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1.
Crit Care Explor ; 2(6): e0144, 2020 Jun.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1795096

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: Coronavirus disease 2019 is caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome-coronavirus-2 infection to which there is no community immunity. Patients admitted to ICUs have high mortality, with only supportive therapies available. Our aim was to profile plasma inflammatory analytes to help understand the host response to coronavirus disease 2019. DESIGN: Daily blood inflammation profiling with immunoassays. SETTING: Tertiary care ICU and academic laboratory. SUBJECTS: All patients admitted to the ICU suspected of being infected with severe acute respiratory syndrome-coronavirus-2, using standardized hospital screening methodologies, had daily blood samples collected until either testing was confirmed negative on ICU day 3 (coronavirus disease 2019 negative), or until ICU day 7 if the patient was positive (coronavirus disease 2019 positive). INTERVENTIONS: None. MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS: Age- and sex-matched healthy controls and ICU patients that were either coronavirus disease 2019 positive or coronavirus disease 2019 negative were enrolled. Cohorts were well-balanced with the exception that coronavirus disease 2019 positive patients were more likely than coronavirus disease 2019 negative patients to suffer bilateral pneumonia. Mortality rate for coronavirus disease 2019 positive ICU patients was 40%. We measured 57 inflammatory analytes and then analyzed with both conventional statistics and machine learning. Twenty inflammatory analytes were different between coronavirus disease 2019 positive patients and healthy controls (p < 0.01). Compared with coronavirus disease 2019 negative patients, coronavirus disease 2019 positive patients had 17 elevated inflammatory analytes on one or more of their ICU days 1-3 (p < 0.01), with feature classification identifying the top six analytes between cohorts as tumor necrosis factor, granzyme B, heat shock protein 70, interleukin-18, interferon-gamma-inducible protein 10, and elastase 2. While tumor necrosis factor, granzyme B, heat shock protein 70, and interleukin-18 were elevated for all seven ICU days, interferon-gamma-inducible protein 10 transiently elevated on ICU days 2 and 3 and elastase 2 increased over ICU days 2-7. Inflammation profiling predicted coronavirus disease 2019 status with 98% accuracy, whereas elevated heat shock protein 70 was strongly associated with mortality. CONCLUSIONS: While many inflammatory analytes were elevated in coronavirus disease 2019 positive ICU patients, relative to healthy controls, the top six analytes distinguishing coronavirus disease 2019 positive ICU patients from coronavirus disease 2019 negative ICU patients were tumor necrosis factor, granzyme B, heat shock protein 70, interleukin-18, interferon-gamma-inducible protein 10, and elastase 2.

2.
Psychol Res Behav Manag ; 13: 631-640, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1793279

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: COVID-19 pandemic is a World Health Organization day-to-day work and has a significant crisis on the physical and mental health of humans. However, little is known about the mental health crisis of the pandemic in Sub-Saharan countries. Therefore, this study aimed to determine the magnitude of psychological problems and associated factors among communities living in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. METHODS: A community-based cross-sectional study design was conducted from March 10 to 30, 2020. Data were collected from 420 respondents selected using a consecutive sampling technique. An online self-administered and Depression, Anxiety, and Stress Scale (DASS-21) survey during the initial phase of the pandemic was conducted to assess the presence of psychological problems for the last two weeks in response to the infection. RESULTS: The magnitude of the psychological problem from moderate to severe levels was 66.4%. The predictor variables of the outcome were female gender, above the secondary level of education, monthly income below 3000 ETB, and more than three family size at 95% CI, P<0.05. CONCLUSION: At the time of the initial COVID-19 pandemic in Ethiopia, nearly two-thirds of the respondents reported moderate to severe levels of psychological problems. Therefore, working on those identified factors would be vital to promote the mental resilience of a community towards the pandemic.

