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1.
Eur Heart J Cardiovasc Imaging ; 23(4): 569-577, 2022 03 22.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1526156

ABSTRACT

AIMS: Although cardiac involvement has prognostic significance in coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) and is associated with severe forms, few studies have explored the prognostic role of transthoracic echocardiography (TTE). We investigated the link between TTE parameters and prognosis in COVID-19. METHODS AND RESULTS: Consecutive patients with COVID-19 admitted to 24 French hospitals were retrospectively included. Comprehensive data, including clinical and biological parameters, were recorded at admission. Focused TTE was performed during hospitalization, according to clinical indication. Patients were followed for a primary composite outcome of death or transfer to intensive care unit (ICU) during hospitalization. Among 2878 patients, 445 (15%) underwent TTE. Most of these had cardiovascular risk factors, a history of cardiovascular disease, and were on cardiovascular treatments. Dilatation and dysfunction were observed in, respectively, 12% (48/412) and 23% (102/442) of patients for the left ventricle, and in 12% (47/407) and 16% (65/402) for the right ventricle (RV). Primary composite outcome occurred in 44% (n = 196) of patients [9% (n = 42) for death without ICU transfer and 35% (n = 154) for admission to ICU]. RV dilatation was the only TTE parameter associated with the primary outcome. After adjustment, male sex [hazard ratio (HR) 1.56, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.09 - 2.25; P = 0.02], higher body mass index (HR 1.10, 95% CI 1.02 - 1.18; P = 0.01), anticoagulation (HR 0.53, 95% CI 0.33 - 0.86; P = 0.01), and RV dilatation (HR 1.66, 95% CI 1.05 - 2.64; P = 0.03) remained independently associated with the primary outcome. CONCLUSION: Echocardiographic evaluation of RV dilatation could be useful for assessing risk of severe COVID-19 developing in hospitalized patients.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Ventricular Dysfunction, Right , Female , Humans , Male , Prognosis , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2
2.
Int J Clin Pract ; 75(9): e14471, 2021 Sep.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1285028

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: Although the initial reports of COVID-19 cases in children described that children were largely protected from severe manifestations, clusters of paediatric cases of severe systemic hyperinflammation and shock related to severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 infection began to be reported in the latter half of April 2020. A novel syndrome called "multisystem inflammatory syndrome in children" (MIS-C) shares common clinical features with other well-defined syndromes, including Kawasaki disease, toxic shock syndrome and secondary hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis/macrophage activation syndrome. Our objective was to develop a protocol for the evaluation, treatment and follow-up of patients with MIS-C. METHODS: The protocol was developed by a multidisciplinary team. We convened a multidisciplinary working group with representation from the departments of paediatric critical care, cardiology, rheumatology, surgery, gastroenterology, haematology, immunology, infectious disease and neurology. Our protocol and recommendations were based on the literature and our experiences with multisystem inflammatory syndrome in children. After an agreement was reached and the protocol was implemented, revisions were made on the basis of expert feedback. CONCLUSION: Children may experience acute cardiac decompensation or other organ system failure due to this severe inflammatory condition. Therefore, patients with severe symptoms of MIS-C should be managed in a paediatric intensive care setting, as rapid clinical deterioration may occur. Therapeutic approaches for MIS-C should be tailored depending on the patients' phenotypes. Plasmapheresis may be useful as a standard treatment to control hypercytokinemia in cases of MIS-C with severe symptoms. Long-term follow-up of patients with cardiac involvement is required to identify any sequelae of MIS-C.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Algorithms , Child , Humans , SARS-CoV-2 , Syndrome , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome/diagnosis , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome/therapy
3.
Internist (Berl) ; 62(7): 706-717, 2021 Jul.
Article in German | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1274798

