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1.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 100(19): e25865, 2021 May 14.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2191002

ABSTRACT

RATIONALE: Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has spread worldwide. It involves multiple organs of infected individuals and encompasses diverse clinical manifestations. We report a case of acute optic neuritis (ON) associated with myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein (MOG) antibody possibly induced by COVID-19. PATIENT CONCERNS: A 47-year-old man presented to our clinic with left eye pain and vision loss. Magnetic resonance imaging of the orbit revealed the bilateral high intensity of the optic nerve sheaths. He tested positive for COVID-19 by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) testing on the day of admission but he had no signs of respiratory illness. Laboratory testing revealed that MOG immunoglobulin G (MOG IgG) was positive, but other antibodies including aquaporin-4 were negative. DIAGNOSIS: The patient was diagnosed with MOG antibody-positive acute ON possibly induced by COVID-19. INTERVENTIONS: Steroid pulse therapy consisting of methylprednisolone 1 g/day for a total of 3 days, followed by an oral prednisolone taper was performed. OUTCOMES: His left eye pain was immediately relieved, and his decimal vision improved from 0.03 to 0.1 on the day of discharge. Outpatient follow-up 2 weeks later revealed left a decimal vision of 1.2, and a complete resolution of the left eye pain. LESSONS: Our case indicated that COVID-19 might trigger an autoimmune response that leads to MOG antibody-associated ON, similar to other pathogens that were reported in the past. The treatment response to steroid pulse therapy was preferable following a typical course of MOG antibody-positive ON.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , Myelin-Oligodendrocyte Glycoprotein/immunology , Optic Neuritis/etiology , Optic Neuritis/immunology , Autoantibodies , Glucocorticoids/therapeutic use , Humans , Male , Methylprednisolone/therapeutic use , Middle Aged , Optic Neuritis/drug therapy , SARS-CoV-2
2.
JMIR Public Health Surveill ; 7(4): e25075, 2021 04 30.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2141297

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Risk assessment of patients with acute COVID-19 in a telemedicine context is not well described. In settings of large numbers of patients, a risk assessment tool may guide resource allocation not only for patient care but also for maximum health care and public health benefit. OBJECTIVE: The goal of this study was to determine whether a COVID-19 telemedicine risk assessment tool accurately predicts hospitalizations. METHODS: We conducted a retrospective study of a COVID-19 telemedicine home monitoring program serving health care workers and the community in Atlanta, Georgia, with enrollment from March 24 to May 26, 2020; the final call range was from March 27 to June 19, 2020. All patients were assessed by medical providers using an institutional COVID-19 risk assessment tool designating patients as Tier 1 (low risk for hospitalization), Tier 2 (intermediate risk for hospitalization), or Tier 3 (high risk for hospitalization). Patients were followed with regular telephone calls to an endpoint of improvement or hospitalization. Using survival analysis by Cox regression with days to hospitalization as the metric, we analyzed the performance of the risk tiers and explored individual patient factors associated with risk of hospitalization. RESULTS: Providers using the risk assessment rubric assigned 496 outpatients to tiers: Tier 1, 237 out of 496 (47.8%); Tier 2, 185 out of 496 (37.3%); and Tier 3, 74 out of 496 (14.9%). Subsequent hospitalizations numbered 3 out of 237 (1.3%) for Tier 1, 15 out of 185 (8.1%) for Tier 2, and 17 out of 74 (23%) for Tier 3. From a Cox regression model with age of 60 years or older, gender, and reported obesity as covariates, the adjusted hazard ratios for hospitalization using Tier 1 as reference were 3.74 (95% CI 1.06-13.27; P=.04) for Tier 2 and 10.87 (95% CI 3.09-38.27; P<.001) for Tier 3. CONCLUSIONS: A telemedicine risk assessment tool prospectively applied to an outpatient population with COVID-19 identified populations with low, intermediate, and high risk of hospitalization.