3.
Ann Intern Med ; 174(5): 649-654, 2021 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1726736

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Identifying occupational risk factors for severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection among health care workers (HCWs) can improve HCW and patient safety. OBJECTIVE: To quantify demographic, occupational, and community risk factors for SARS-CoV-2 seropositivity among HCWs in a large health care system. DESIGN: A logistic regression model was fitted to data from a cross-sectional survey conducted in April to June 2020, linking risk factors for occupational and community exposure to coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) with SARS-CoV-2 seropositivity. SETTING: A large academic health care system in the Atlanta, Georgia, metropolitan area. PARTICIPANTS: Employees and medical staff members elected to participate in SARS-CoV-2 serology testing offered to all HCWs as part of a quality initiative and completed a survey on exposure to COVID-19 and use of personal protective equipment. MEASUREMENTS: Demographic risk factors for COVID-19, residential ZIP code incidence of COVID-19, occupational exposure to HCWs or patients who tested positive on polymerase chain reaction test, and use of personal protective equipment as potential risk factors for infection. The outcome was SARS-CoV-2 seropositivity. RESULTS: Adjusted SARS-CoV-2 seropositivity was estimated to be 3.8% (95% CI, 3.4% to 4.3%) (positive, n = 582) among the 10 275 HCWs (35% of the Emory Healthcare workforce) who participated in the survey. Community contact with a person known or suspected to have COVID-19 (adjusted odds ratio [aOR], 1.9 [CI, 1.4 to 2.6]; 77 positive persons [10.3%]) and community COVID-19 incidence (aOR, 1.5 [CI, 1.0 to 2.2]) increased the odds of infection. Black individuals were at high risk (aOR, 2.1 [CI, 1.7 to 2.6]; 238 positive persons [8.3%]). LIMITATIONS: Participation rates were modest and key workplace exposures, including job and infection prevention practices, changed rapidly in the early phases of the pandemic. CONCLUSION: Demographic and community risk factors, including contact with a COVID-19-positive person and Black race, are more strongly associated with SARS-CoV-2 seropositivity among HCWs than is exposure in the workplace. PRIMARY FUNDING SOURCE: Emory COVID-19 Response Collaborative.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Health Personnel , Infectious Disease Transmission, Patient-to-Professional , Occupational Diseases/epidemiology , Occupational Exposure/adverse effects , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Adult , COVID-19/ethnology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , Georgia/epidemiology , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Occupational Diseases/ethnology , Pandemics , Personal Protective Equipment , Pneumonia, Viral/ethnology , Pneumonia, Viral/virology , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2 , Surveys and Questionnaires , United States/epidemiology
4.
Disaster Med Public Health Prep ; : 1-5, 2021 Apr 20.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1707669

ABSTRACT

A research initiative was launched during the initial coronavirus disease (COVID-19) outbreak by 3 New York metropolitan area institutions. Collaborators recruited community members and patients from previous research studies to examine COVID-19 experiences and mental health symptoms through self-report surveys. The current report descriptively presents findings from the initial survey characterized by both community and clinical cohorts, and discusses challenges encountered with rapid implementation. The clinical cohort exhibited higher rates of symptoms of mental health difficulties (depression, anxiety, and posttraumatic stress disorder [PTSD]) as compared to the community cohort. COVID-19 positivity rates were similar among both groups and lower than the national average. While both groups reported low rates of job loss, community members reported higher rates of financial difficulty resulting from the pandemic. Findings indicate the need for further collaborative research on the mental health impact of COVID-19.

5.
Clin Infect Dis ; 74(3): 529-531, 2022 02 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1684549

ABSTRACT

The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention recommends N95 respirators for all providers who see patients with possible or confirmed coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). We suggest that N95 respirators may be just as important for the care of patients without suspected COVID-19 when community incidence rates are high. This is because severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 is most contagious before symptom onset. Ironically, by the time patients are sick enough to be admitted to the hospital with COVID-19, they tend to be less contagious. The greatest threat of transmission in healthcare facilities may therefore be patients and healthcare workers with early occult infection. N95 respirators' superior fit and filtration provide superior exposure protection for healthcare providers seeing patients with early undiagnosed infection and superior source control to protect patients from healthcare workers with early undiagnosed infection. The probability of occult infection in patients and healthcare workers is greatest when community incidence rates are high. Universal use of N95 respirators may help decrease nosocomial transmission at such times.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Delivery of Health Care , Humans , Masks , N95 Respirators , SARS-CoV-2
6.
Clin Infect Dis ; 74(2): 237-245, 2022 01 29.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1662115