ABSTRACT

Since the beginning of 2020 the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has extensively impacted medical care in Germany and worldwide. Germany is currently facing the so-called third wave of the COVID-19 pandemic. This is exacerbated by emerging severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) mutants with increased virus transmission and severe courses of disease. Rising numbers of SARS-CoV­2 infections translate into an increasing number of severe COVID-19 cases requiring intensive care, which interacts with limited structural and personnel resources for COVID-19 and non-COVID-19 critically ill patients. Therefore, prioritization and triage for critically ill patients with allocation of intensive care capacities becomes necessary, as with all situations with higher strain on capacities. Both strategies are meaningful forms of organization and are not to be equated with a collapse of medical care. Cardiovascular comorbidities and cardiac involvement in COVID-19 are of particular importance for disease severity and the clinical course. In addition to the medical care of patients with SARS-CoV­2 infections due to the pandemic, other patients with acute sometimes life-threatening diseases must also continue to receive high-quality treatment. This article provides a current overview of proposed restructuring measures in German hospitals as well as the accompanying triage and prioritization algorithms. Moreover, it is necessary to adapt existing treatment algorithms to the pandemic situation. Due their special importance this is sketched using cardiovascular diseases as an example.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Cardiovascular Diseases , Cardiovascular Diseases/epidemiology , Cardiovascular Diseases/therapy , Germany , Humans , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , Triage
4.
Res Sq ; 2021 Jun 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1270320

ABSTRACT

Cardiovascular complications are common in COVID-19 and strongly associated with disease severity and mortality. However, the mechanisms driving cardiac injury and failure in COVID-19 are largely unknown. We performed plasma proteomics on 80 COVID-19 patients and controls, grouped according to disease severity and cardiac involvement. Findings were validated in 305 independent COVID-19 patients and investigated in an animal model. Here we show that senescence-associated secretory proteins, markers of biological aging, strongly associate with disease severity and cardiac involvement even in age-matched cohorts. FSTL3, an indicator of Activin/TGFß signaling, was the most significantly upregulated protein associated with the heart failure biomarker, NTproBNP (ß = 0.4;p adj =4.6x10 - 7 ), while ADAMTS13, a vWF-cleaving protease whose loss-of-function causes microvascular thrombosis, was the most downregulated protein associated with myocardial injury (ß=-0.4;p adj =8x10 - 7 ). Mendelian randomization supported a causal role for ADAMTS13 in myocardial injury. These data provide important new insights into the pathophysiology of COVID-19 cardiovascular complications with therapeutic implications.

5.
Clin Immunol ; 229: 108780, 2021 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1265655

ABSTRACT

Overlapping clinical features promoted the discussion of whether Kawasaki disease (KD) and PIMS-TS share pathophysiological features and disease outcomes. Medical records from English patients with KD (2015-02/20, N = 27) and PIMS-TS (02/2020-21, N = 34) were accessed to extract information. Children with PIMS-TS were older and more frequently of minority ethnicity background. They patients more commonly exhibited cytopenias and hyperferritinemia, which associated with diffuse cardiac involvement and functional impairment. In some PIMS-TS cases, cardiac pathology developed late, but outcomes were more favorable. In both, KD and PIMS-TS, baseline coronary diameter was a predictor of outcomes. PIMS-TS treatment more frequently included respiratory and cardiovascular support, and corticosteroids with IVIG. Cardiac involvement in PIMS-TS may be the result of a cytokine storm. Though more severe and diffuse when compared to KD, cardiac involvement of PIMS-TS has a more favorable prognosis, which may, after recovery, mitigate the need for long-term follow up.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/pathology , Mucocutaneous Lymph Node Syndrome/pathology , Myocardium/pathology , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome/pathology , Adolescent , Adrenal Cortex Hormones/therapeutic use , COVID-19/physiopathology , COVID-19/therapy , Child , Child, Preschool , Coronary Aneurysm/pathology , Female , Heart Disease Risk Factors , Humans , Immunoglobulins, Intravenous/therapeutic use , Infant , Male , Mucocutaneous Lymph Node Syndrome/physiopathology , Mucocutaneous Lymph Node Syndrome/therapy , Prognosis , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome/physiopathology , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome/therapy
6.
J Thorac Imaging ; 36(5): 279-285, 2021 Sep 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1263732