Subject(s)
Ambulatory Care , COVID-19/therapy , Hospitalization/statistics & numerical data , Risk Assessment/methods , Telemedicine , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Reproducibility of Results , Retrospective Studies , Young Adult
3.
Onkologe (Berl) ; 27(8): 783-789, 2021.
Article in German | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1709849

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: During the current pandemic situation, the public health care system must ensure the ongoing provision of regular medical care as well as the treatment of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus type 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infected patients. Resident oncologists and their practices are equally affected. OBJECTIVES: The study examines resident oncologists' challenges, experiences and approaches in the delivery of care for oncological patients receiving palliative treatment and their relatives during the pandemic. Findings will support future pandemic preparedness for cancer treatment in outpatients. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Content analyses of 13 guideline-based telephone interviews with resident oncologists. RESULTS: Solid local networks, staff and structural rearrangements and infection control within offices helped oncologists maintaining quality of care. Required treatments have been continued. The interrupted information flow towards patients' relatives and catching up on previously postponed primary, control or follow-up consultations have been reported as a challenge. Other issues have been linked to suspected SARS-CoV­2 infection in patients and staff. The lack of information, temporal inaccessibility of health care authorities and physicians' associations, and additional costs for infection control material caused further problems. CONCLUSIONS: Due to the firmly implemented infection control and the re-organisation of facilities and staff, oncologists have been able to maintain treatment and care for cancer patients and their relatives. Hygiene procedures proved to work well and might be re-activated. An increased use of digital applications for treatment monitoring might be considered. Furthermore, solutions to meet additional financial and personnel demands caused by infection control must be identified. The design of suitable concepts for the prevention of health-related hazards due to visiting bans for relatives and therapeutic staff such as physio- and occupational therapists is inevitable.

5.
Eur J Neurol ; 28(10): 3461-3466, 2021 Oct.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1606253

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Outcomes of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) in patients with neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorders (NMOSD) or myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein antibody-associated disease (MOGAD), often treated with immunosuppressive therapies, are still unknown. METHODS: We conducted a multicenter, retrospective, observational cohort study among all French expert centers for neuromyelitis optica and related disorders. Patients with NMOSD or MOGAD included in the study received a confirmed or highly suspected diagnosis of COVID-19 between 1 March 2020 and 30 June 2020. Main outcome was COVID-19 severity score assessed on a seven-point ordinal scale ranging from 1 (not hospitalized with no limitations on activities) to 7 (death). RESULTS: Fifteen cases (mean [SD] age: 39.3 [14.3] years, 11 female) were included. Five patients (33.3%) were hospitalized, all receiving rituximab. A 24-year-old patient with positive aquaporine-4 antibody, with obesity as comorbidity, needed mechanical ventilation. Outpatients were receiving anti-CD20 (5), mycophenolate mofetil (3) or azathioprine (3). They were younger (mean [SD] age: 37.0 [13.4] years), with a longer disease duration (mean [SD]: 8.3 [6.3] years) and had a lower expanded disability severity score (EDSS) score (median [range] EDSS: 2.5 [0-4]) relative to patients requiring hospitalization (mean [SD] age: 44.0 [16.4] years, mean [SD] disease duration: 5.8 [5.5] years, median [range] EDSS: 4 [0-6.5]). CONCLUSIONS: COVID-19 outcome was overall favorable in this cohort. Larger international studies are needed to identify risk factors of severe COVID-19; however, we recommend personal protective measures to reduce risk of SARS-CoV-2 infection in this immunocompromised population.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Neuromyelitis Optica , Adult , Aquaporin 4 , Female , Humans , Neuromyelitis Optica/drug therapy , Neuromyelitis Optica/epidemiology , Retrospective Studies , Rituximab , SARS-CoV-2 , Young Adult
6.
Infect Dis Now ; 51(5): 440-444, 2021 Aug.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1574088