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Both severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) reinfection and persistent infection have been reported, but sequence characteristics in these scenarios have not been described. We assessed published cases of SARS-CoV-2 reinfection and persistence, characterizing the hallmarks of reinfecting sequences and the rate of viral evolution in persistent infection. METHODS: A systematic review of PubMed was conducted to identify cases of SARS-CoV-2 reinfection and persistence with available sequences. Nucleotide and amino acid changes in the reinfecting sequence were compared with both the initial and contemporaneous community variants. Time-measured phylogenetic reconstruction was performed to compare intrahost viral evolution in persistent SARS-CoV-2 to community-driven evolution. RESULTS: Twenty reinfection and 9 persistent infection cases were identified. Reports of reinfection cases spanned a broad distribution of ages, baseline health status, reinfection severity, and occurred as early as 1.5 months or >8 months after the initial infection. The reinfecting viral sequences had a median of 17.5 nucleotide changes with enrichment in the ORF8 and N genes. The number of changes did not differ by the severity of reinfection and reinfecting variants were similar to the contemporaneous sequences circulating in the community. Patients with persistent coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) demonstrated more rapid accumulation of sequence changes than seen with community-driven evolution with continued evolution during convalescent plasma or monoclonal antibody treatment. CONCLUSIONS: Reinfecting SARS-CoV-2 viral genomes largely mirror contemporaneous circulating sequences in that geographic region, while persistent COVID-19 has been largely described in immunosuppressed individuals and is associated with accelerated viral evolution.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , COVID-19/therapy , Humans , Immunization, Passive , Infant , Phylogeny , Reinfection
7.
Int J Infect Dis ; 113 Suppl 1: S100-S103, 2021 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1575474

ABSTRACT

In 2020, the novel COVID-19 pandemic replaced TB as the world's top cause of death from an infectious disease. The October 21, 2020 the UN Secretary-General report on progress towards implementation of the UNHLM political declaration on TB stresses that although high-level commitments and targets had galvanized global and national progress towards ending TB, urgent and more ambitious investments and actions were required, especially in lieu of the COVID-19 pandemic where associated public health measures and travel restrictions, have disrupted health services universally. The report sets out 10 priority recommendations to get the world on track to reach agreed targets by 2022. Political commitment is more critical than ever. COVID-19 diagnostic and vaccination health services need to be aligned to TB services with active early case finding in communities, engaging the private sector care providers and mitigation of fear and stigma. Healthcare staff and community workers and leaders need to be provided with COVID-19 vaccination and personal protective equipment. The UNHLM declaration committed to mobilize 15 billion USD per annum for TB, of which 13 billion USD is for TB care and 2 billion USD per annum for TB R&D. The Global Fund needs to increase funding for TB. Learning from the unprecedented speed of COVID-19 vaccine development, fastracking development and evaluation of TB vaccines is essential. World leaders need to urgently address and reverse the socio-economic consequences of the COVID-19 pandemic and these will determine to what extent they will impact on achieving TB targets.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Tuberculosis, Miliary , COVID-19 Vaccines , Humans , Pandemics/prevention & control , SARS-CoV-2 , United Nations
8.
Clin Infect Dis ; 73(10): 1784-1789, 2021 11 16.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1522133

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has disproportionately affected communities of color, with black persons experiencing the highest rates of disease severity and mortality. A vaccine against severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) has the potential to reduce the race mortality gap from COVID-19; however, hesitancy toward the vaccine in the black community threatens vaccine uptake. METHODS: We conducted focus groups with black barbershop and salon owners living in zip codes of elevated COVID-19 prevalence to assess their attitudes, beliefs, and norms around a COVID-19 vaccine. We used a modified grounded theory approach to analyze the transcripts. RESULTS: We completed 4 focus groups (N = 24 participants) in July and August 2020. Participants were an average age of 46 years, and 89% were black non-Hispanic. Hesitancy against the COVID-19 vaccine was high due to mistrust in the medical establishment, concerns with the accelerated timeline for vaccine development, limited data on short- and long-term side effects, and the political environment promoting racial injustice. Some participants were willing to consider the vaccine once the safety profile is robust and reassuring. Receiving a recommendation to take the vaccine from a trusted healthcare provider served as a facilitator. Health beliefs identified were similar to concerns around other vaccines and included the fear of getting the infection with vaccination and preferring to improve one's baseline physical health through alternative therapies. CONCLUSIONS: We found that hesitancy of receiving the COVID-19 vaccine was high; however, provider recommendation and transparency around the safety profile might help reduce this hesitancy.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Vaccines , African Americans , COVID-19 Vaccines , Humans , Middle Aged , SARS-CoV-2
9.
Clin Infect Dis ; 73(9): e3013-e3018, 2021 11 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1501022

