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1.
J Policy Pract Intellect Disabil ; 2020 Jun 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1949684

ABSTRACT

The current COVID-19 pandemic is a pressing world crisis and people with intellectual disabilities (IDs) are vulnerable due to disparity in healthcare provision and physical and mental health multimorbidity. While most people will develop mild symptoms upon contracting severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2), some will develop serious complications. The aim of this study is to present guidelines for the care and treatment of people with IDs during the COVID-19 pandemic for both community teams providing care to people with IDs and inpatient psychiatric settings. The guidelines cover specific issues associated with hospital passports, individual COVID-19 care plans, the important role of families and carers, capacity to make decisions, issues associated with social distancing, ceiling of care/treatment escalation plans, mental health and challenging behavior, and caring for someone suspected of contracting or who has contracted SARS-CoV-2 within community or inpatient psychiatric settings. We have proposed that the included conditions recommended by Public Health England to categorize someone as high risk of severe illness due to COVID-19 should also include mental health and challenging behavior. There are specific issues associated with providing care to people with IDs and appropriate action must be taken by care providers to ensure that disparity of healthcare is addressed during the COVID-19 pandemic. We recognize that our guidance is focused upon healthcare delivery in England and invite others to augment our guidance for use in other jurisdictions.

2.
Biodivers Conserv ; : 1-4, 2020 Aug 13.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1906185
3.
Work ; 67(2): 281-283, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1725333

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 pandemic has affected the entire world. It is difficult to follow protocols and regulations set forth by governments, designed by the World Health Organization. The most common protocol set forth by governments is quarantining at home. Many occupations must stay home to comply with this protocol. Among these occupations, office workers are the most common group to comply and work from home. This has led to a lack of daily movement and increased sedentary lifestyle, which has made employees prone to developing coronary heart disease (CHD). Additionally, obesity is a known risk factor for this group. This commentary presents feasible protocols aimed at helping home-based office workers stay healthy and decrease the risk of developing CHD.


Subject(s)
Coronary Disease/etiology , Coronavirus Infections/psychology , Coronavirus , Occupations/statistics & numerical data , Quarantine/psychology , Sedentary Behavior , COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/prevention & control , Disease Outbreaks , Humans , Iran , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Pneumonia, Viral/prevention & control
4.
Zhonghua Nei Ke Za Zhi ; 59(8): 605-609, 2020 Aug 01.
Article in Chinese | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1556260

ABSTRACT

Objective: To evaluate the efficacy and safety of lopinavir/ritonavir (LPV/r) and arbidol in treating patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) in the real world. Methods: The clinical data of 178 patients diagnosed with COVID-19 admitted to Guangzhou Eighth People's Hospital from January 20 to February 10, 2020 were retrospectively analyzed. According to patient's antiviral treatment regimens, 178 patients were divided into 4 groups including LPV/r group (59 patients), arbidol group (36 patients), LPV/r plus arbidol combination group (25 patients) and the supportive care group without any antiviral treatment (58 patients). The primary end point was the negative conversion time of nucleic acid of 2019 novel coronavirus (2019-nCoV) by pharyngeal swab. Results: The baseline parameters of 4 groups before treatment was comparable. The negative conversion time of viral nucleic acid was (10.20±3.49), (10.11±4.68), (10.86±4.74), (8.44±3.51) days in LPV/r group, arbidol group, combination group, and supportive care group respectively (F=2.556, P=0.058). There was also no significant difference in negative conversion rate of 2019-nCoV nucleic acid, the improvement of clinical symptoms, and the improvement of pulmonary infections by CT scan (P>0.05). However, a statistically significant difference was found in the changing rates from mild/moderate to severe/critical type at day 7 (χ(2)=9.311, P=0.017), which were 24%(6/25) in combination group, 16.7%(6/36) in arbidol group, 5.4%(3/56) in LPV/r group and 5.2%(3/58) in supportive care group. Moreover, the incidence of adverse reactions in three antiviral groups was significantly higher than that in supportive care group (χ(2)=14.875, P=0.002). Conclusions: Antiviral treatment including LPV/r or arbidol or combination does not shorten the negative conversion time of 2019-nCoV nucleic acid nor improve clinical symptoms. Moreover, these antiviral drugs cause more adverse reactions which should be paid careful attention during the treatment.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , HIV Infections , COVID-19/drug therapy , HIV Infections/drug therapy , Humans , Indoles , Lopinavir/adverse effects , Retrospective Studies , Ritonavir/adverse effects , SARS-CoV-2
5.
Curr Psychol ; : 1-9, 2021 Mar 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1525626