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: To describe the characteristics, evolution and risk factors for long-term persistence of olfactory and gustatory dysfunctions (OGD) in COVID-19 outpatients. PATIENTS AND METHODS: We conducted a prospective study in SARS-CoV-2 infected outpatients with OGD. Weekly phone interviews were set up starting from COVID-19 onset symptoms and over the course of 60 days, using standardized questionnaires that included a detailed description of general symptoms and OGD. The primary outcome was the proportion of patients with complete recovery of OGD at D30. Rate and time to recovery of OGD, as well as risk factors for late recovery (>30 days), were evaluated using Cox regression models. RESULTS: Ninety-eight outpatients were included. The median time to onset of OGD after first COVID-19 symptoms was 2 days (IQR 0-4). The 30-day recovery rate from OGD was 67.5% (95% CI 57.1-75.4) and the estimated median time of OGD recovery was 20 days (95% CI 13-26). Risk factors for late recovery of OGD were a complete loss of smell or taste at diagnosis (HR=0.26, 95% CI 0.12-0.56, P=0.0005) and age over 40 years (HR=0.56, 95% CI 0.36-0.89, P=0.01). CONCLUSIONS: COVID-19 patients with complete loss of smell or taste and over age 40 are more likely to develop persistent OGD and should rapidly receive sensorial rehabilitation.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , Olfaction Disorders/etiology , Taste Disorders/etiology , Adult , Ambulatory Care , Cohort Studies , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Olfaction Disorders/epidemiology , Prospective Studies , Risk Factors , Taste Disorders/epidemiology
7.
Clin Infect Dis ; 73(11): e4073-e4081, 2021 12 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1560481

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: No effective treatments for coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) exist. We aimed to determine whether early treatment with hydroxychloroquine (HCQ) would be efficacious for outpatients with COVID-19. METHODS: Multicenter open-label, randomized, controlled trial conducted in Catalonia, Spain, between 17 March and 26 May 2020. Patients recently diagnosed with <5-day of symptom onset were assigned to receive HCQ (800 mg on day 1 followed by 400 mg once daily for 6 days) or usual care. Outcomes were reduction of viral load in nasopharyngeal swabs up to 7 days after treatment start, disease progression up to 28 days, and time to complete resolution of symptoms. Adverse events were assessed up to 28 days. RESULTS: A total of 293 patients were eligible for intention-to-treat analysis: 157 in the control arm and 136 in the intervention arm. The mean age was 41.6 years (SD, 12.6), mean viral load at baseline was 7.90 log10 copies/mL (SD, 1.82), and median time from symptom onset to randomization was 3 days. No differences were found in the mean reduction of viral load at day 3 (-1.41 vs -1.41 log10 copies/mL in the control and intervention arm, respectively) or at day 7 (-3.37 vs -3.44). Treatment did not reduce risk of hospitalization (7.1% control vs 5.9% intervention) nor shorten the time to complete resolution of symptoms (12 days, control vs 10 days, intervention). No relevant adverse events were reported. CONCLUSIONS: In patients with mild COVID-19, no benefit was observed with HCQ beyond the usual care.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Hydroxychloroquine , Adult , COVID-19/drug therapy , Humans , Hydroxychloroquine/therapeutic use , SARS-CoV-2 , Treatment Outcome
8.
Clin Infect Dis ; 73(9): 1717-1721, 2021 11 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1501059

ABSTRACT

As of March 2021, coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) had caused more than 123 million infections and almost 3 million deaths worldwide. Dramatic advances have been made in vaccine development and nonpharmaceutical interventions to stop the spread of infection. However, treatments to stop disease progression are limited. A wide variety of "repurposed" drugs evaluated for treatment of COVID-19 have had little or no benefit. More recently, intravenous monoclonal antibody (mAb) combinations have been authorized by the US Food and Drug Administration for emergency use for outpatients with mild to moderate COVID-19 including some active against emerging severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 variants of concern. Easier to administer therapeutics including intramuscular and subcutaneous mAbs and oral antivirals are in clinical trials. Reliable, safe, effective COVID-19 treatment for early infection in the outpatient setting is of urgent and critical importance. Availability of such treatment should lead to reduced progression of COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pharmaceutical Preparations , COVID-19/drug therapy , Humans , Outpatients , SARS-CoV-2
9.
J Ayurveda Integr Med ; 13(2): 100445, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1487802

ABSTRACT

This article reports the treatment outcomes of 167 COVID-19 positive patients who were treated with a stand-alone Ayurvedic therapeutic intervention. The main outcomes are quick resolution of symptoms, no deterioration in any of the cases and safe treatment for patients with multiple comorbidities. There was no observed mortality. There were no adverse events due to the Ayurvedic medications. The treatment was undertaken in an out-patient setting and at a low cost. The efficacy and safety of the treatment, and the quick resolution of symptoms were demonstrated. This shows that if COVID-19 patients are treated with Ayurvedic medicines early in the course of COVID-SARS-2 infection, Ayurveda has the potential to prevent progression and deterioration of the disease, with decreased morbidity and mortality.