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: Coronavirus 2019 disease (COVID-19) has been shown to affect the myocardium, resulting in a worse clinical outcome. In this registry study, we aimed to identify differences in cardiac magnetic resonance imaging (CMRI) between COVID-19 and all-cause myocarditis. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We examined CMRI of patients with COVID-19 and elevated high-sensitivity serum troponin levels performed between March 31st and May 5th and compared them to CMRI of patients without SARS-CoV-2 infection with suspected myocarditis in the same time period. For this purpose, we evaluated Lake-Louise Criteria for myocarditis by determining nonischemic myocardial injury via T1-mapping, extracellular volume, late gadolinium enhancement, and myocardial edema (ME) by T2-mapping and fat-saturated T2w imaging (T2Q). RESULTS: A total of 15 of 18 (89%) patients with COVID-19 had abnormal findings. The control group consisted of 18 individuals. There were significantly fewer individuals with COVID-19 who had increased T2 (5 vs. 10; P=0.038) and all-cause ME (7 vs. 15; P=0.015); thus, significantly fewer patients with COVID-19 fulfilled Lake-Louise Criteria (6 vs. 17; P<0.001). In contrast, nonischemic myocardial injury was not significantly different. In the COVID-19 group, indexed end-diastolic volume of the left ventricle showed a significant correlation to the extent of abnormal T1 (R2=0.571; P=0.017) and extracellular volume (R2=0.605; P=0.013) and absolute T1, T2, and T2Q (R2=0.644; P=0.005, R2=0.513; P=0.035 and R2=0.629; P=0.038, respectively); in the control group, only extracellular volume showed a weak correlation (R2=0.490; P=0.046). CONCLUSIONS: Cardiac involvement in COVID-19 seems to show less ME than all-cause myocarditis. Abnormal CMRI markers correlated to left ventricle dilation only in the COVID-19 group. Larger comparative studies are needed to verify our findings.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Magnetic Resonance Imaging, Cine , Myocarditis , COVID-19/diagnostic imaging , Contrast Media , Diagnosis, Differential , Gadolinium , Humans , Myocarditis/diagnostic imaging , Myocardium , Predictive Value of Tests
7.
Front Cardiovasc Med ; 8: 663864, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1259340

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) was initially regarded as a disease of the lungs, which manifests as an acute respiratory illness and pneumonia, although more recently cardiac complications have been well-characterised. Serological cardiac biomarkers have been used to define acute myocardial injury, with significant elevation of high-sensitivity cardiac troponin (hs-cTn) associated with poor prognosis. Accordingly, 20-25% patients with acute myocardial injury (as defined by an elevated hs-cTn greater than the 99th percentile) have clinical signs of heart failure and increased mortality. An important outstanding clinical question is how best to determine the extent and nature of cardiac involvement in COVID-19. Non-invasive cardiac imaging has a well-established role in assessing cardiac structure and function in a wide range of cardiac diseases. It offers the potential to differentiate between direct and indirect COVID-19 effects upon the heart, providing incremental diagnostic and prognostic utility beyond the information yielded by elevated cardiac biomarkers in isolation. This review will focus on the non-invasive imaging assessment of cardiac involvement in COVID-19.