ABSTRACT

COVID-19, which has recently affected the world, has caused serious adversities in many areas as well as on the mental health of individuals. People have had a serious fearful mood due to situations such as catching COVID-19, having health problems after catching the disease, and worrying about infecting someone else. This negative mood is discussed in the literature through the concept of the fear of COVID-19. Accordingly, the mediator role of the fear of COVID-19 in the relationship between psychological resilience and life satisfaction was examined in this study. This study was conducted with 430 Turkish university students, 279 women and 151 men, who are between the ages of 18 and 30. The data of the study were collected with the psychological resilience, the fear of COVID-19 and life satisfaction scales. As a result of the analysis, it was concluded that psychological resilience is a negative predictor of the fear of COVID-19 and a positive predictor of life satisfaction, and that the fear of COVID-19 is a negative predictor of life satisfaction. It was also concluded that the fear of COVID-19 mediates the relationship between psychological resilience and life satisfaction. The results are discussed in relation to the relevant literature, and suggestions are made for practitioners and researchers.

6.
Trop Med Health ; 48: 51, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1477475

ABSTRACT

Background: Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has spread to almost every region and country in the world, leading to widespread travel restrictions and national lockdowns. Currently, there are limited epidemiological and clinical data on COVID-19 patients from low and middle-income countries. We conducted a retrospective single-center study of the first 100 individuals with suspected COVID-19 (between Jan. 25 and Mar. 29, 2020) admitted to San Lazaro Hospital (SLH), the national infectious diseases referral hospital in Manila, Philippines. Results: Demographic data, travel history, clinical features, and outcomes were summarized and compared between COVID-19 confirmed and non-confirmed cases. The first two confirmed cases were Chinese nationals, admitted on Jan. 25. The third confirmed case was a Filipino, admitted on Mar. 8. Trends toward confirmed COVID-19 cases not reporting international travel and being admitted to SLH from the densely populated area of Manila city were observed during Mar. 8-29. All 42 of the 100 confirmed COVID-19 cases were adults, 40% were aged 60 years and above and 55% were male. Three were health workers. Among individuals with suspected COVID-19, confirmed cases were more likely to be older, Filipino, not report international travel history and have at least one underlying disease, particularly diabetes, report difficulty in breathing, and a longer duration of symptoms. In over 90% of non-COVID-19 cases, the alternative diagnosis was respiratory. Nine (21%) confirmed cases died. The median duration from symptoms onset to death was 11.5 (range: 8-18) days. Conclusions: Imported COVID-19 cases have reduced but local transmission persists and there is a trend toward cases being admitted to SLH from densely populated areas. This study highlights the difficulty in diagnosing COVID-19 on clinical grounds and the importance of diagnostic capacity in all settings. Difficulty of breathing was the only symptom associated with COVID-19 infection and should alert clinicians to the possibility of COVID-19. Clinical characteristics of confirmed COVID-19 cases and a hospital case fatality rate of 21% are comparable with other settings.

