Humans , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/pathology , SARS-CoV-2
10.
Am J Med Case Rep ; 8(9): 299-305, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2168692

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The COVID-19 infection which emerged in December 2019, is caused by the virus SARS-CoV-2. Infection with this virus can lead to severe respiratory illness, however, myocarditis has also been reported. The purpose of this study is to identify the clinical features of myocarditis in COVID-19 patients. METHODS: A systematic review was conducted to investigate characteristics of myocarditis in patients infected with COVID-19 using the search term "Coronavirus" or "COVID" and "myocarditis," "heart," or "retrospective." Case reports and retrospective studies were gathered by searching Medline/Pubmed, Google Scholar, CINAHL, Cochrane CENTRAL, and Web of Science databases. 11 articles were selected for review. RESULTS: COVID-19 myocarditis affected patients over the age of 50 and incidences among both genders were equally reported. Patients presented with dyspnea, cough, fever with hypotension and chest pain. Laboratory tests revealed leukocytosis with increased C-reactive protein, while arterial blood gas analysis demonstrated respiratory acidosis. All cardiac markers were elevated. Radiographic imaging of the chest showed bilateral ground glass opacities or bilateral infiltrates, while cardiac magnetic resonance imaging produced late gadolinium enhancements. Electrocardiography demonstrated ST-segment elevation or inverted T waves, while echocardiography revealed reduced left ventricular ejection fraction with cardiomegaly or increased wall thickness. Management with corticosteroids was favored in most cases, followed by antiviral medication. The majority of studies reported either recovery or no further clinical deterioration. CONCLUSION: Current available data on COVID-19 myocarditis is limited. Further research is needed to advance our understanding of COVID-19 myocarditis.

11.
Clin Exp Rheumatol ; 39(5): 1119-1125, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2207207

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: The results of the RECOVERY trial identified dexamethasone as the first pharmacological therapy that reduces mortality in patients with COVID-19. The aim of this paper is to conduct a systematic literature review on safety and efficacy of pulse glucocorticoid therapy for Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome (SARS)-CoronaVirus (CoV), Middle East Respiratory Syndrome (MERS)-CoV or SARS-CoV-2 infections and describe a case-series of COVID-19 patients treated with off-label pulse doses of methylprednisolone. METHODS: We performed a systematic literature review on safety and efficacy of pulse therapy for betacoronaviridae infections as described in the protocol registered on PROSPERO (CRD42020190183). All consecutive patients admitted to Arcispedale Santa Maria Nuova di Reggio Emilia or Guastalla Hospital with COVID-19 between March 1st and April 30th, 2020 and treated with methylprednisolone 1 gram/day for at least three days were included in the case series. A retrospective review of available computed tomography (CT) scan and chest x-ray was performed independently by two radiologists blinded to clinical data, and discordances were resolved by consensus. RESULTS: Twenty papers were included for SARS, but only two were comparative and were included in the primary endpoint analysis. Likewise, eleven papers were included for COVID-19, four of which were comparative and were considered for the primary outcome analysis. Included studies for both SARS and COVID-19 are mostly retrospective and highly heterogeneous, with lethality ranging from 0% to 100% and ICU admission rate ranging from 9% to 100%. Fourteen patients were included in our case series, 7 males and 7 females. CONCLUSIONS: No randomised controlled trial is available yet for corticosteroids pulse-therapy defined as at least ≥500mg/day methylprednisolone in patients with emerging coronavirus pneumonia. Lethality among our cohort is high (4/14), but this finding should be interpreted with caution due to the fact that in our setting pulse-steroids were used in patients not eligible for other treatments because of comorbidities or as rescue therapy. The incidence of steroid-related adverse events seems low in our cohort. The quality of the evidence on glucocorticoid pulse-therapy in SARS, MERS and COVID-19 is poor. Randomised controlled trials are greatly needed.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Coronaviridae , Female , Glucocorticoids/adverse effects , Humans , Male , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Treatment Outcome
12.
JMIR Public Health Surveill ; 7(3): e25202, 2021 03 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2197886

