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1.
Viruses ; 12(5)2020 05 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1389513

ABSTRACT

SARS-CoV-2 enters cells using its Spike protein, which is also the main target of neutralizing antibodies. Therefore, assays to measure how antibodies and sera affect Spike-mediated viral infection are important for studying immunity. Because SARS-CoV-2 is a biosafety-level-3 virus, one way to simplify such assays is to pseudotype biosafety-level-2 viral particles with Spike. Such pseudotyping has now been described for single-cycle lentiviral, retroviral, and vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV) particles, but the reagents and protocols are not widely available. Here, we detailed how to effectively pseudotype lentiviral particles with SARS-CoV-2 Spike and infect 293T cells engineered to express the SARS-CoV-2 receptor, ACE2. We also made all the key experimental reagents available in the BEI Resources repository of ATCC and the NIH. Furthermore, we demonstrated how these pseudotyped lentiviral particles could be used to measure the neutralizing activity of human sera or plasma against SARS-CoV-2 in convenient luciferase-based assays, thereby providing a valuable complement to ELISA-based methods that measure antibody binding rather than neutralization.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Viral/immunology , Neutralization Tests/methods , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/analysis , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2 , Antibodies, Neutralizing/immunology , Antibodies, Viral/blood , Containment of Biohazards , HEK293 Cells , Humans , Lentivirus , Peptidyl-Dipeptidase A/metabolism , Plasma/immunology
2.
Pharmacol Res ; 158: 104850, 2020 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1318927

ABSTRACT

Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) has spread worldwide through person-to-person contact, causing a public health emergency of international concern. At present, there is no specific antiviral treatment recommended for SARS-CoV-2 infection. Liu Shen capsule (LS), a traditional Chinese medicine, has been proven to have a wide spectrum of pharmacological properties, such as anti-inflammatory, antiviral and immunomodulatory activities. However, little is known about the antiviral effect of LS against SARS-CoV-2. Herein, the study was designed to investigate the antiviral activity of SARS-CoV-2 and its potential effect in regulating the host's immune response. The inhibitory effect of LS against SARS-CoV-2 replication in Vero E6 cells was evaluated by using the cytopathic effect (CPE) and plaque reduction assay. The number of virions of SARS-CoV-2 was observed under transmission electron microscope after treatment with LS. Proinflammatory cytokine expression levels upon SARS-CoV-2 infection in Huh-7 cells were measured by real-time quantitative PCR assays. The results showed that LS could significantly inhibit SARS-CoV-2 replication in Vero E6 cells, and reduce the number of virus particles and it could markedly reduce pro-inflammatory cytokines (TNF-α, IL-6, IL-1ß, IL-8, CCL-2/MCP-1 and CXCL-10/IP-10) production at the mRNA levels. Moreover, the expression of the key proteins in the NF-κB/MAPK signaling pathway was detected by western blot and it was found that LS could inhibit the expression of p-NF-κB p65, p-IκBα and p-p38 MAPK, while increasing the expression of IκBα. These findings indicate that LS could inhibit SARS-CoV-2 virus infection via downregulating the expression of inflammatory cytokines induced virus and regulating the activity of NF-κB/MAPK signaling pathway in vitro, making its promising candidate treatment for controlling COVID-19 disease.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus/drug effects , Complex Mixtures/pharmacology , NF-kappa B/antagonists & inhibitors , NF-kappa B/metabolism , Signal Transduction/drug effects , Adenosine Monophosphate/analogs & derivatives , Adenosine Monophosphate/pharmacology , Alanine/analogs & derivatives , Alanine/pharmacology , Animals , Anti-Inflammatory Agents/pharmacology , Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , COVID-19 , Cell Proliferation/drug effects , Cells, Cultured , Chlorocebus aethiops , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Humans , Inflammation Mediators/metabolism , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/virology , SARS-CoV-2 , Virion/drug effects
3.
mSphere ; 6(3)2021 05 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1230164