10.
Clin Infect Dis ; 73(Suppl 1): S5-S16, 2021 07 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1364773

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Late sequelae of COVID-19 have been reported; however, few studies have investigated the time course or incidence of late new COVID-19-related health conditions (post-COVID conditions) after COVID-19 diagnosis. Studies distinguishing post-COVID conditions from late conditions caused by other etiologies are lacking. Using data from a large administrative all-payer database, we assessed type, association, and timing of post-COVID conditions following COVID-19 diagnosis. METHODS: Using the Premier Healthcare Database Special COVID-19 Release (release date, 20 October 2020) data, during March-June 2020, 27 589 inpatients and 46 857 outpatients diagnosed with COVID-19 (case-patients) were 1:1 matched with patients without COVID-19 through the 4-month follow-up period (control-patients) by using propensity score matching. In this matched-cohort study, adjusted ORs were calculated to assess for late conditions that were more common in case-patients than control-patients. Incidence proportion was calculated for conditions that were more common in case-patients than control-patients during 31-120 days following a COVID-19 encounter. RESULTS: During 31-120 days after an initial COVID-19 inpatient hospitalization, 7.0% of adults experienced ≥1 of 5 post-COVID conditions. Among adult outpatients with COVID-19, 7.7% experienced ≥1 of 10 post-COVID conditions. During 31-60 days after an initial outpatient encounter, adults with COVID-19 were 2.8 times as likely to experience acute pulmonary embolism as outpatient control-patients and also more likely to experience a range of conditions affecting multiple body systems (eg, nonspecific chest pain, fatigue, headache, and respiratory, nervous, circulatory, and gastrointestinal symptoms) than outpatient control-patients. CONCLUSIONS: These findings add to the evidence of late health conditions possibly related to COVID-19 in adults following COVID-19 diagnosis and can inform healthcare practice and resource planning for follow-up COVID-19 care.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Outpatients , Adult , COVID-19 Testing , Cohort Studies , Humans , Inpatients , SARS-CoV-2 , United States/epidemiology
11.
Int J Infect Dis ; 108: 306-308, 2021 Jul.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1351681

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: The COVID-19 pandemic has called an urgent need for drug repurposing to improve the outcome of the disease. Quaternary ammonium compounds have been demonstrated to have antiviral effects and may be of use against SARS-CoV-2 infections. DESIGN: In this double-blind, single-center study, we enrolled patients with positive PCR test and/or CT findings for COVID-19. The participants of each group were randomly assigned to Diphenhydramine Compound (Diphenhydramine + Ammonium Chloride) plus standard of care or to Diphenhydramine alone and standard of care groups. The primary outcome was all-cause mortality within 30 days of randomization. Secondary outcomes include viral burden, clinical status, assessed by a 5-point ordinal scale, and length of stay in hospitalized patients. RESULTS: A total of 120 patients were included in the trial, 60 of which were assigned to the Ammonium Chloride group. The primary endpoint was not statistically different between the two groups (HR: 3.02 (95% CI, 0.57-16.06; p = 0.195)). Recovery time and viral burden were significantly lower in the Ammonium Chloride group, corresponding to an odds ratios of 1.8 (95% CI, 1.15-2.83; p = 0.01) and 7.90 (95% CI, 1.62-14.17; p = 0.014), respectively. CONCLUSION: The findings of this study advocate the careful addition of Ammonium Chloride to standard of care for COVID-19 patients.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pandemics , Ammonium Chloride , Humans , Outpatients , SARS-CoV-2 , Standard of Care , Treatment Outcome
12.
PLoS One ; 16(5): e0251623, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1325413

ABSTRACT

[This corrects the article DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0246312.].