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Emerging evidence demonstrates that obesity is associated with a higher risk of COVID-19 morbidity and mortality. Excessive alcohol consumption and "comfort eating" as coping mechanisms during times of high stress have been shown to further exacerbate mental and physical ill-health. Global examples suggest that unhealthy food and alcohol brands and companies are using the COVID-19 pandemic to further market their products. However, there has been no systematic, in-depth analysis of how "Big Food" and "Big Alcohol" are capitalizing on the COVID-19 pandemic to market their products and brands. OBJECTIVE: We aimed to quantify the extent and nature of online marketing by alcohol and unhealthy food and beverage companies during the COVID-19 pandemic in Australia. METHODS: We conducted a content analysis of all COVID-19-related social media posts made by leading alcohol and unhealthy food and beverage brands (n=42) and their parent companies (n=12) over a 4-month period (February to May 2020) during the COVID-19 pandemic in Australia. RESULTS: Nearly 80% of included brands and all parent companies posted content related to COVID-19 during the 4-month period. Quick service restaurants (QSRs), food and alcohol delivery companies, alcohol brands, and bottle shops were the most active in posting COVID-19-related content. The most common themes for COVID-19-related marketing were isolation activities and community support. Promotion of hygiene and home delivery was also common, particularly for QSRs and alcohol and food delivery companies. Parent companies were more likely to post about corporate social responsibility (CSR) initiatives, such as donations of money and products, and to offer health advice. CONCLUSIONS: This is the first study to show that Big Food and Big Alcohol are incessantly marketing their products and brands on social media platforms using themes related to COVID-19, such as isolation activities and community support. Parent companies are frequently posting about CSR initiatives, such as donations of money and products, thereby creating a fertile environment to loosen current regulation or resist further industry regulation. "COVID-washing" by large alcohol brands, food and beverage brands, and their parent companies is both common and concerning. The need for comprehensive regulations to restrict unhealthy food and alcohol marketing, as recommended by the World Health Organization, is particularly acute in the COVID-19 context and is urgently required to "build back better" in a post-COVID-19 world.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Food Industry , Marketing/methods , Marketing/statistics & numerical data , Social Media/statistics & numerical data , Alcoholic Beverages/statistics & numerical data , Australia/epidemiology , Food/statistics & numerical data , Humans
13.
JMIR Public Health Surveill ; 7(3): e24843, 2021 03 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2197884

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Since the start of the COVID-19 pandemic, there have been over 2 million deaths globally. Acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) may be the main cause of death. OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to describe the clinical features, outcomes, and ARDS characteristics of patients with COVID-19 admitted to the intensive care unit (ICU) in Chongqing, China. METHODS: The epidemiology of COVID-19 from January 21, 2020, to March 15, 2020, in Chongqing, China, was analyzed retrospectively, and 75 ICU patients from two hospitals were included in this study. On day 1, 56 patients with ARDS were selected for subgroup analysis, and a modified Poisson regression was performed to identify predictors for the early improvement of ARDS (eiARDS). RESULTS: Chongqing reported a 5.3% case fatality rate for the 75 ICU patients. The median age of these patients was 57 (IQR 25-75) years, and no bias was present in the sex ratio. A total of 93% (n=70) of patients developed ARDS during ICU stay, and more than half had moderate ARDS. However, most patients (n=41, 55%) underwent high-flow nasal cannula oxygen therapy, but not mechanical ventilation. Nearly one-third of patients with ARDS improved (arterial blood oxygen partial pressure/oxygen concentration >300 mm Hg) in 1 week, which was defined as eiARDS. Patients with eiARDS had a higher survival rate and a shorter length of ICU stay than those without eiARDS. Age (<55 years) was the only variable independently associated with eiARDS, with a risk ratio of 2.67 (95% CI 1.17-6.08). CONCLUSIONS: A new subphenotype of ARDS-eiARDS-in patients with COVID-19 was identified. As clinical outcomes differ, the stratified management of patients based on eiARDS or age is highly recommended.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/therapy , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/virology , Adult , Aged , COVID-19/mortality , China/epidemiology , Female , Humans , Intensive Care Units , Male , Middle Aged , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/mortality , Retrospective Studies , Treatment Outcome
14.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 100(19): e25865, 2021 May 14.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2191002

ABSTRACT

RATIONALE: Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has spread worldwide. It involves multiple organs of infected individuals and encompasses diverse clinical manifestations. We report a case of acute optic neuritis (ON) associated with myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein (MOG) antibody possibly induced by COVID-19. PATIENT CONCERNS: A 47-year-old man presented to our clinic with left eye pain and vision loss. Magnetic resonance imaging of the orbit revealed the bilateral high intensity of the optic nerve sheaths. He tested positive for COVID-19 by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) testing on the day of admission but he had no signs of respiratory illness. Laboratory testing revealed that MOG immunoglobulin G (MOG IgG) was positive, but other antibodies including aquaporin-4 were negative. DIAGNOSIS: The patient was diagnosed with MOG antibody-positive acute ON possibly induced by COVID-19. INTERVENTIONS: Steroid pulse therapy consisting of methylprednisolone 1 g/day for a total of 3 days, followed by an oral prednisolone taper was performed. OUTCOMES: His left eye pain was immediately relieved, and his decimal vision improved from 0.03 to 0.1 on the day of discharge. Outpatient follow-up 2 weeks later revealed left a decimal vision of 1.2, and a complete resolution of the left eye pain. LESSONS: Our case indicated that COVID-19 might trigger an autoimmune response that leads to MOG antibody-associated ON, similar to other pathogens that were reported in the past. The treatment response to steroid pulse therapy was preferable following a typical course of MOG antibody-positive ON.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , Myelin-Oligodendrocyte Glycoprotein/immunology , Optic Neuritis/etiology , Optic Neuritis/immunology , Autoantibodies , Glucocorticoids/therapeutic use , Humans , Male , Methylprednisolone/therapeutic use , Middle Aged , Optic Neuritis/drug therapy , SARS-CoV-2
15.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 100(21): e25645, 2021 May 28.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2190994