ABSTRACT

Human coronavirus (HCoV)-OC43 rarely shows a cytopathic effect (CPE) after infection of various cell lines, and the indirect immunoperoxidase assay (IPA), a relatively complex procedure, has long been used as an alternative assay. Because HCoV-OC43 uses cell-surface transmembrane protease serine 2 (TMPRSS2) for cell entry, VeroE6 cells expressing TMPRSS2 may show a clear CPE after HCoV-OC43 infection. The aim of this study was to construct a 50% tissue culture infectious dose (TCID50) assay for HCoV-OC43 based on CPE evaluation using VeroE6/TMPRSS2 cells. VeroE6/TMPRSS2 cells showed clear CPEs 3 to 4 days after low-titer HCoV-OC43 infection. Evaluation of viral kinetics indicated that the viral titer in the culture supernatant of VeroE6/TMPRSS2 cells in the early stages of infection was higher than that of other cells. In comparison, between the CPE-based and the IPA-based (i.e., the reference titer) methods, the titer measured with CPE evaluation 4 to 5 days after infection using VeroE6/TMPRSS2 cells showed a much smaller difference from the reference titer than that measured using other cells. Thus, the TCID50 assay using CPE evaluation with VeroE6/TMPRSS2 cells provides the correct titer value and will greatly contribute to future research on HCoV-OC43.IMPORTANCE HCoV-OC43 rarely shows a cytopathic effect (CPE) in infected cell lines, and thus the plaque and TCID50 assays by CPE observation are not applicable for titration; the indirect immunoperoxidase assay (IPA) is used instead. However, the IPA is relatively complex, time-consuming, costly, and not suitable for simultaneous titration of many samples. We developed a TCID50 assay using CPE evaluation with TMPRSS2-expressing VeroE6/TMPRSS2 cells that provides the same accuracy as the conventional IPA-based viral titration and does not require any staining procedures using antibodies or substrates. This titration method will greatly contribute to future research on HCoV-OC43 by allowing simple, low-cost, and accurate titration of this virus.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus OC43, Human/physiology , Cytopathogenic Effect, Viral , Receptors, Virus/metabolism , Serine Endopeptidases/metabolism , Viral Load/methods , Animals , Cell Line, Tumor , Chlorocebus aethiops , Coronavirus OC43, Human/isolation & purification , Humans , Immunoenzyme Techniques , Receptors, Virus/genetics , Recombinant Proteins/genetics , Recombinant Proteins/metabolism , Serine Endopeptidases/genetics , Vero Cells/virology , Virus Cultivation , Virus Internalization , Virus Replication
4.
Oncol Lett ; 21(6): 458, 2021 Jun.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1225869

ABSTRACT

Cryoablation is an emerging type of treatment for cancer. The sensitization of tumors using cryosensitizing agents prior to treatment enhances ablation efficiency and may improve clinical outcomes. Water efflux, which is regulated by aquaporin channels, contributes to cancer cell damage achieved through cryoablation. An increase in aquaporin (AQP) 3 is cryoprotective, whereas its inhibition augments cryodamage. The present study aimed to investigate aquaporin (AQP1, AQP3 and AQP5) gene expression and cellular localization in response to cryoinjury. Cultured breast cancer cells (MDA-MB-231 and MCF-7) were exposed to freezing to induce cryoinjury. RNA and protein extracts were then analyzed using reverse transcription-quantitative PCR and western blotting, respectively. Localization of aquaporins was studied using immunocytochemistry. Additionally, cells were transfected with small interfering RNA to silence aquaporin gene expression and cell viability was assessed using the Sulforhodamine B assay. Cryoinjury did not influence gene expression of AQPs, except for a 4-fold increase of AQP1 expression in MDA-MD-231 cells. There were no clear differences in AQP protein expression for either cell lines upon exposure to frozen and non-frozen temperatures, with the exception of fainter AQP5 bands for non-frozen MCF-7 cells. The exposure of cancer cells to freezing temperatures altered the localization of AQP1 and AQP3 proteins in both MCF-7 and MDA-MD-231 cells. The silencing of AQP1, AQP3 and AQP5 exacerbated MDA-MD-231 cell damage associated with freezing compared with control siRNA. This was also observed with AQP3 and AQP5 silencing in MCF-7 cells. Inhibition of aquaporins may potentially enhance cryoinjury. This cryosensitizing process may be used as an adjunct to breast cancer cryotherapy, especially in the border area targeted by cryoablation where freezing temperatures are not cold enough to induce cellular damage.