7.
Adv Radiat Oncol ; 6(6): 100725, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1432710

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: To report real-world compliance to radiation in gynecologic cancers during the complete lockdown phase of COVID-19 pandemic. METHODS AND MATERIALS: From March 23, 2020, until June 30, 2020, complete lockdown was imposed in India. During this period there was restructuring of cancer care and radiation oncology department due to operational policies prevalent in the institution, and the care for gynecological cancer was based on the evolving international recommendations. Institutional review board approval was obtained to audit patterns of care during the complete lockdown phase. Descriptive variables were used to report on patient characteristics, compliance, delays, toxicity, and observed deviations in recommended care. RESULTS: During the lockdown period spanning 100 days, treatment of 270 and telephonic follow-up of 1103 patients with gynecological cancer was undertaken. Of 270 new patients, due to travel restrictions, 90 patients were referred to the facilities in vicinity of their residence. Of the remaining 180 patients, 138 were planned for complete treatment at our institution and 42 were referred to our center for brachytherapy. Of 138 patients, only 106 (76%) completed the planned external radiation. Twenty-four (26%) patients completed full course of concurrent chemotherapy, 11 (12%) received chemotherapy dose reduction, and 57 (62%) received no concurrent chemotherapy. Treatment delay of up to 3 weeks was noted in 8.6% patients due to COVID-19 infection. No grade 4 to 5 acute sequelae were observed. No excess adverse effects were observed in high-risk population. Low rate of symptom burden was observed among 1103 patients on telephonic follow-up. With 100 (9.6%) patients reporting symptoms, among these, 54% (54 of 100) had complete resolution of symptoms within 4 weeks of teleconsultation, and 10% had disease progression. CONCLUSIONS: Low compliance with planned treatment was observed for radiation and concurrent chemotherapy due to lockdown and fear of contracting COVID-19 and will likely lead to increased risk of cancer-related mortality. Rapid restructuring of care is needed to prevent the same as COVID-19 pandemic further evolves.

8.
J Clin Med ; 9(6)2020 Jun 22.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1403631

ABSTRACT

A highly pathogenic human coronavirus, severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), has been recently recognized in Wuhan, China, as the cause of the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) outbreak which has spread rapidly from China to other countries in the world, causing a pandemic with alarming morbidity and mortality. The emerging epidemiological data about COVID-19 patients suggest an association between cardiovascular diseases (CVD) and SARS-CoV-2 infection, in term of clinical features at hospital admission and prognosis for disease severity. The aim of our review is to describe the cardiological features of COVID-19 patients at admission, the acute cardiac presentation, the clinical outcome for patients with underlying CVD and the pharmacological implications for disease management.

9.
Environ Pollut ; 266(Pt 1): 115042, 2020 Nov.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1371462

ABSTRACT

On December 31, 2019, the Chinese authorities reported to the World Health Organization (WHO) the outbreak of a new strain of coronavirus that causes a serious disease in the city of Wuhan, China. This outbreak was classified as SARS-CoV2 and is the cause of the COVID-19 disease. On March 11, 2020, the WHO declares it a Pandemic and today it is considered the greatest challenge in global health that humanity has faced since World War II and it is estimated that between 40 and 60% of the population worldwide will catch the virus. This has caused enormous challenges in countries around the world in social, economic, environmental and obviously health issues. These challenges are mainly due to the effects of the established quarantines in almost all capitals and major cities around the world, from Asia, Europe to America. However, these lockdown which began worldwide from January 23, have had a significant impact on the environment and on the air quality of cities as recently reported by NASA (National Aeronautics and Space Administration) and ESA (European Space Agency), with reductions according to them of up to 30% in some of the epicenters such as the case of Wuhan. Knowing that air pollution causes approximately 29% of lung cancer deaths, 43% of COPD deaths, and 25% of ischemic heart disease deaths, it is important to know the effects of quarantines in cities regarding air quality to take measures that favor populations and urban ecosystems when the emergency ends. Therefore, this paper describes the behavior of PM2.5 emissions particulate matter from the 50 most polluted capital cities in the world according to the WHO, measured before-after the start of the quarantine. Likewise, the impact at the local and global level of this emissions behavior, which averaged 12% of PM2.5 decrease in these cities.