13.
Am Heart J ; 238: 1-11, 2021 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1309127

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Observational studies have suggested a higher risk of thrombotic events in patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). Moreover, elevated D-dimer levels have been identified as an important prognostic marker in COVID-19 directly associated with disease severity and progression. Prophylactic anticoagulation for hospitalized COVID-19 patients might not be enough to prevent thrombotic events; therefore, therapeutic anticoagulation regimens deserve clinical investigation. DESIGN: ACTION is an academic-led, pragmatic, multicenter, open-label, randomized, phase IV clinical trial that aims to enroll around 600 patients at 40 sites participating in the Coalition COVID-19 Brazil initiative. Eligible patients with a confirmed diagnosis of COVID-19 with symptoms up to 14 days and elevated D-dimer levels will be randomized to a strategy of full-dose anticoagulation for 30 days with rivaroxaban 20 mg once daily (or full-dose heparin if oral administration is not feasible) vs standard of care with any approved venous thromboembolism prophylaxis regimen during hospitalization. A confirmation of COVID-19 was mandatory for study entry, based on specific tests used in clinical practice (RT-PCR, antigen test, IgM test) collected before randomization, regardless of in the outpatient setting or not. Randomization will be stratified by clinical stability at presentation. The primary outcome is a hierarchical analysis of mortality, length of hospital stay, or duration of oxygen therapy at the end of 30 days. Secondary outcomes include the World Health Organization's 8-point ordinal scale at 30 days and the following efficacy outcomes: incidence of venous thromboembolism , acute myocardial infarction, stroke, systemic embolism, major adverse limb events, duration of oxygen therapy, disease progression, and biomarkers. The primary safety outcomes are major or clinically relevant non-major bleeding according to the International Society on Thrombosis and Haemostasis criteria. SUMMARY: The ACTION trial will evaluate whether in-hospital therapeutic anticoagulation with rivaroxaban for stable patients, or enoxaparin for unstable patients, followed by rivaroxaban through 30 days compared with standard prophylactic anticoagulation improves clinical outcomes in hospitalized patients with COVID-19 and elevated D-dimer levels.


Subject(s)
Anticoagulants/therapeutic use , COVID-19/complications , Enoxaparin/therapeutic use , Rivaroxaban/therapeutic use , Thrombosis/prevention & control , Administration, Oral , Anticoagulants/administration & dosage , Anticoagulants/adverse effects , Brazil , COVID-19/blood , COVID-19/mortality , Drug Administration Schedule , Enoxaparin/administration & dosage , Enoxaparin/adverse effects , Fibrin Fibrinogen Degradation Products/analysis , Hemorrhage/chemically induced , Hospitalization , Humans , Oxygen Inhalation Therapy , Rivaroxaban/administration & dosage , Rivaroxaban/adverse effects , Thrombosis/etiology , Time Factors
14.
Lancet Respir Med ; 9(5): 498-510, 2021 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1301092