8.
Front Cardiovasc Med ; 8: 654405, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1247849

ABSTRACT

Background: Accumulating evidence has revealed that coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) patients may be complicated with myocardial injury during hospitalization. However, data regarding persistent cardiac involvement in patients who recovered from COVID-19 are limited. Our goal is to further explore the sustained impact of COVID-19 during follow-up, focusing on the cardiac involvement in the recovered patients. Methods: In this prospective observational follow-up study, we enrolled a total of 40 COVID-19 patients (20 with and 20 without cardiac injury during hospitalization) who were discharged from Zhongnan Hospital of Wuhan University for more than 6 months, and 27 patients (13 with and 14 without cardiac injury during hospitalization) were finally included in the analysis. Clinical information including self-reported symptoms, medications, laboratory findings, Short Form 36-item scores, 6-min walk test, clinical events, electrocardiogram assessment, echocardiography measurement, and cardiac magnetic resonance imaging was collected and analyzed. Results: Among 27 patients finally included, none of patients reported any obvious cardiopulmonary symptoms at the 6-month follow-up. There were no statistically significant differences in terms of the quality of life and exercise capacity between the patients with and without cardiac injury. No significant abnormalities were detected in electrocardiogram manifestations in both groups, except for nonspecific ST-T changes, premature beats, sinus tachycardia/bradycardia, PR interval prolongation, and bundle-branch block. All patients showed normal cardiac structure and function, without any statistical differences between patients with and without cardiac injury by echocardiography. Compared with patients without cardiac injury, patients with cardiac injury exhibited a significantly higher positive proportion in late gadolinium enhancement sequences [7/13 (53.8%) vs. 1/14 (7.1%), p = 0.013], accompanied by the elevation of circulating ST2 level [median (interquartile range) = 16.6 (12.1, 22.5) vs. 12.5 (9.5, 16.7); p = 0.044]. Patients with cardiac injury presented higher levels of aspartate aminotransferase, creatinine, high-sensitivity troponin I, lactate dehydrogenase, and N-terminal pro-B-type natriuretic peptide than those without cardiac injury, although these indexes were within the normal range for all recovered patients at the 6-month follow-up. Among patients with cardiac injury, patients with positive late gadolinium enhancement presented higher cardiac biomarker (high-sensitivity troponin I) and inflammatory factor (high-sensitivity C-reactive protein) on admission than the late gadolinium enhancement-negative subgroup. Conclusions: Our preliminary 6-month follow-up study with a limited number of patients revealed persistent cardiac involvement in 29.6% (8/27) of recovered patients from COVID-19 after discharge. Patients with cardiac injury during hospitalization were more prone to develop cardiac fibrosis during their recovery. Among patients with cardiac injury, those with relatively higher cardiac biomarkers and inflammatory factors on admission appeared more likely to have cardiac involvement in the convalescence phase.

9.
J Med Case Rep ; 15(1): 305, 2021 May 28.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1247597

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has been shown to have extensive effects on the cardiovascular system. Its long-term cardiac manifestations, however, remain unclear. CASE PRESENTATION: We report the case of a Caucasian patient with a mild and self-limited presentation of COVID-19, with subsequent development, months later, of exertional dyspnea and non-sustained ventricular tachycardia, long after resolution of his illness and after returning to aerobic exercise. The patient had normal screening tests including electrocardiogram (ECG) and echocardiogram 4 months after his illness. Cardiac magnetic resonance imaging demonstrated epicardial and pericardial fibrosis of the right ventricle free wall and outflow tract and the pericardium over the anterior wall, 6 months following the initial infection. First abnormal ECG was recorded at month 7 following illness. CONCLUSIONS: This case suggests an insidious and possible long-term cardiac involvement and reflects the challenges in traditional workups and screening modalities in identifying cardiac involvement in COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Tachycardia, Ventricular , Fibrosis , Humans , Pericardium/diagnostic imaging , SARS-CoV-2 , Tachycardia, Ventricular/diagnosis , Tachycardia, Ventricular/etiology
10.
Int Arch Allergy Immunol ; 182(8): 765-774, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1234321