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: New York City (NYC) experienced a surge of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) cases in March and April 2020. Since then, universal polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-based surveillance testing and personal protective equipment (PPE) measures are in wide use in procedural settings. There is limited published experience on the utility and sustainability of PCR-based surveillance testing in areas with receding and consistently low community COVID-19 rates. METHODS: The study was conducted at a tertiary care cancer center in NYC from 22 March to 22 August 2020. Asymptomatic patients underwent severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) testing before surgeries, interventional radiology procedures, and endoscopy. Contact tracing in procedural areas was done if a patient with an initial negative screen retested positive within 48 hours of the procedure. RESULTS: From March 22 until August 22, 2020, 11 540 unique patients underwent 14 233 tests before surgeries or procedures at Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center. Overall, 65 patients were positive, with a peak rate of 4.3% that fell below 0.3% after April 2020. Among the 65 positive cases, 3 were presymptomatic and 38 were asymptomatic. Among asymptomatic test-positive patients, 76% had PCR cycle threshold >30 at first detection. Five patients tested newly positive in the immediate postoperative period, exposing 82 employees with 1 case of probable transmission (1.2%). CONCLUSIONS: The prevalence of SARS-CoV-2 infection identified on preprocedural surveillance was low in our study, which was conducted in an area with limited community spread at the later stage of the study. Universal PPE is protective in procedural settings. Optimal and flexible diagnostic strategies are needed to accomplish and sustain the goals of comprehensive preprocedure surveillance testing.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Humans , New York City/epidemiology , Personal Protective Equipment , Policy
10.
Gac Sanit ; 35(5): 459-464, 2021.
Article in Spanish | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1459399

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To estimate the increase in mortality associated with the SARS-CoV-2 coronavirus pandemic in the autonomous community of Castilla y León (Spain). METHOD: Ecological study based on population and death data for the months of March 2016 to 2020 in Castilla y León. The general and provincial standardized rates, the relative risks of the year 2020 with respect to previous years and the risks adjusted by sex, periods and province, using Poisson regression, were calculated. Trend analysis was performed using joinpoint linear regression. RESULTS: An increase in mortality was observed in March 2020 with respect to previous years, with an increase of 39% for men (relative risk [RR]: 1.39; 95% confidence interval [95%CI]: 1.32-1.47) and 28% for women (RR: 1.28; 95%CI: 1.21-1.35). The model predicts excess mortality of 775 deaths. In the trend analysis there is a significant turning point in 2019 in men, globally and for almost all provinces. The increase in mortality is general, although heterogeneous by sex, age group and province. CONCLUSIONS: Although the observed increase in mortality cannot be totally attributed to the disease, it is the best estimate we have of the real impact on deaths directly or indirectly related to it. The number of declared deaths only reaches two thirds of the increase in mortality observed.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Female , Humans , Male , Mortality , Pandemics , Risk , SARS-CoV-2 , Spain/epidemiology
11.
Am J Med ; 134(10): 1252-1259.e3, 2021 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1446365