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: To date, only monoclonal antibodies have been shown to be effective for outpatients with COVID-19. Interferon lambda-1 is a type III interferon involved in innate antiviral responses with activity against respiratory pathogens. We aimed to investigate the safety and efficacy of peginterferon lambda in the treatment of outpatients with mild-to-moderate COVID-19. METHODS: In this double-blind, placebo-controlled trial, outpatients with laboratory-confirmed COVID-19 were randomly assigned to a single subcutaneous injection of peginterferon lambda 180 µg or placebo within 7 days of symptom onset or first positive swab if asymptomatic. Participants were randomly assigned (1:1) using a computer-generated randomisation list created with a randomisation schedule in blocks of four. At the time of administration, study nurses received a sealed opaque envelope with the treatment allocation number. The primary endpoint was the proportion of patients who were negative for severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) RNA on day 7 after the injection, analysed by a χ2 test following an intention-to-treat principle. Prespecified analysis of the primary endpoint, adjusted for baseline viral load, using bivariate logistic regression was done. The trial is now complete. This trial is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT04354259. FINDINGS: Between May 18, and Sept 4, 2020, we recruited 30 patients per group. The decline in SARS-CoV-2 RNA was greater in those treated with peginterferon lambda than placebo from day 3 onwards, with a difference of 2·42 log copies per mL at day 7 (p=0·0041). By day 7, 24 (80%) participants in the peginterferon lambda group had an undetectable viral load, compared with 19 (63%) in the placebo group (p=0·15). After controlling for baseline viral load, patients in the peginterferon lambda group were more likely to have undetectable virus by day 7 than were those in the placebo group (odds ratio [OR] 4·12 [95% CI 1·15-16·73; p=0·029). Of those with baseline viral load above 106 copies per mL, 15 (79%) of 19 patients in the peginterferon lambda group had undetectable virus on day 7, compared with six (38%) of 16 in the placebo group (OR 6·25 [95% CI 1·49-31·06]; p=0·012). Peginterferon lambda was well tolerated, and adverse events were similar between groups with mild and transient aminotransferase, concentration increases more frequently observed in the peginterferon lambda group. Two individuals met the threshold of grade 3 increase, one in each group, and no other grade 3 or 4 laboratory adverse events were reported. INTERPRETATION: Peginterferon lambda accelerated viral decline in outpatients with COVID-19, increasing the proportion of patients with viral clearance by day 7, particularly in those with high baseline viral load. Peginterferon lambda has potential to prevent clinical deterioration and shorten duration of viral shedding. FUNDING: The Toronto COVID-19 Action Initiative, University of Toronto, and the Ontario First COVID-19 Rapid Research Fund, Toronto General & Western Hospital Foundation.


Subject(s)
Ambulatory Care/methods , COVID-19 , Interleukins , Polyethylene Glycols , SARS-CoV-2 , Viral Load/drug effects , Virus Shedding/drug effects , Antiviral Agents/administration & dosage , Antiviral Agents/adverse effects , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/drug therapy , COVID-19/immunology , Double-Blind Method , Drug Monitoring/methods , Female , Humans , Intention to Treat Analysis , Interleukins/administration & dosage , Interleukins/adverse effects , Male , Middle Aged , Polyethylene Glycols/administration & dosage , Polyethylene Glycols/adverse effects , RNA, Viral/isolation & purification , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , Severity of Illness Index , Treatment Outcome
15.
Turk Thorac J ; 22(2): 149-153, 2021 Mar.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1285489

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to focus on non-COVID-19 patients during the process when all physicians focused on COVID-19 patients. Patients with pulmonary diseases in the COVID-19 pandemic period were analyzed. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Non-COVID-19 cases who were hospitalized in the pulmonology clinic, outpatients, and patients who applied to the non-COVID-19 emergency service and requested a pulmonology consultation in the period from March 16, 2020 to May 15, 2020 and in the same period of the previous year (i.e., from March 16, 2019 to May 15, 2019) were included in this study. RESULTS: In the pandemic period, it was found that there was an 84% decrease in outpatient admissions, a 43% decrease in inpatients, and a 75% decrease in emergency services. During the pandemic period, in outpatient setting, male and younger case admissions increased, admissions with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), and interstitial lung diseases decreased, whereas the frequency of admission to asthma, pneumonia, and pulmonary thromboembolism increased. In the period of the pandemic, patients with asthma, COPD, and lung cancer were less hospitalized, whereas patients with pulmonary thromboembolism, pneumonia, and pleural effusion were hospitalized more. In non-COVID-19 patient treatments during the pandemic period, usage of a metered dose inhaler increased. CONCLUSION: During the COVID-19 pandemic, non-COVID pulmonary pathologies decreased significantly, and there was a change in the profile of the patients. From now on, to be prepared for pandemic and similar extraordinary situations, to organize hospitals for the epidemic, to determine health institutions to which nonepidemic patients can apply, to make necessary plans in order not to neglect the nonepidemic patients, and to develop digital health service methods, especially telemedicine, would be appropriate.