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT: Since December 2019, pneumonia caused by a novel coronavirus (SARS-CoV-2), namely 2019 novel coronavirus disease (COVID-19), has rapidly spread from Wuhan city to other cities across China. The present study was designed to describe the epidemiology, clinical characteristics, treatment, and prognosis of 74 hospitalized patients with COVID-19.Clinical data of 74 COVID-19 patients were collected to analyze the epidemiological, demographic, laboratory, radiological, and treatment data. Thirty-two patients were followed up and tested for the presence of the viral nucleic acid and by pulmonary computed tomography (CT) scan at 7 and 14 days after they were discharged.Among all COVID-19 patients, the median incubation period for patients and the median period from symptom onset to admission was all 6 days; the median length of hospitalization was 13 days. Fever symptoms were presented in 83.78% of the patients, and the second most common symptom was cough (74.32%), followed by fatigue and expectoration (27.03%). Inflammatory indicators, erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR), and C-reactive protein (CRP) of the intensive care unit (ICU) patients were significantly higher than that of the non-ICU patients (P < .05). However, 50.00% of the ICU patients had their the ratio of T helper cells to cytotoxic T cells (CD4/CD8) ratio lower than 1.1, whose proportion is much higher than that in non-ICU patients (P < .01).Compared with patients in Wuhan, COVID-19 patients in Anhui Province seemed to have milder symptoms of infection, suggesting that there may be some regional differences in the transmission of SARS-CoV-2 between different cities.


Subject(s)
Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , COVID-19/diagnosis , Cough/epidemiology , Fever/epidemiology , Hyperbaric Oxygenation/statistics & numerical data , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Antibiotic Prophylaxis/statistics & numerical data , Blood Sedimentation , C-Reactive Protein/analysis , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/therapy , COVID-19 Nucleic Acid Testing , Child , Child, Preschool , China/epidemiology , Cities/epidemiology , Cough/blood , Cough/therapy , Cough/virology , Female , Fever/blood , Fever/therapy , Fever/virology , Follow-Up Studies , Geography , Humans , Length of Stay/statistics & numerical data , Lung/diagnostic imaging , Male , Middle Aged , RNA, Viral/isolation & purification , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Severity of Illness Index , Tomography, X-Ray Computed , Young Adult
16.
Nicotine Tob Res ; 23(10): 1787-1792, 2021 08 29.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2189444

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: It is unclear whether smokers are more vulnerable to severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection. This study aimed to evaluate the association between smoking and the risk of SARS-CoV-2 infection. METHODS: A matched case-control study was conducted using a large nationwide database. The case group included patients with SARS-CoV-2 infection confirmed by the Korea Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, and the control group was randomly sampled from the general Korean population in the National Health Insurance Service database by matching sex, age, and region of residence. Conditional logistic regression models were used to investigate whether the risk of infection with SARS-CoV-2 was affected by smoking status. RESULTS: A total of 4167 patients with SARS-CoV-2 infection and 20 937 matched controls were enrolled. The proportion of ex-smokers and current smokers was 26.6% of the total participants. In multivariate analysis, smoking was not associated with an increased risk of SARS-CoV-2 infection (odds ratio [OR] = 0.56, confidence interval [CI] = 0.50-0.62). When ex-smokers and current smokers were analyzed separately, similar results were obtained (current smoker OR = 0.33, CI = 0.28-0.38; ex-smoker OR = 0.81, CI = 0.72-0.91). CONCLUSIONS: This study showed that smoking may not be associated with an increased risk of SARS-CoV-2 infection. Smoking tends to lower the risk of SARS-CoV-2 infection; however, these findings should be interpreted with caution. IMPLICATIONS: It is unclear whether smokers are more vulnerable to coronavirus disease 2019. In this large nationwide study in South Korea, smoking tended to lower the risk of infection with severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2. However, these findings should be interpreted with caution, and further confirmatory studies are required.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Smoking , COVID-19/epidemiology , Case-Control Studies , Humans , Korea/epidemiology , Logistic Models , Risk Factors , Smoking/adverse effects , Smoking/epidemiology
18.
Med Intensiva (Engl Ed) ; 2021 Mar 06.
Article in English, Spanish | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2181526