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has led to widespread implementation of public health measures, such as stay-at-home orders, social distancing, and masking mandates. In addition to decreasing spread of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2, these measures also impact the transmission of seasonal viral pathogens, which are common triggers of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) exacerbations. Whether reduced viral prevalence mediates reduction in COPD exacerbation rates is unknown. METHODS: We performed retrospective analysis of data from a large, multicenter health care system to assess admission trends associated with community viral prevalence and with initiation of COVID-19 pandemic control measures. We applied difference-in-differences analysis to compare season-matched weekly frequency of hospital admissions for COPD prior to and after implementation of public health measures for COVID-19. Community viral prevalence was estimated using regional Centers for Disease Control and Prevention test positivity data and correlated to COPD admissions. RESULTS: Data involving 4422 COPD admissions demonstrated a season-matched 53% decline in COPD admissions during the COVID-19 pandemic, which correlated to community viral burden (r = 0.73; 95% confidence interval, 0.67-0.78) and represented a 36% greater decline over admission frequencies observed in other medical conditions less affected by respiratory viral infections (incidence rate ratio 0.64; 95% confidence interval, 0.57-0.71, P < .001). The post-COVID-19 decline in COPD admissions was most pronounced in patients with fewer comorbidities and without recurrent admissions. CONCLUSION: The implementation of public health measures during the COVID-19 pandemic was associated with decreased COPD admissions. These changes are plausibly explained by reduced prevalence of seasonal respiratory viruses.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Communicable Disease Control , Hospitalization/statistics & numerical data , Pulmonary Disease, Chronic Obstructive/epidemiology , Respiratory Tract Diseases/epidemiology , Respiratory Tract Diseases/virology , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Prevalence , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Seasons , Symptom Flare Up
12.
Lancet Infect Dis ; 21(7): 939-949, 2021 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1433943

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The Pfizer-BioNTech (BNT162b2) and the Oxford-AstraZeneca (ChAdOx1 nCoV-19) COVID-19 vaccines have shown excellent safety and efficacy in phase 3 trials. We aimed to investigate the safety and effectiveness of these vaccines in a UK community setting. METHODS: In this prospective observational study, we examined the proportion and probability of self-reported systemic and local side-effects within 8 days of vaccination in individuals using the COVID Symptom Study app who received one or two doses of the BNT162b2 vaccine or one dose of the ChAdOx1 nCoV-19 vaccine. We also compared infection rates in a subset of vaccinated individuals subsequently tested for SARS-CoV-2 with PCR or lateral flow tests with infection rates in unvaccinated controls. All analyses were adjusted by age (≤55 years vs >55 years), sex, health-care worker status (binary variable), obesity (BMI <30 kg/m2vs ≥30 kg/m2), and comorbidities (binary variable, with or without comorbidities). FINDINGS: Between Dec 8, and March 10, 2021, 627 383 individuals reported being vaccinated with 655 590 doses: 282 103 received one dose of BNT162b2, of whom 28 207 received a second dose, and 345 280 received one dose of ChAdOx1 nCoV-19. Systemic side-effects were reported by 13·5% (38 155 of 282 103) of individuals after the first dose of BNT162b2, by 22·0% (6216 of 28 207) after the second dose of BNT162b2, and by 33·7% (116 473 of 345 280) after the first dose of ChAdOx1 nCoV-19. Local side-effects were reported by 71·9% (150 023 of 208 767) of individuals after the first dose of BNT162b2, by 68·5% (9025 of 13 179) after the second dose of BNT162b2, and by 58·7% (104 282 of 177 655) after the first dose of ChAdOx1 nCoV-19. Systemic side-effects were more common (1·6 times after the first dose of ChAdOx1 nCoV-19 and 2·9 times after the first dose of BNT162b2) among individuals with previous SARS-CoV-2 infection than among those without known past infection. Local effects were similarly higher in individuals previously infected than in those without known past infection (1·4 times after the first dose of ChAdOx1 nCoV-19 and 1·2 times after the first dose of BNT162b2). 3106 of 103 622 vaccinated individuals and 50 340 of 464 356 unvaccinated controls tested positive for SARS-CoV-2 infection. Significant reductions in infection risk were seen starting at 12 days after the first dose, reaching 60% (95% CI 49-68) for ChAdOx1 nCoV-19 and 69% (66-72) for BNT162b2 at 21-44 days and 72% (63-79) for BNT162b2 after 45-59 days. INTERPRETATION: Systemic and local side-effects after BNT162b2 and ChAdOx1 nCoV-19 vaccination occur at frequencies lower than reported in phase 3 trials. Both vaccines decrease the risk of SARS-CoV-2 infection after 12 days. FUNDING: ZOE Global, National Institute for Health Research, Chronic Disease Research Foundation, National Institutes of Health, UK Medical Research Council, Wellcome Trust, UK Research and Innovation, American Gastroenterological Association.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines/adverse effects , COVID-19 Vaccines/immunology , COVID-19/immunology , Drug-Related Side Effects and Adverse Reactions/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Vaccination/adverse effects , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Prospective Studies , Safety/statistics & numerical data , Self Report/statistics & numerical data , United Kingdom
13.
Clin Infect Dis ; 73(6): e1329-e1336, 2021 09 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1411883