16.
Int J Gen Med ; 14: 2359-2366, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1278260

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Quercetin, a well-known naturally occurring polyphenol, has recently been shown by molecular docking, in vitro and in vivo studies to be a possible anti-COVID-19 candidate. Quercetin has strong antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, immunomodulatory, and antiviral properties, and it is characterized by a very high safety profile, exerted in animals and in humans. Like most other polyphenols, quercetin shows a very low rate of oral absorption and its clinical use is considered by most of modest utility. Quercetin in a delivery-food grade system with sunflower phospholipids (Quercetin Phytosome®, QP) increases its oral absorption up to 20-fold. METHODS: In the present prospective, randomized, controlled, and open-label study, a daily dose of 1000 mg of QP was investigated for 30 days in 152 COVID-19 outpatients to disclose its adjuvant effect in treating the early symptoms and in preventing the severe outcomes of the disease. RESULTS: The results revealed a reduction in frequency and length of hospitalization, in need of non-invasive oxygen therapy, in progression to intensive care units and in number of deaths. The results also confirmed the very high safety profile of quercetin and suggested possible anti-fatigue and pro-appetite properties. CONCLUSION: QP is a safe agent and in combination with standard care, when used in early stage of viral infection, could aid in improving the early symptoms and help in preventing the severity of COVID-19 disease. It is suggested that a double-blind, placebo-controlled study should be urgently carried out to confirm the results of our study.

17.
BMJ Open ; 11(6): e044242, 2021 06 18.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1276956

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: To develop and validate a rule-out prediction model for the risk of hospitalisation among patients with SARS-CoV-2 infection in the ambulatory setting to derive a simple score to determine outpatient follow-up. DESIGN: Prospective cohort study. SETTING: Swiss university hospital. PARTICIPANTS: 1459 individuals with a positive result for SARS-CoV-2 infection between 2 March and 23 April 2020. METHODS: We applied the rule of 10 events per variable to construct our multivariable model and included a maximum of eight covariates. We assessed the model performance in terms of discrimination and calibration and performed internal validation to estimate the statistical optimism of the final model. The final prediction model included age, fever, dyspnoea, hypertension and chronic respiratory disease. To develop the OUTCoV score, we assigned points for each predictor that were proportional to the coefficients of the regression equation. Sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative likelihood ratios were estimated, including positive and negative predictive values in different thresholds. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE: The primary outcome was COVID-19-related hospitalisation. RESULTS: The OUTCoV score ranged from 0 to 7.5 points. The two threshold parameters with optimal rule-out and rule-in characteristics for the risk of hospitalisation were 3 and 5.5, respectively. Outpatients with a score <3 (997/1459; 68.3%) had no follow-up as at low risk of hospitalisation (1.8%; 95% CI 1.1 to 2.8). For a score ≥5.5 (20/1459; 1.4%), the hospitalisation risk was higher (30%; 95% CI 11.9 to 54.3). CONCLUSIONS: The OUTCoV score allows to rule out two-thirds of outpatients with SARS-CoV-2 infection presenting a low hospitalisation risk and to identify those at high risk that require careful follow-up to assess the need for hospitalisation. The model provides a simple decision-making tool for an effective allocation of resources to maintain quality care for outpatient populations.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Fever , Hospitalization , Humans , Prospective Studies
18.
Disaster Med Public Health Prep ; : 1-8, 2021 Jun 18.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1275833

ABSTRACT

The state of Maryland identified its first case of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) on March 5, 2020. The Baltimore Convention Center (BCCFH) quickly became a selected location to set up a 250-bed inpatient field hospital and alternate care site. In contrast to other field hospitals throughout the United States, the BCCFH remained open throughout the pandemic and took on additional COVID-19 missions, including community severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) diagnostic testing, monoclonal antibody infusions for COVID-19 outpatients, and community COVID-19 vaccinations.To prevent the spread of pathogens during operations, infection prevention and control guidelines were essential to ensure the safety of staff and patients. Through multi-agency collaboration, use of infection prevention best practices, and answering what we describe as PPE-ESP, an operational framework was established to reduce infection risks for those providing or receiving care at the BCCFH during the COVID-19 pandemic.