5.
Viruses ; 13(5)2021 05 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1224250

ABSTRACT

In late 2019, the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) pandemic emerged to severely impact the global population, creating an unprecedented need for effective treatments. This study aims to investigate the potential of Scutellaria barbata D. Don (SB) as a treatment for SARS-CoV-2 infection through the inhibition of the proteases playing important functions in the infection by SARS-CoV-2. FRET assay was applied to investigate the inhibitory effects of SB on the two proteases involved in SARS-CoV-2 infection, Mpro and TMPRSS2. Additionally, to measure the potential effectiveness of SB treatment on infection inhibition, cellular models based on the Calu3 and VeroE6 cells and their TMPRSS2- expressing derivatives were assessed by viral pseudoparticles (Vpp) infection assays. The experimental approaches were conjugated with LC/MS analyses of the aqueous extracts of SB to identify the major constituent compounds, followed by a literature review to determine the potential active components of the inhibitory effects on protease activities. Our results showed that SB extracts inhibited the enzyme activities of Mpro and TMPRSS2. Furthermore, SB extracts effectively inhibited SARS-CoV-2 Vpp infection through a TMPRSS2-dependent mechanism. The aqueous extract analysis identified six major constituent compounds present in SB. Some of them have been known associated with inhibitory activities of TMPRSS2 or Mpro. Thus, SB may effectively prevent SARS-CoV-2 infection and replication through inhibiting Mpro and TMPRSS2 protease activities.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/drug therapy , Coronavirus 3C Proteases/metabolism , Plant Extracts/pharmacology , Serine Endopeptidases/metabolism , Animals , COVID-19/metabolism , Cell Line , Chlorocebus aethiops , Coronavirus 3C Proteases/drug effects , Humans , Lung/virology , Pandemics , Peptide Hydrolases , Peptidyl-Dipeptidase A/metabolism , Plant Extracts/metabolism , Proteolysis , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Scutellaria , Serine Endopeptidases/drug effects , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/metabolism , Virus Internalization/drug effects
6.
Res Sq ; 2021 Apr 14.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1200425

ABSTRACT

The current, rapidly diversifying pandemic has accelerated the need for efficient and effective identification of potential drug candidates for COVID-19. Knowledge on host-immune response to SARS-CoV-2 infection, however, remains limited with very few drugs approved to date. Viable strategies and tools are rapidly arising to address this, especially with repurposing of existing drugs offering significant promise. Here we introduce a systems biology tool, the PHENotype SIMulator, which - by leveraging available transcriptomic and proteomic databases - allows modeling of SARS-CoV-2 infection in host cells in silico to i) determine with high sensitivity and specificity (both > 96%) the viral effects on cellular host-immune response, resulting in a specific cellular SARS-CoV-2 signature and ii) utilize this specific signature to narrow down promising repurposable therapeutic strategies. Powered by this tool, coupled with domain expertise, we have identified several potential COVID-19 drugs including methylprednisolone and metformin, and further discern key cellular SARS-CoV-2-affected pathways as potential new druggable targets in COVID-19 pathogenesis.

7.
J Med Virol ; 93(5): 3113-3121, 2021 May.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1196540

ABSTRACT

The clinical symptoms of community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) and coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19)-associated pneumonia are similar. Effective predictive markers are needed to differentiate COVID-19 pneumonia from CAP in the current pandemic conditions. Copeptin, a 39-aminoacid glycopeptide, is a C-terminal part of the precursor pre-provasopressin (pre-proAVP). The activation of the AVP system stimulates copeptin secretion in equimolar amounts with AVP. This study aims to determine serum copeptin levels in patients with CAP and COVID-19 pneumonia and to analyze the power of copeptin in predicting COVID-19 pneumonia. The study consists of 98 patients with COVID-19 and 44 patients with CAP. The basic demographic and clinical data of all patients were recorded, and blood samples were collected. The receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve was generated and the area under the ROC curve (AUC) was measured to evaluate the discriminative ability. Serum copeptin levels were significantly higher in COVID-19 patients compared to CAP patients (10.2 ± 4.4 ng/ml and 7.1 ± 3.1 ng/ml; p < .001). Serum copeptin levels were positively correlated with leukocyte, neutrophil, and platelet count (r = -.21, p = .012; r = -.21, p = .013; r = -.20, p = .018; respectively). The multivariable logistic regression analysis revealed that increased copeptin (odds ratio [OR] = 1.183, 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.033-1.354; p = .015) and CK-MB (OR = 1.052, 95% CI, 1.013-1.092; p = .008) levels and decreased leukocyte count (OR = 0.829, 95% CI, 0.730-0.940; p = .004) were independent predictors of COVID-19 pneumonia. A cut-off value of 6.83 ng/ml for copeptin predicted COVID-19 with a sensitivity of 78% and a specificity of 73% (AUC: 0.764% 95 Cl: 0.671-0.856, p < .001). Copeptin could be a promising and useful biomarker to be used to distinguish COVID-19 patients from CAP patients.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/diagnosis , Glycopeptides/blood , Pneumonia, Bacterial/diagnosis , SARS-CoV-2 , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Biomarkers/blood , Community-Acquired Infections , Female , Glycopeptides/metabolism , Humans , Logistic Models , Male , Middle Aged
8.
BMJ Open Respir Res ; 8(1)2021 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1102195