Subject(s)
Air Pollutants/analysis , Air Pollution/analysis , Coronavirus Infections , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral , Asia , Betacoronavirus , COVID-19 , China , Cities , Ecosystem , Europe , Humans , Particulate Matter/analysis , SARS-CoV-2
10.
Data Brief ; 30: 105552, 2020 Jun.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1351603

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 outbreak is now one of the most critical crises to manage for most of the national healthcare systems in the world. In the absence of authorised pharmacological treatments, many antiretrovirals, including darunavir/cobicistat fixed combination, are used off-label in the hospital wards as life-treating medicines for COVID-19 patients. Unfortunately, for most of them, the drug products available on the market are not designed to be administered by a nasogastric tube to inpatients of intensive care units. Therefore, their manipulation, even if it can strongly affect the product quality, is necessary for the preparation of suspension to meet patients' need. In this situation, it is urgent to provide data and guidance to support hospital pharmacists and clinicians in their activity. The data in this article indicate that darunavir/cobicistat suspensions compounded by pharmacists using as active ingredient a commercially available tablet can be stable at least for one week.

11.
Stroke Vasc Neurol ; 5(2): 180-184, 2020 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1318199

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The COVID-19 pandemic has already stressed the healthcare system in the world. Many hospitals have been overwhelmed by the large number of patients with COVID-19. Due to the shortage of equipment and personnel and the highly contagious nature of COVID-19, many other healthcare services are on hold. However, at Beijing Tiantan Hospital, a rapid response system has been in place so that routine care is not interrupted. We, therefore, would like to share our hospital-wide prevention and management policy during this pandemic to help other healthcare systems to function in this crisis. METHOD: Tiantan hospital is one of the leading neuroscience institutions in the world. With 1650 beds, its annual inpatient admission exceeds 30 000 patients. Its COVID-19 rapid response policy was reviewed for its functionality. RESULTS: There are nine key components of this policy: an incident management system; a comprehensive infection prevention and control, outpatient triage and flow system; a designated fever clinic; patient screening and administration; optimised surgical operations, enhanced nucleic acid testing; screening of returning employees; and a supervision and feedback system. In addition, a specific protocol was designed for treating patients with acute stroke. CONCLUSION: A comprehensive policy is helpful to protect the employee from infection and to provide quality and uninterrupted care to all who need these, including patients with acute ischaemic stroke.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus/pathogenicity , Brain Ischemia/therapy , Coronavirus Infections/therapy , Infection Control/methods , Infectious Disease Transmission, Patient-to-Professional/prevention & control , Infectious Disease Transmission, Professional-to-Patient/prevention & control , Occupational Exposure/prevention & control , Pneumonia, Viral/therapy , Stroke/therapy , Beijing , Brain Ischemia/diagnosis , COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections/diagnosis , Coronavirus Infections/transmission , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Critical Pathways , Delivery of Health Care, Integrated , Health Services Needs and Demand , Host-Pathogen Interactions , Humans , Needs Assessment , Occupational Health , Pandemics , Patient Safety , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnosis , Pneumonia, Viral/transmission , Pneumonia, Viral/virology , SARS-CoV-2 , Stroke/diagnosis , Triage
12.
J Biomol Struct Dyn ; 39(12): 4433-4448, 2021 Aug.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1317842

ABSTRACT

The emergence of the coronavirus disease-2019 pandemic has led to an outbreak in the world. The SARS-CoV-2 is seventh and latest in coronavirus family with unique exonucleases for repairing any mismatches in newly transcribed genetic material. Therefore, drugs with novel additional mechanisms are required to simultaneously target and eliminate the virus. Thus, a newly deciphered N protein is taken as a target that belongs to SARS-CoV-2. They play a vital role in RNA transcription, viral replication and new virion formation. This study used virtual screening, molecular modeling and docking of the 8987 ligands from Asinex and PubChem databases against this novel target protein. Three hotspot sites having DScore ≥1 (Site 1, Site 2 and Site 3) for ligand binding were selected. Subsequently, high throughput screening, standard precision and extra precision docking process and molecular dynamics concluded three best drugs from two libraries. Two antiviral moieties from Asinex databases (5817 and 6799) have docking scores of -10.29 and -10.156; along with their respective free binding energies (ΔG bind) of -51.96 and -64.36 on Site 3. The third drug, Zidovudine, is from PubChem database with docking scores of -9.75 with its binding free energies (ΔG bind) of -59.43 on Site 3. The RMSD and RMSF were calculated for all the three drugs through molecular dynamics simulation studies for 50 ns. Zidovudine shows a very stable interaction with fluctuation starting at 2.4 Å on 2 ns and remained stable at 3 Å from 13 to 50 ns. Thus, paving the way for further biological validation as a potential treatment.Communicated by Ramaswamy H. Sarma.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Humans , Molecular Docking Simulation , Nucleocapsid , Phosphoproteins , RNA-Binding Motifs , Virion
13.
Pharmaceuticals (Basel) ; 14(4)2021 Apr 19.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1305767