19.
CMAJ Open ; 9(2): E693-E702, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1278708

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Identification of therapies to prevent severe COVID-19 remains a priority. We sought to determine whether hydroxychloroquine treatment for outpatients with SARS-CoV-2 infection could prevent hospitalization, mechanical ventilation or death. METHODS: This randomized controlled trial was conducted in Alberta during the first wave of the COVID-19 pandemic without direct contact with participants. Community-dwelling individuals with confirmed SARS-CoV-2 infection (by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction [RT-PCR] viral ribonucleic acid test) within the previous 4 days, and symptom onset within the previous 12 days, were randomly assigned to oral hydroxychloroquine or matching placebo for 5 days. Enrolment began Apr. 15, 2020. The primary outcome was the composite of hospitalization, invasive mechanical ventilation or death within 30 days. Secondary outcomes included symptom duration and disposition at 30 days. Safety outcomes, such as serious adverse events and mortality, were also ascertained. Outcomes were determined by telephone follow-up and administrative data. RESULTS: Among 4919 individuals with a positive RT-PCR test, 148 (10.2% of a planned 1446 patients) were randomly assigned, 111 to hydroxychloroquine and 37 to placebo. Of the 148 participants, 24 (16.2%) did not start the study drug. Four participants in the hydroxychloroquine group met the primary outcome (4 hospitalizations, 0 mechanical ventilation, 4 survived to 30 days) and none in the placebo group. Hydroxychloroquine did not reduce symptom duration (hazard ratio 0.77, 95% confidence interval 0.49-1.21). Recruitment was paused on May 22, 2020, when a since-retracted publication raised concerns about the safety of hydroxychloroquine for hospitalized patients with COVID-19. Although we had not identified concerns in a safety review, enrolment was slower than expected among those eligible for the study, and cases within the community were decreasing. Recruitment goals were deemed to be unattainable and the trial was not resumed, resulting in a study underpowered to assess the effect of treatment with hydroxychloroquine and safety. INTERPRETATION: There was no evidence that hydroxychloroquine reduced symptom duration or prevented severe outcomes among outpatients with proven COVID-19, but the early termination of our study meant that it was underpowered. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov, no. NCT04329611.


Subject(s)
Ambulatory Care , COVID-19 , Hospitalization/statistics & numerical data , Hydroxychloroquine , Respiration, Artificial/statistics & numerical data , Ambulatory Care/methods , Ambulatory Care/statistics & numerical data , Antiviral Agents/administration & dosage , Antiviral Agents/adverse effects , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/drug therapy , COVID-19/mortality , Early Termination of Clinical Trials , Female , Humans , Hydroxychloroquine/administration & dosage , Hydroxychloroquine/adverse effects , Independent Living/statistics & numerical data , Male , Middle Aged , Mortality , Outcome Assessment, Health Care , Preventive Health Services/methods , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Severity of Illness Index
20.
Intern Med J ; 51(10): 1614-1618, 2021 Oct.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1273101

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Pathology and imaging tests are frequently requested in the outpatient setting despite historically poor completion rates. The impact of COVID-19 telehealth on test completion rates is unknown. AIMS: To examine the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic and telehealth transition on pathology and imaging test request and completion rates in Australian outpatient clinics. METHODS: We performed a prospective cohort study with historical controls between March-May 2019 and March-May 2020. Pathology and imaging request and completion rates were collected in review consultation patients attending gastroenterology and rheumatology outpatient clinics at a tertiary healthcare system prior and during the early phases of the COVID-19 pandemic in Melbourne. RESULTS: A total of 1376 patients was included in the study. Pathology tests were requested more frequently in the COVID-19 group (n = 582/684, 85.2%) than the control group (n = 492/692, 71.1%, P < 0.001), but completion rates were lower in the COVID-19 group (n = 443/582, 76.1%) than the control group (n = 426/492 (86.6%), P < 0.001). Imaging tests were requested more frequently in the COVID-19 group (n = 345/682, 50.6%) than the control group (n = 295/692, 42.6%, P = 0.003), with lower rates of completion in the COVID-19 group (n = 229/345, 66.4%) than the control group (n = 247/295, 83.7%, P < 0.001). CONCLUSIONS: The COVID-19 pandemic and telehealth transition have resulted in more frequent pathology and imaging requests but fewer test completion in the outpatients setting. This study has identified new clinical risks associated with the abrupt transition to telehealth during COVID-19 that should be explored in future studies and appropriately mitigated.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Telemedicine , Australia , Humans , Outpatients , Pandemics , Prospective Studies , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2
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