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: The aim of this study is to evaluate the frequency of cardiac involvement in patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), possible immune mechanisms of myocardial injury, and the place of cardiovascular pathology among other prognostic factors. METHODS: The study included 86 patients (48 male, 60.2 ± 16.6 years) with COVID-19. In addition to common investigation, examination of troponin T (n = 18) and anti-heart antibodies (AHA, n = 34) were used. The average hospital period was 14 [12; 18] days. RESULTS: The incidence of cardiovascular disease and symptoms was 45.3%. Arrhythmias, heart failure, low-QRS voltage, repolarization disorders, and pericardial effusion were the typical for coronavirus cardiac injury. The level of AHA was increased in 73.5%. Significant (p < 0.05) correlations of AHA level with inflammatory activity, pneumonia, respiratory failure, cardiac symptoms, and death were found. D-dimer >0.5 µg/mL had a sensitivity of 79.2% and specificity of 60% in the prediction of cardiovascular manifestations. Cardiac failure was one of the causes of death in 3/8 patients (37.5%). Lethality in the presence of cardiovascular pathology was 17.9 versus 2.2% without it, p < 0.05. The most powerful prognostic model includes age, diabetes, oxygen therapy volume, maximum leukocyte level, C-reactive protein, and D-dimer (correlation coefficient 0.871, p < 0.001). The model with only age, diabetes, and cardiovascular disease included also had predictive power (correlation coefficient 0.568, p < 0.001). CONCLUSIONS: The cardiovascular pathology is frequent in patients with COVID-19 and strong correlates with the D-dimer. It indicates the high significance of prothrombotic and ischemic mechanisms. High AHA levels may reflect an inflammatory heart injury. The cardiovascular pathology is associated with higher lethality.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/immunology , Cardiovascular Diseases/immunology , Myocardium/immunology , Pneumonia/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , Aged , Autoantibodies/blood , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/epidemiology , Cardiovascular Diseases/diagnosis , Cardiovascular Diseases/epidemiology , Female , Humans , Incidence , Inflammation , Male , Middle Aged , Models, Statistical , Myocardium/metabolism , Myocardium/pathology , Pneumonia/epidemiology , Prognosis , Russia/epidemiology , Troponin T/metabolism
11.
Circulation ; 144(4): 267-270, 2021 07 27.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1232384
12.
Kardiologiia ; 61(4): 15-23, 2021 May 04.
Article in Russian | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1231629

ABSTRACT

The novel coronavirus infection, COVID-19, is a highly contagious viral disease associated with acute, severe respiratory syndrome, which is based on the development of pronounced thrombo-inflammatory syndrome. As the number of patients with COVID-19 increased, heart damage has been reported, especially in patients with severe and critical COVID-19. This review describes the role of angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 receptor in the regulation of viral entry, the variety of damages to the heart and coronary arteries, and the importance of arterial hypertension and of the use of renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system inhibitors in the prognosis of patients with COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Hypertension , Angiotensin Receptor Antagonists , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme Inhibitors , Humans , Renin-Angiotensin System , SARS-CoV-2
13.
J Cardiol Cases ; 24(5): 203-205, 2021 Nov.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1230593

ABSTRACT

There is growing evidence of the potential for cardiac involvement in patients who have been infected with COVID-19. In this case study, we present a patient with no history of cardiovascular disease, who was hospitalized for COVID-19 pneumonia and subsequently recovered. Despite normal serum troponin levels and left ventricular structure and function, multi-parametric cardiac magnetic resonance imaging revealed a classic myocarditis-like pattern of injury approximately 6 months after his convalescence. Physicians should be aware of the possibility of late myocardial injury/inflammation in patients with recovered COVID-19, even in the absence of elevated troponin levels and/or left ventricular dysfunction. .