ABSTRACT

To date, the leading causes of mortality and morbidity worldwide include viral infections, such as Ebola, influenza virus, acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS), severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) and recently COVID-19 disease, caused by the SARS-CoV-2 virus. Currently, we can count on a narrow range of antiviral drugs, especially older generation ones like ribavirin and interferon which are effective against viruses in vitro but can often be ineffective in patients. In addition to these, we have antiviral agents for the treatment of herpes virus, influenza virus, HIV and hepatitis virus. Recently, drugs used in the past especially against ebolavirus, such as remdesivir and favipiravir, have been considered for the treatment of COVID-19 disease. However, even if these drugs represent important tools against viral diseases, they are certainly not sufficient to defend us from the multitude of viruses present in the environment. This represents a huge problem, especially considering the unprecedented global threat due to the advancement of COVID-19, which represents a potential risk to the health and life of millions of people. The demand, therefore, for new and effective antiviral drugs is very high. This review focuses on three fundamental points: (1) presents the main threats to human health, reviewing the most widespread viral diseases in the world, thus describing the scenario caused by the disease in question each time and evaluating the specific therapeutic remedies currently available. (2) It comprehensively describes main phytochemical classes, in particular from plant foods, with proven antiviral activities, the viruses potentially treated with the described phytochemicals. (3) Consideration of the various applications of drug delivery systems in order to improve the bioavailability of these compounds or extracts. A PRISMA flow diagram was used for the inclusion of the works. Taking into consideration the recent dramatic events caused by COVID-19 pandemic, the cry of alarm that denounces critical need for new antiviral drugs is extremely strong. For these reasons, a continuous systematic exploration of plant foods and their phytochemicals is necessary for the development of new antiviral agents capable of saving lives and improving their well-being.

14.
Ther Clin Risk Manag ; 16: 617-629, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1288744

ABSTRACT

The 2019 novel coronavirus disease (COVID-19) was first detected in Wuhan, Hubei Province, China, in late 2019. Since then, COVID-19 has spread to more than 200 countries in the world, and a global pandemic has been declared by the World Health Organization (WHO). At present, no vaccines or therapeutic regimens with proven efficacy are available for the management of COVID-19. Hydroxychloroquine/chloroquine, lopinavir/ritonavir, ribavirin, interferons, umifenovir, remdesivir, and interleukin antagonists, such as tocilizumab, have been recommended as potential treatment options in COVID-19. Transplant patients receiving immunosuppressant medications are at the highest risk of severe illness from COVID-19. At the same time, with regard to receiving polypharmacy and immunosuppressants, treatment options should be chosen with more attention in this population. Considering drug-drug interactions and adverse effects of medications used for the treatment of COVID-19, such as QT prolongation, the dose reduction of some immunosuppressants or avoidance is recommended in transplant recipients with COVID-19. Thus, this narrative review describes clinically important considerations about the treatment of COVID-19 and immunosuppressive regimens regarding modifications, side effects, and interactions in adult kidney or liver allograft recipients.

15.
Oncol Ther ; 9(2): 255-265, 2021 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1275018

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has resulted in millions of deaths globally. The pandemic has had a severe impact on oncology care and research. Patients with underlying cancer are more vulnerable to contracting COVID-19, and also have a more severe clinical course following the infection. The rollout of COVID-19 vaccines in many parts of the world has raised hopes of controlling the pandemic. In this editorial, the authors outline key characteristics of the currently approved COVID-19 vaccines, provide a brief overview of key emerging issues such as vaccine-induced immune thrombotic thrombocytopenia and SARS-CoV-2 variants of concern, and review the available data related to the efficacy and side effects of vaccinating patients with cancer.