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Healthcare personnel (HCP) are at increased risk of infection with severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). We posit that current infection control guidelines generally protect HCP from SARS-CoV-2 infection in a healthcare setting. METHODS: In this retrospective case series, we used viral genomics to investigate the likely source of SARS-CoV-2 infection in HCP at a major academic medical institution in the Upper Midwest of the United States between 25 March and 27 December 2020. We obtained limited epidemiological data through informal interviews and review of the electronic health record and combined this information with healthcare-associated viral sequences and viral sequences collected in the broader community to infer the most likely source of infection in HCP. RESULTS: We investigated SARS-CoV-2 infection clusters involving 95 HCP and 137 possible patient contact sequences. The majority of HCP infections could not be linked to a patient or coworker (55 of 95 [57.9%]) and were genetically similar to viruses circulating concurrently in the community. We found that 10.5% of HCP infections (10 of 95) could be traced to a coworker. Strikingly, only 4.2% (4 of 95) could be traced to a patient source. CONCLUSIONS: Infections among HCP add further strain to the healthcare system and put patients, HCP, and communities at risk. We found no evidence for healthcare-associated transmission in the majority of HCP infections evaluated. Although we cannot rule out the possibility of cryptic healthcare-associated transmission, it appears that HCP most commonly become infected with SARS-CoV-2 via community exposure. This emphasizes the ongoing importance of mask wearing, physical distancing, robust testing programs, and rapid distribution of vaccines.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Delivery of Health Care , Health Personnel , Humans , Retrospective Studies , United States/epidemiology
14.
Vox Sang ; 116(8): 910-915, 2021 Sep.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1402985

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Reports on the association of the ABO phenotypes with infection by the SARS-CoV-2 virus have mostly come from countries with high infection rates. This study examined the possible association between SARS-CoV-2 infection and the ABO phenotype in Black Africa. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This report is from a single centre where both asymptomatic and symptomatic patients were quarantined. At the time of this report, Oyo State, Nigeria had carried out 15 733 tests of which 3119 were positive for the virus with 1952 recoveries and 37 deaths. The ABO distribution of patients was compared with that of a blood donor population. RESULTS: Of the 302 participants, 297 (98%) had their blood group determined, asymptomatic and symptomatic individuals were 123 (40·7%) and 179 (59·3%) respectively. Blood group O was significantly less represented among the patients (P < 0·01) while blood groups B and AB were significantly more represented (P < 0·01, P = 0·03 respectively). Patients with anti-B (groups A and O) were significantly less represented than those without anti-B (B and/or AB): B and AB (P < 0·001), B (P = 0·002), AB (P = 0·01). There was no difference in the blood group distribution of symptomatic and asymptomatic patients (χ2 (3, N = 302) = 2·29; P = 0·51), but symptomatic patients with anti-A (groups B and O) were more represented than asymptomatic patients with anti-A (χ2 4·89; P = 0·03). CONCLUSION: The higher prevalence of blood group O and more potent beta haemolysins (anti-B antibodies) are likely reasons for the lower infectivity by the SARS-CoV-2 virus and severity of COVID-19 disease in the community.


