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1.
Oncol Lett ; 21(6): 458, 2021 Jun.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1225869

ABSTRACT

Cryoablation is an emerging type of treatment for cancer. The sensitization of tumors using cryosensitizing agents prior to treatment enhances ablation efficiency and may improve clinical outcomes. Water efflux, which is regulated by aquaporin channels, contributes to cancer cell damage achieved through cryoablation. An increase in aquaporin (AQP) 3 is cryoprotective, whereas its inhibition augments cryodamage. The present study aimed to investigate aquaporin (AQP1, AQP3 and AQP5) gene expression and cellular localization in response to cryoinjury. Cultured breast cancer cells (MDA-MB-231 and MCF-7) were exposed to freezing to induce cryoinjury. RNA and protein extracts were then analyzed using reverse transcription-quantitative PCR and western blotting, respectively. Localization of aquaporins was studied using immunocytochemistry. Additionally, cells were transfected with small interfering RNA to silence aquaporin gene expression and cell viability was assessed using the Sulforhodamine B assay. Cryoinjury did not influence gene expression of AQPs, except for a 4-fold increase of AQP1 expression in MDA-MD-231 cells. There were no clear differences in AQP protein expression for either cell lines upon exposure to frozen and non-frozen temperatures, with the exception of fainter AQP5 bands for non-frozen MCF-7 cells. The exposure of cancer cells to freezing temperatures altered the localization of AQP1 and AQP3 proteins in both MCF-7 and MDA-MD-231 cells. The silencing of AQP1, AQP3 and AQP5 exacerbated MDA-MD-231 cell damage associated with freezing compared with control siRNA. This was also observed with AQP3 and AQP5 silencing in MCF-7 cells. Inhibition of aquaporins may potentially enhance cryoinjury. This cryosensitizing process may be used as an adjunct to breast cancer cryotherapy, especially in the border area targeted by cryoablation where freezing temperatures are not cold enough to induce cellular damage.

2.
Viruses ; 13(5)2021 05 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1224250

ABSTRACT

In late 2019, the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) pandemic emerged to severely impact the global population, creating an unprecedented need for effective treatments. This study aims to investigate the potential of Scutellaria barbata D. Don (SB) as a treatment for SARS-CoV-2 infection through the inhibition of the proteases playing important functions in the infection by SARS-CoV-2. FRET assay was applied to investigate the inhibitory effects of SB on the two proteases involved in SARS-CoV-2 infection, Mpro and TMPRSS2. Additionally, to measure the potential effectiveness of SB treatment on infection inhibition, cellular models based on the Calu3 and VeroE6 cells and their TMPRSS2- expressing derivatives were assessed by viral pseudoparticles (Vpp) infection assays. The experimental approaches were conjugated with LC/MS analyses of the aqueous extracts of SB to identify the major constituent compounds, followed by a literature review to determine the potential active components of the inhibitory effects on protease activities. Our results showed that SB extracts inhibited the enzyme activities of Mpro and TMPRSS2. Furthermore, SB extracts effectively inhibited SARS-CoV-2 Vpp infection through a TMPRSS2-dependent mechanism. The aqueous extract analysis identified six major constituent compounds present in SB. Some of them have been known associated with inhibitory activities of TMPRSS2 or Mpro. Thus, SB may effectively prevent SARS-CoV-2 infection and replication through inhibiting Mpro and TMPRSS2 protease activities.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/drug therapy , Coronavirus 3C Proteases/metabolism , Plant Extracts/pharmacology , Serine Endopeptidases/metabolism , Animals , COVID-19/metabolism , Cell Line , Chlorocebus aethiops , Coronavirus 3C Proteases/drug effects , Humans , Lung/virology , Pandemics , Peptide Hydrolases , Peptidyl-Dipeptidase A/metabolism , Plant Extracts/metabolism , Proteolysis , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Scutellaria , Serine Endopeptidases/drug effects , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/metabolism , Virus Internalization/drug effects
3.
Viruses ; 13(2)2021 01 28.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1060540

ABSTRACT

There have been reports of neurological abnormalities associated with the Zika virus (ZIKV), such as congenital Zika syndrome (CZS) in children born to mothers infected during pregnancy. We investigated how the immune response to ZIKV during pregnancy is primed and conduct a thorough evaluation of the inflammatory and cytotoxic profiles as well as the expression of CCR5 and CX3CR1. We compared the reactivity of T cells to ZIKV peptides in convalescent mothers infected during pregnancy. The child's clinical outcome (i.e., born with or without CZS) was taken to be the variable. The cells were stimulated in vitro with ZIKV peptides and evaluated using the ELISPOT and flow cytometry assays. After in vitro stimulation with ZIKV peptides, we observed a tendency toward a higher Interferon gamma (IFN-γ)-producing T cell responses in mothers who had asymptomatic children and a higher CD107a expression in T cells in mothers who had children with CZS. We found a higher frequency of T cells expressing CD107a+ and co-expressing CX3CR1+CCR5+, which is much clearer in the T cells of mothers who had CZS children. We suggest that this differential profile influenced the clinical outcome of babies. These data need to be further investigated, including the evaluation of other ZIKV peptides and markers and functional assays.