14.
J Magn Reson Imaging ; 53(6): 1723-1729, 2021 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1226194

ABSTRACT

Magnetic resonance (MR) studies suggested cardiac involvement post-Covid-19 in a significant subset of affected individuals, including athletes. This brings serious clinical concerns regarding the potential need for in-depth cardiac screening in athletes after Covid-19 before return to play. The aim of this study was to gain further insight into the relation between Covid-19 and cardiac involvement in professional athletes. This was a retrospective cohort study, in which 26 consecutive elite athletes (national team, Olympians, top national league players; median age 24 years, interquartile range [IQR] 21-27, 81% female) were included. At 1.5 T including balanced steady-state free precession cine imaging, T1 and T2-mapping using Myomaps software (Siemens), dark-blood T2-weighted images with fat suppression, and late gadolinium enhancement (LGE) with phase-sensitive inversion recovery sequence were used. The athletes had mainly asymptomatic or mild course of the disease (77%). They were scanned after a median of 32 days (IQR 22-62 days) from the diagnosis. MR data were reviewed by three independent observers, each with >10 years cardiac MR experience. Native T1, T2, extracellular volume, and T2 signal intensity ratio were calculated. Diagnosis of acute myocarditis was based on modified Lake Louise criteria. Statistical analyses used were Pearson correlation and Bland-Altman repeatability analysis. At the time of MR the athletes had no pathologic electrocardiogram abnormalities or elevated troponin levels. MR did not reveal any case of acute myocarditis. Cardiac abnormalities were found in five (19%) athletes, including four athletes presenting borderline signs of isolated myocardial edema and one athlete showing nonischemic LGE with pleural and pericardial effusion. Another athlete had signs of persistent lung congestion without cardiac involvement. We have shown that in a small group of elite athletes with mainly asymptomatic to mild Covid-19, lack of electrocardiographic changes, and normal troponin concentration 1-2 months after the diagnosis, there were no signs of acute myocarditis, but 19% of athletes had some abnormalities as assessed by cardiac MR. LEVEL OF EVIDENCE: 4 TECHNICAL EFFICACY STAGE: 3.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Myocarditis , Adult , Athletes , Contrast Media , Female , Gadolinium , Humans , Magnetic Resonance Imaging , Magnetic Resonance Imaging, Cine , Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy , Male , Myocarditis/diagnostic imaging , Myocardium , Predictive Value of Tests , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Young Adult
15.
J Anaesthesiol Clin Pharmacol ; 37(1): 47-50, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1206399

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND AND AIMS: The novel coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) pandemic has placed severe resource constraints on hospitals. High mortality rates of the COVID-19 have overwhelmed the resuscitation services. The constant fear of virus infection during cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) has placed severe restrictions on the resuscitation services. Reports of poor outcomes after CPR further dampened the spirits of CPR providers. Hence we surveyed CPR practices for COVID -19 patients across hospitals in India by health care providers. MATERIAL AND METHODS: An online survey using Google Forms was initiated to collect data on performance of CPR in diagnosed cases of COVID-19 after in-hospital cardiac arrest. The survey's web-link was publicized using social media, and participation sought of all personnel involved in CPR delivery in COVID-19 patients. The responses received were analyzed. The main outcome measured were determination of the percentage of COVID-19 patients discharged home who were administered CPR. RESULTS: There were 248 responses from different parts of India. At the time of cardiac arrest, 194 victims had diffuse lung infiltrates, 22 had mild lung disease, while 32 had no documented lung lesion. Twenty-five victims had evidence of pulmonary embolism, 39 had cardiac involvement, and 3 had brain involvement. Return of spontaneous circulation (ROSC) was achieved in 59.27% of cases but ROSC sustained in only 22.59%. 7.25% of patients, who received CPR, could be discharged home. CONCLUSION: The survey has shown reasonable survival rates after CPR administration in COVID-19 patients suffering from IHCA. We should not ignore the need to maximize live outcomes after CPR, even in COVID-19 patients.