Subject(s)
ABO Blood-Group System , COVID-19 , Blood Donors , Humans , SARS-CoV-2
15.
Ecancermedicalscience ; 15: 1189, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1394745

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic presents serious challenges to cancer care because of the associated risks from the infection itself and the disruption of care delivery. Therefore, many professional societies have published recommendations to help manage patients with cancer during the current pandemic. The objective of our study is to assess the national responses of Middle East North Africa (MENA) countries in terms of publishing relevant guidelines and analyse various components of these guidelines. METHODS: A survey based on the preliminary review of the literature regarding cancer care adaptations has been developed and then completed by a group of oncologists from the following Arab countries affected by the pandemic: Algeria, Egypt, Iraq, Jordan, Kuwait, Lebanon, Morocco, Oman, Saudi Arabia, Syria, Tunisia, United Arab Emirates and Yemen. The survey inquired about COVID-19 cases, national recommendations regarding general measures of COVID-19 prevention and patient care in oncology as well as their implementation about cancer care adaptations during the pandemic. RESULTS: Analysis of the COVID-19 pandemic-related guidelines revealed at least 30 specific recommendations that we categorised into seven essential components. All included countries had national guidelines except one country. Estimated full compliances with all specific category recommendations ranged from 30% to 69% and partial compliance ranged from 23% to 61%. CONCLUSION: There is a very good response and preparedness in the Arab Middle East and North Africa region surveyed. However, there are inconsistencies in the various components of the guidelines across the region, which reflects the evolving status of the pandemic in each country as well as the lack of clear evidence-based guidelines for many of the issues in question. There is a need for a clear framework on essential components that should be included in these guidelines to assure providing the best guidance to the oncology community.

16.
Medicina (Kaunas) ; 57(2)2021 Jan 28.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1389436

ABSTRACT

Uncertainty analysis is the process of identifying limitations in knowledge and evaluating their implications for scientific conclusions. Uncertainty analysis is a stable component of risk assessment and is increasingly used in decision making on complex health issues. Uncertainties should be identified in a structured way and prioritized according to their likely impact on the outcome of scientific conclusions. Uncertainty is inherent to the rare diseases (RD) area, where research and healthcare have to cope with knowledge gaps due to the rarity of the conditions; yet a systematic approach toward uncertainties is not usually undertaken. The uncertainty issue is particularly relevant to multifactorial RD, whose etiopathogenesis involves environmental factors and genetic predisposition. Three case studies are presented: the newly recognized acute multisystem inflammatory syndrome in children and adolescents associated with SARS-CoV-2 infection; the assessment of risk factors for neural tube defects; and the genotype-phenotype correlation in familial Mediterranean fever. Each case study proposes the initial identification of the main epistemic and sampling uncertainties and their impacts. Uncertainty analysis in RD may present aspects similar to those encountered when conducting risk assessment in data-poor scenarios; therefore, approaches such as expert knowledge elicitation may be considered. The RD community has a main strength in managing uncertainty, as it proactively develops stakeholder involvement, data sharing and open science. The open science approaches can be profitably integrated by structured uncertainty analysis, especially when dealing with multifactorial RD involving environmental and genetic risk factors.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Familial Mediterranean Fever/epidemiology , Neural Tube Defects/epidemiology , Rare Diseases/epidemiology , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome/epidemiology , Uncertainty , Causality , Familial Mediterranean Fever/genetics , Genotype , Humans , Knowledge , Phenotype , Rare Diseases/etiology , Risk Assessment , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2
17.
MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep ; 70(14): 528-532, 2021 Apr 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1389867

ABSTRACT

During February 2021, an opening event was held indoors at a rural Illinois bar that accommodates approximately 100 persons. The Illinois Department of Public Health (IDPH) and local health department staff members investigated a COVID-19 outbreak associated with this opening event. Overall, 46 COVID-19 cases were linked to the event, including cases in 26 patrons and three staff members who attended the opening event and 17 secondary cases. Four persons with cases had COVID-19-like symptoms on the same day they attended the event. Secondary cases included 12 cases in eight households with children, two on a school sports team, and three in a long-term care facility (LTCF). Transmission associated with the opening event resulted in one school closure affecting 650 children (9,100 lost person-days of school) and hospitalization of one LTCF resident with COVID-19. These findings demonstrate that opening up settings such as bars, where mask wearing and physical distancing are challenging, can increase the risk for community transmission of SARS-CoV-2, the virus that causes COVID-19. As community businesses begin to reopen, a multicomponent approach should be emphasized in settings such as bars to prevent transmission* (1). This includes enforcing consistent and correct mask use, maintaining ≥6 ft of physical distance between persons, reducing indoor bar occupancy, prioritizing outdoor seating, improving building ventilation, and promoting behaviors such as staying at home when ill, as well as implementing contact tracing in combination with isolation and quarantine when COVID-19 cases are diagnosed.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/transmission , Community-Acquired Infections , Restaurants/organization & administration , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , COVID-19/epidemiology , Child , Female , Humans , Illinois/epidemiology , Male , Middle Aged , Young Adult
18.
Clin Infect Dis ; 72(3): 515-518, 2021 02 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1387743