16.
Front Mol Biosci ; 8: 671923, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1264345

ABSTRACT

Since early 2020, the world suffers from a new beta-coronavirus, called SARS-CoV-2, that has devastating effects globally due to its associated disease, Covid-19. Until today, Covid-19, which not only causes life-threatening lung infections but also impairs various other organs and tissues, has killed hundreds of thousands of people and caused irreparable damage to many others. Since the very onset of the pandemic, huge efforts were made worldwide to fully understand this virus and numerous studies were, and still are, published. Many of these deal with structural analyses of the viral spike glycoprotein and with vaccine development, antibodies and antiviral molecules or immunomodulators that are assumed to become essential tools in the struggle against the virus. This paper summarizes knowledge on the properties of the four structural proteins (spike protein S, membrane protein M, envelope protein E and nucleocapsid protein N) of the SARS-CoV-2 virus and its relatives, SARS-CoV and MERS-CoV, that emerged few years earlier. Moreover, attention is paid to ways to analyze such proteins using freely available bioinformatic tools and, more importantly, to bring these proteins alive by looking at them on a computer/laptop screen with the easy-to-use but highly performant and interactive molecular graphics program DeepView. It is hoped that this paper will stimulate non-bioinformaticians and non-specialists in structural biology to scrutinize these and other macromolecules and as such will contribute to establishing procedures to fight these and maybe other forthcoming viruses.

17.
Ann Transplant ; 26: e931832, 2021 Jun 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1262684

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND Kidney transplant services all over the world were severely impacted by the coronavirus disease 2019 pandemic. The optimum management of kidney transplant recipients with coronavirus disease 2019 remains uncertain. MATERIAL AND METHODS We conducted a multicenter cohort study of kidney transplant recipients with coronavirus disease 2019 infection in Saudi Arabia. Multivariable Cox regression analysis was used to study predictors of graft and patient outcomes at 28 days after coronavirus disease 2019 diagnosis. RESULTS We included 130 kidney transplant recipients, with a mean age of 48.7(±14.4) years. Fifty-nine patients were managed at home with daily follow-up utilizing a dedicated clinic, while 71 (54.6%) required hospital admission. Acute kidney injury occurred in 35 (26.9%) patients. Secondary infections occurred in 38 (29.2%) patients. SARS-CoV-2 antibodies testing was carried out in 84 patients, of whom 70 tested positive for IgG and/or IgM. Fourteen patients died (10.8%). A multivariable Cox regression analysis showed that age, creatinine at presentation, acute kidney injury, and use of azithromycin were significantly associated with worse patient survival. Graft loss was associated with requiring renal replacement therapy and development of secondary infections. CONCLUSIONS Despite kidney transplant recipients with coronavirus disease 2019 infection having higher rate of hospital admission and mortality compared to the general population, a significant number of them can be managed using a telemedicine clinic. Most kidney transplant patients seem to mount an antibody response following coronavirus disease 2019 infection, and it remains to be seen if they will have a similar response to the incoming vaccines.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/therapy , Kidney Failure, Chronic/surgery , Kidney Transplantation , Adult , COVID-19/diagnosis , Cohort Studies , Female , Hospitalization , Humans , Kidney Failure, Chronic/virology , Male , Middle Aged , Renal Replacement Therapy , Saudi Arabia , Telemedicine , Virus Shedding
18.
Sci Total Environ ; 790: 148272, 2021 Oct 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1260858