16.
Radiology ; 299(2): E230-E240, 2021 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1203991

ABSTRACT

Background It is unknown if there are cardiac abnormalities in persons who have recovered from coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) without cardiac symptoms or in those who have normal biomarkers and normal electrocardiograms. Purpose To evaluate cardiac involvement in participants who had recovered from COVID-19 without clinical evidence of cardiac involvement by using cardiac MRI. Materials and Methods This prospective observational cohort study included 40 participants who had recovered from COVID-19 with moderate (n = 24) or severe (n = 16) pneumonia and who had no cardiovascular medical history, were without cardiac symptoms, had normal electrocardiograms, had normal serologic cardiac enzyme levels, and had been discharged for more than 90 days between May and September 2020. Demographic characteristics were recorded, serum cardiac enzyme levels were measured, and cardiac MRI was performed. Cardiac function, native T1, extracellular volume fraction (ECV), and two-dimensional (2D) strain were quantitatively evaluated and compared with values in control subjects (n = 25). Comparisons among the three groups were performed by using one-way analysis of variance with Bonferroni-corrected post hoc comparisons (for normal distribution) or Kruskal-Wallis tests with post hoc pairwise comparisons (for nonnormal distribution). Results Forty participants (mean age, 54 years ± 12 [standard deviation]; 24 men) were enrolled; participants had a mean time between admission and cardiac MRI of 158 days ± 18 and between discharge and cardiac MRI examination of 124 days ± 17. There were no left or right ventricular size or functional differences between participants who had recovered from COVID-19 and healthy control subjects. Only one (3%) participant had positive late gadolinium enhancement located at the mid inferior wall. Global ECV values were elevated in participants who had recovered from COVID-19 with moderate or severe pneumonia compared with those in healthy control subjects (median ECV, 29.7% vs 31.4% vs 25.0%, respectively; interquartile range, 28.0%-32.9% vs 29.3%-34.0% vs 23.7%-26.0%, respectively; P < .001 for both). The 2D global left ventricular longitudinal strain was reduced in both groups of participants (moderate COVID-19 group, -12.5% [interquartile range, -15.5% to -10.7%]; severe COVID-19 group, -12.5% [interquartile range, -15.4% to -8.7%]) compared with the healthy control group (-15.4% [interquartile range, -17.6% to -14.6%]) (P = .002 and P = .001, respectively). Conclusion Cardiac MRI myocardial tissue and strain imaging parameters suggest that a proportion of participants who had recovered from COVID-19 had subclinical myocardial abnormalities detectable months after recovery. © RSNA, 2021 Online supplemental material is available for this article.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/physiopathology , Heart Diseases/etiology , Heart Diseases/physiopathology , Magnetic Resonance Imaging/methods , SARS-CoV-2 , China , Cohort Studies , Female , Heart/diagnostic imaging , Heart/physiopathology , Heart Diseases/diagnostic imaging , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Prospective Studies
17.
Pediatr Ann ; 50(3): e128-e135, 2021 Mar.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1196056

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has a predilection to cardiac involvement. The early clinical phase, during viremia, may manifest as pericarditis, acute myocarditis, and sepsis-related cardiomyopathy. Delayed presentations, such as multisystem inflammatory syndrome in children, coronary artery dilation/aneurysms, and late myocarditis, may occur in the weeks after the acute infection. These delayed presentations commonly test negative for severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 via polymerase chain reaction testing and are thought to be primarily postviral hyperinflammatory sequelae. The long-term consequences of cardiac involvement in COVID-19 are unknown. Most recommendations for cardiac management are based on known conditions that are similar. For example, coronary aneurysms can be managed under Kawasaki disease guidelines. Similarly, for patients with COVID-19 myocarditis, they can be cleared for sports under protocols for other types of myocarditis. There is concern for cardiac involvement as a subclinical entity even in more minor presentations. Several expert algorithms have been developed for clearing competition athletes to return to exercise. Sports clearance should be individualized considering the severity of disease, age of patient, and performance level of the sport. [Pediatr Ann. 2021;50(3):e128-e135.].


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , Heart Diseases/diagnosis , Heart Diseases/etiology , Adolescent , Age Factors , COVID-19/pathology , Child , Heart Diseases/pathology , Humans , SARS-CoV-2 , Young Adult
18.
Circulation ; 144(4): 256-266, 2021 07 27.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1191419