Subject(s)
CX3C Chemokine Receptor 1/metabolism , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/immunology , Receptors, CCR5/metabolism , T-Lymphocytes/immunology , Zika Virus Infection/immunology , Adult , Cross-Sectional Studies , Cytotoxicity, Immunologic , Female , Humans , Infant , Interferon-gamma/metabolism , Lysosome-Associated Membrane Glycoproteins/metabolism , Pregnancy , Pregnancy Outcome , T-Lymphocytes/metabolism , Young Adult , Zika Virus/immunology
4.
bioRxiv ; 2020 Nov 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-915982

ABSTRACT

SARS-CoV-2 is the coronavirus that causes the respiratory disease COVID-19, which is now the third-leading cause of death in the United States. The FDA has recently approved remdesivir, an inhibitor of SARS-CoV-2 replication, to treat COVID-19, though recent data from the WHO shows little to no benefit with use of this anti-viral agent. Here we report the discovery of ethacridine, a safe antiseptic use in humans, as a potent drug for use against SARS-CoV-2 (EC50 ~ 0.08 µM). Ethacridine was identified via high-throughput screening of an FDA-approved drug library in living cells using a fluorescent assay. Interestingly, the main mode of action of ethacridine is through inactivation of viral particles, preventing their binding to the host cells. Indeed, ethacridine is effective in various cell types, including primary human nasal epithelial cells. Taken together, these data identify a promising, potent, and new use of the old drug possessing a distinct mode of action for inhibiting SARS-CoV-2.

5.
BMC Infect Dis ; 20(1): 779, 2020 Oct 20.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-883565

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection has become a public health emergency of international concern. SARS-CoV-2 RNA detection is the diagnostic criterion for coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). Nevertheless, RNA detection has many limitations, such as being time-consuming and cost-prohibitive, and it must be performed in specialized laboratories. Virus antibody detection is a routine method for screening for multiple viruses, but data about SARS-CoV-2 antibody detection are limited. METHOD: Throat swabs and blood were collected from 67 suspected SARS-CoV-2 infection patients at the Affiliated Hospital of Zunyi Medical University and Zunyi Fourth People's Hospital isolated observation departments. Throat swab samples were subjected to SARS-CoV-2 RNA detection by real-time PCR. Blood was used subjected to SARS-CoV-2 IgG/IgM detection by an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and gold immunochromatography assay (GICA). Blood underwent C-reactive protein detection by immunoturbidimetry, and white blood cells, neutrophil percentages and lymphocyte percentages were counted and calculated, respectively. Clinical symptoms, age and lifestyle habits (smoking and drinking) in all patients were recorded. Data were analysed using SPSS version 19. The results were confirmed by T and χ2 tests; correlations with detection results were analysed by kappa coefficients. Odds ratio (OR) and corrected OR values were analysed by logistic regression. P < 0.05 was considered statistically significant. RESULTS: Of the 67 patients included in this study, 26 were SARS-CoV-2 RNA-positive. GICA IgM sensitivity was 50.9% (13/26), and specificity was 90.2% (37/41). ELISA IgM sensitivity was 76.9% (20/26), and specificity was 90.2% (37/41). ELISA IgG sensitivity was 76.9% (20/26), and specificity was 95.1% (39/41). The kappa coefficients between RNA detection and ELISA IgG, ELISA IgM, and GICA IgM results were 0.741 (P < 0.01), 0.681 (P < 0.01) and 0.430 (P < 0.01), respectively. CONCLUSION: Among the candidate blood indicators, serum IgG and IgM detected by ELISA had the best consistency and validity when compared with standard RNA detection; these indicators can be used as potential preliminary screening tools to identify those who should undergo nucleic acid detection in laboratories without RNA detection abilities or as a supplement to RNA detection.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus/genetics , Betacoronavirus/immunology , Clinical Laboratory Techniques , Coronavirus Infections/diagnosis , Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay/methods , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnosis , RNA, Viral/genetics , Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction/methods , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Antibodies, Viral/blood , COVID-19 , COVID-19 Testing , Cohort Studies , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Female , Humans , Immunoglobulin G/blood , Immunoglobulin M/blood , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/virology , SARS-CoV-2 , Sensitivity and Specificity
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