ABSTRACT

The world's poorest countries were hit hardest by COVID-19 due to their limited capacities to combat the pandemic. The urban water supply and water consumption are affected by the pandemic because it intensified the existing deficits in the urban water supply and sanitation services. In this study, we develop an integrated spatial analysis approach to investigate the impacts of COVID-19 on multi-dimensional Urban Water Consumption Patterns (UWCPs) with the aim of forecasting the water demand. We selected the Tabriz metropolitan area as a case study area and applied an integrated approach of GIS spatial analysis and regression-based autocorrelation assessment to develop the UWCPs for 2018, 2019 and 2020. We then employed GIS-based multi-criteria decision analysis and a CA-Markov model to analyze the water demand under the impacts of COVID-19 and to forecast the UWCPs for 2021, 2022 and 2023. In addition, we tested the spatial uncertainty of the prediction maps using the Dempster Shafer Theory. The results show that the domestic water consumption increased by 17.57% during the year 2020 as a result of the COVID-19 pandemic. The maximum increase in water consumption was observed in spring 2020 (April-June) when strict quarantine regulations were in place. Based on our results, the annual water deficit in Tabriz has increased from ~18% to about 30% in 2020. In addition, our projections show that this may further increase to about 40-45% in 2021. Relevant stakeholders can use the findings to develop evidence-informed strategies for sustainable water resource management in the post-COVID era. This research also makes other significant contributions. From the environmental perspective, since COVID-19 has affected resource management in many parts of the world, the proposed method can be applied to similar contexts to mitigate the adverse impacts and developed better informed recovery plans.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pandemics , Humans , Iran/epidemiology , SARS-CoV-2 , Water , Water Supply
19.
Cureus ; 13(5): e15050, 2021 May 16.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1257012

ABSTRACT

The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has caused a major global healthcare crisis, and the fields of science and medicine have been engaged in a massive effort to control and prevent the resultant deaths and morbidity. Researchers and pharmaceutical companies have developed in record time vaccines against COVID-19 that are intended to be safe and effective; however, the short validation time has been a challenge for doctors and epidemiologists, especially in light of the increase in reports emerging from various parts of the world about the adverse effects of the new vaccines. Portugal's national regulatory authority, the National Authority of Medicines and Health Products (INFARMED), has recently granted approval for Pfizer-BioNTech (Pfizer Inc., New York, NY; BioNTech SE, Mainz, Germany) and Moderna (Moderna, Inc, Cambridge, MA) COVID-19 vaccines, and they are being rolled out to be administered among the general population. In light of this, it is important for breast surgeons, family doctors, hematologists, and radiologists to consider the effects of recent COVID-19 vaccination history as a possible cause in the differential diagnosis for patients with unilateral cervical adenopathy. The objective of this report is to present a case that involves an adverse reaction involving acute-onset cervical lymphadenopathy in a female patient that coincided with her vaccination against COVID-19, even though cervical lymphadenopathy had not been previously reported as a potential side effect of the COVID-19 vaccination. We discuss the case of a Portuguese physician with a family history of breast cancer, who developed right cervical lymphadenopathy after receiving the first dose of the COVID-19 vaccine. Lymph node growth and ultrasound changes observed in the patient over the weeks, and a lack of information on the COVID-19 vaccine's adverse effects, prompted an in-depth study to understand its etiology.

20.
World J Gastroenterol ; 27(20): 2576-2585, 2021 May 28.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1256683

ABSTRACT

Starting from December 2019 the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) has extended in the entire world giving origin to a pandemic. Although the respiratory system is the main apparatus involved by the infection, several other organs may suffer coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19)-related injuries. The human tissues expressing angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) are all possible targets of viral damage. In fact myocarditis, meningo-encephalitis, acute kidney injury and other complications have been described with regard to SARS-CoV-2 infection. The liver has a central role in the body homeostasis contributing to detoxification, catabolism and also synthesis of important factor such as plasma proteins. ACE2 is significantly expressed just by cholangiocytes within the liver, however transaminases are increased in more than one third of COVID-19 patients, at hospital admission. The reasons for liver impairment in the course of this infection are not completely clear at present and multiple factors such as: Direct viral effect, release of cytokines, ischemic damage, use of hepatotoxic drugs, sepsis, and others, may contribute to damage. While COVID-19 seems to elicit just a transient alteration of liver function tests in subjects with normal hepatic function, of concern, more severe sequelae are frequently observed in patients with a reduced hepatic reserve. In this review we report data regarding SARS-CoV-2 infection in subjects with normal or diseased liver. In addition the risks of COVID-19 in immunosuppressed patients (either transplanted or suffering for autoimmune liver diseases) are also described.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Liver Transplantation , Humans , Liver , Peptidyl-Dipeptidase A , SARS-CoV-2
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