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Cardiac involvement among hospitalized patients with severe coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is common and associated with adverse outcomes. This study aimed to determine the prevalence and clinical implications of COVID-19 cardiac involvement in young competitive athletes. METHODS: In this prospective, multicenter, observational cohort study with data from 42 colleges and universities, we assessed the prevalence, clinical characteristics, and outcomes of COVID-19 cardiac involvement among collegiate athletes in the United States. Data were collected from September 1, 2020, to December 31, 2020. The primary outcome was the prevalence of definite, probable, or possible COVID-19 cardiac involvement based on imaging definitions adapted from the Updated Lake Louise Imaging Criteria. Secondary outcomes included the diagnostic yield of cardiac testing, predictors for cardiac involvement, and adverse cardiovascular events or hospitalizations. RESULTS: Among 19 378 athletes tested for severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection, 3018 (mean age, 20 years [SD, 1 year]; 32% female) tested positive and underwent cardiac evaluation. A total of 2820 athletes underwent at least 1 element of cardiac triad testing (12-lead ECG, troponin, transthoracic echocardiography) followed by cardiac magnetic resonance imaging (CMR) if clinically indicated. In contrast, primary screening CMR was performed in 198 athletes. Abnormal findings suggestive of SARS-CoV-2 cardiac involvement were detected by ECG (21 of 2999 [0.7%]), cardiac troponin (24 of 2719 [0.9%]), and transthoracic echocardiography (24 of 2556 [0.9%]). Definite, probable, or possible SARS-CoV-2 cardiac involvement was identified in 21 of 3018 (0.7%) athletes, including 15 of 2820 (0.5%) who underwent clinically indicated CMR (n=119) and 6 of 198 (3.0%) who underwent primary screening CMR. Accordingly, the diagnostic yield of CMR for SARS-CoV-2 cardiac involvement was 4.2 times higher for a clinically indicated CMR (15 of 119 [12.6%]) versus a primary screening CMR (6 of 198 [3.0%]). After adjustment for race and sex, predictors of SARS-CoV-2 cardiac involvement included cardiopulmonary symptoms (odds ratio, 3.1 [95% CI, 1.2, 7.7]) or at least 1 abnormal triad test result (odds ratio, 37.4 [95% CI, 13.3, 105.3]). Five (0.2%) athletes required hospitalization for noncardiac complications of COVID-19. During clinical surveillance (median follow-up, 113 days [interquartile range=90 146]), there was 1 (0.03%) adverse cardiac event, likely unrelated to SARS-CoV-2 infection. CONCLUSIONS: SARS-CoV-2 infection among young competitive athletes is associated with a low prevalence of cardiac involvement and a low risk of clinical events in short-term follow-up.


Subject(s)
Athletes , COVID-19/complications , Myocarditis/diagnosis , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/virology , Cohort Studies , Echocardiography , Female , Heart/diagnostic imaging , Hospitalization , Humans , Magnetic Resonance Imaging , Male , Myocarditis/etiology , Myocardium/metabolism , Prevalence , Prospective Studies , Registries , Risk , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Troponin T/analysis , Young Adult
19.
Front Immunol ; 12: 651728, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1190315

ABSTRACT

The coronavirus infectious disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has hit the world, affecting health, medical care, economies and our society as a whole. Furthermore, COVID-19 pandemic joins the increasing prevalence of metabolic syndrome in western countries. Patients suffering from obesity, type II diabetes mellitus, cardiac involvement and metabolic associated fatty liver disease (MAFLD) have enhanced risk of suffering severe COVID-19 and mortality. Importantly, up to 25% of the population in western countries is susceptible of suffering from both MAFLD and COVID-19, while none approved treatment is currently available for any of them. Moreover, it is well known that exacerbated innate immune responses are key in the development of the most severe stages of MAFLD and COVID-19. In this review, we focus on the role of the immune system in the establishment and progression of MAFLD and discuss its potential implication in the development of severe COVID-19 in MAFLD patients. As a result, we hope to clarify their common pathology, but also uncover new potential therapeutic targets and prognostic biomarkers for further research.


Subject(s)
Adaptive Immunity/immunology , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/pathology , Fatty Liver/immunology , Immunity, Innate/immunology , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/immunology , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/metabolism , CD4-Positive T-Lymphocytes/immunology , CD8-Positive T-Lymphocytes/immunology , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/pathology , Fatty Liver/pathology , Humans , Liver/immunology , Liver/pathology , Obesity/pathology , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Severity of Illness Index
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