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: The COVID-19 pandemic has threatened to collapse hospital and ICU services, and it has affected the care programs for non-COVID patients. The objective was to develop a mathematical model designed to optimize predictions related to the need for hospitalization and ICU admission by COVID-19 patients. DESIGN: Prospective study. SETTING: Province of Granada (Spain). POPULATION: COVID-19 patients hospitalized, admitted to ICU, recovered and died from March 15 to September 22, 2020. STUDY VARIABLES: The number of patients infected with SARS-CoV-2 and hospitalized or admitted to ICU for COVID-19. RESULTS: The data reported by hospitals was used to develop a mathematical model that reflects the flow of the population among the different interest groups in relation to COVID-19. This tool allows to analyse different scenarios based on socio-health restriction measures, and to forecast the number of people infected, hospitalized and admitted to the ICU. CONCLUSIONS: The mathematical model is capable of providing predictions on the evolution of the COVID-19 sufficiently in advance as to anticipate the peaks of prevalence and hospital and ICU care demands, and also the appearance of periods in which the care for non-COVID patients could be intensified.

19.
Sci Immunol ; 5(54)2020 12 23.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2161788

ABSTRACT

Understanding the nature of immunity following mild/asymptomatic infection with SARS-CoV-2 is crucial to controlling the pandemic. We analyzed T cell and neutralizing antibody responses in 136 healthcare workers (HCW) 16-18 weeks after United Kingdom lockdown, 76 of whom had mild/asymptomatic SARS-CoV-2 infection captured by serial sampling. Neutralizing antibodies (nAb) were present in 89% of previously infected HCW. T cell responses tended to be lower following asymptomatic infection than in those reporting case-definition symptoms of COVID-19, while nAb titers were maintained irrespective of symptoms. T cell and antibody responses were sometimes discordant. Eleven percent lacked nAb and had undetectable T cell responses to spike protein but had T cells reactive with other SARS-CoV-2 antigens. Our findings suggest that the majority of individuals with mild or asymptomatic SARS-CoV-2 infection carry nAb complemented by multispecific T cell responses at 16-18 weeks after mild or asymptomatic SARS-CoV-2 infection.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Neutralizing/immunology , Asymptomatic Infections , COVID-19/immunology , T-Lymphocytes/immunology , Antibodies, Neutralizing/blood , Antibodies, Viral/blood , Antibodies, Viral/immunology , Case-Control Studies , Cross-Sectional Studies , Humans , SARS-CoV-2/immunology
20.
Elife ; 92020 08 21.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2155740

ABSTRACT

We conducted voluntary Covid-19 testing programmes for symptomatic and asymptomatic staff at a UK teaching hospital using naso-/oro-pharyngeal PCR testing and immunoassays for IgG antibodies. 1128/10,034 (11.2%) staff had evidence of Covid-19 at some time. Using questionnaire data provided on potential risk-factors, staff with a confirmed household contact were at greatest risk (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] 4.82 [95%CI 3.45-6.72]). Higher rates of Covid-19 were seen in staff working in Covid-19-facing areas (22.6% vs. 8.6% elsewhere) (aOR 2.47 [1.99-3.08]). Controlling for Covid-19-facing status, risks were heterogenous across the hospital, with higher rates in acute medicine (1.52 [1.07-2.16]) and sporadic outbreaks in areas with few or no Covid-19 patients. Covid-19 intensive care unit staff were relatively protected (0.44 [0.28-0.69]), likely by a bundle of PPE-related measures. Positive results were more likely in Black (1.66 [1.25-2.21]) and Asian (1.51 [1.28-1.77]) staff, independent of role or working location, and in porters and cleaners (2.06 [1.34-3.15]).


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Health Personnel/statistics & numerical data , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Adolescent , Adult , Age Factors , Aged , Asymptomatic Infections/epidemiology , Betacoronavirus/isolation & purification , COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections/transmission , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Female , Hospitals, Teaching/statistics & numerical data , Humans , Incidence , Infectious Disease Transmission, Patient-to-Professional/statistics & numerical data , Intensive Care Units/statistics & numerical data , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/transmission , Pneumonia, Viral/virology , Risk , SARS-CoV-2 , Surveys and Questionnaires , United Kingdom/epidemiology , Young Adult
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