ABSTRACT

While the role of children in the transmission of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) remains to be defined, children likely play an important role based on our knowledge of other respiratory viruses. Children are more likely to be asymptomatic or have milder symptoms and less likely to present for healthcare and be tested for SARS-CoV-2. Thus, our current estimates are likely under-representative of the true burden of SARS-CoV-2 in children. Given the potential direct benefit of a SARS-CoV-2 vaccine in children and the substantial indirect benefit through community protection, or "herd immunity," we argue that planning and implementation of SARS-CoV-2 vaccines should include children. Furthermore, community protection occurred after widespread implementation of prior childhood vaccines against Streptococcus pneumoniae, rubella, and rotavirus. We detail considerations for vaccine clinical trials, potential barriers to the implementation of widespread vaccination and argue why children would be an ideal target population for vaccination.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Viral Vaccines , COVID-19 Vaccines , Child , Humans , Immunity, Herd , SARS-CoV-2
19.
Gac Sanit ; 35(5): 445-452, 2021.
Article in Spanish | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1368652

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: Analyze the evolution of the epidemic of COVID-19 after the alarm state and identify factors associated with the differences between the autonomous communities. METHOD: Ecological study that used epidemiological, demographic, environmental and variables on the structure of health services as explanatory variables. The analysis period was from March 15th (the start of the alarm state) until April 22nd, 2020. Incidence and mortality rates were the main response variables. The magnitude of the associations has been estimated using the Spearman correlation coefficient and multiple regression analysis. RESULTS: Incidence and mortality rates at the time of decree of alarm status are associated with current incidence, mortality and hospital demand rates. Higher mean temperatures are significantly associated with a lower current incidence of COVID-19 in the autonomous communities. Likewise, a higher proportion of older people in nursing homes is significantly associated with a higher current mortality in the autonomous communities. CONCLUSION: It is possible to predict the evolution of the epidemic through the analysis of incidence and mortality. Lower temperatures and the proportion of older people in residences are factors associated with a worse prognosis. These parameters must be considered in decisions about the timing and intensity of the implementation of containment measures. In this sense, strengthening epidemiological surveillance is essential to improve predictions.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Aged , Humans , Incidence , Nursing Homes , SARS-CoV-2 , Spain/epidemiology
20.
J Med Virol ; 93(9): 5339-5349, 2021 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1363673

ABSTRACT

The present study was conducted from July 1, 2020 to September 25, 2020 in a dedicated coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) hospital in Delhi, India to provide evidence for the presence of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) virus in atmospheric air and surfaces of the hospital wards. Swabs from hospital surfaces (patient's bed, ward floor, and nursing stations area) and suspended particulate matter in ambient air were collected by a portable air sampler from the medicine ward, intensive care unit, and emergency ward admitting COVID-19 patients. By performing reverse-transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) for E-gene and RdRp gene, SARS-CoV-2 virus was detected from hospital surfaces and particulate matters from the ambient air of various wards collected at 1 and 3-m distance from active COVID-19 patients. The presence of the virus in the air beyond a 1-m distance from the patients and surfaces of the hospital indicates that the SARS-CoV-2 virus has the potential to be transmitted by airborne and surface routes from COVID-19 patients to health-care workers working in COVID-19 dedicated hospital. This warrants that precautions against airborne and surface transmission of COVID-19 in the community should be taken when markets, industries, educational institutions, and so on, reopen for normal activities.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Nucleic Acid Testing/methods , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/transmission , Fomites/virology , RNA, Viral/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Air/analysis , COVID-19/prevention & control , Coronavirus Envelope Proteins/genetics , Coronavirus RNA-Dependent RNA Polymerase/genetics , Hospitals , Humans , India/epidemiology , Intensive Care Units , Particulate Matter/analysis
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