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: An outbreak of novel coronavirus (SARS-CoV-2)-associated respiratory infectious diseases (COVID-19) emerged in 2019 and has spread rapidly in humans around the world. The demonstration of in vitro infectiousness of respiratory specimens is an informative surrogate for SARS-CoV-2 transmission from patients with COVID-19; accordingly, viral isolation assays in cell culture are an important aspect of laboratory diagnostics for COVID-19. METHODS: We developed a simple and rapid protocol for isolating SARS-CoV-2 from respiratory specimens using VeroE6/TMPRSS2 cells, a cell line that is highly susceptible to the virus. We also investigated a correlation between isolation of SARS-CoV-2 and viral load detected by real-time RT-PCR (rRT-PCR) using N2 primer/probe set that has been developed for testing of COVID-19 in Japan. RESULTS: The SARS-CoV-2 isolation protocol did not require blind passage of inoculated cells and yielded the results of viral isolation within 7 days after inoculation. Specimens with cycle threshold (Ct) values of <20.2, determined by rRT-PCR, were predicted to be isolation-positive. On the other hand, 6.9% of specimens with Ct values >35 were virus isolation-positive, indicating that low viral loads (high Ct values) in upper respiratory specimens do not always indicate no risk of containing transmissible virus. CONCLUSION: In combination with rRT-PCR, the SARS-CoV-2 isolation protocol provides a means for assessing the potential risk of transmissible virus in upper respiratory specimens.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/transmission , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Animals , COVID-19 Nucleic Acid Testing , Cell Line , Chlorocebus aethiops , Cytopathogenic Effect, Viral , Humans , Nasal Cavity/virology , Nasopharynx/virology , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Saliva/virology , Serine Endopeptidases/genetics , Specimen Handling , Vero Cells
9.
Cochrane Database Syst Rev ; 11: CD013787, 2020 11 19.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1047119

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Specific diagnostic tests to detect severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) and resulting COVID-19 disease are not always available and take time to obtain results. Routine laboratory markers such as white blood cell count, measures of anticoagulation, C-reactive protein (CRP) and procalcitonin, are used to assess the clinical status of a patient. These laboratory tests may be useful for the triage of people with potential COVID-19 to prioritize them for different levels of treatment, especially in situations where time and resources are limited. OBJECTIVES: To assess the diagnostic accuracy of routine laboratory testing as a triage test to determine if a person has COVID-19. SEARCH METHODS: On 4 May 2020 we undertook electronic searches in the Cochrane COVID-19 Study Register and the COVID-19 Living Evidence Database from the University of Bern, which is updated daily with published articles from PubMed and Embase and with preprints from medRxiv and bioRxiv. In addition, we checked repositories of COVID-19 publications. We did not apply any language restrictions. SELECTION CRITERIA: We included both case-control designs and consecutive series of patients that assessed the diagnostic accuracy of routine laboratory testing as a triage test to determine if a person has COVID-19. The reference standard could be reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) alone; RT-PCR plus clinical expertise or and imaging; repeated RT-PCR several days apart or from different samples; WHO and other case definitions; and any other reference standard used by the study authors. DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS: Two review authors independently extracted data from each included study. They also assessed the methodological quality of the studies, using QUADAS-2. We used the 'NLMIXED' procedure in SAS 9.4 for the hierarchical summary receiver operating characteristic (HSROC) meta-analyses of tests for which we included four or more studies. To facilitate interpretation of results, for each meta-analysis we estimated summary sensitivity at the points on the SROC curve that corresponded to the median and interquartile range boundaries of specificities in the included studies. MAIN RESULTS: We included 21 studies in this review, including 14,126 COVID-19 patients and 56,585 non-COVID-19 patients in total. Studies evaluated a total of 67 different laboratory tests. Although we were interested in the diagnotic accuracy of routine tests for COVID-19, the included studies used detection of SARS-CoV-2 infection through RT-PCR as reference standard. There was considerable heterogeneity between tests, threshold values and the settings in which they were applied. For some tests a positive result was defined as a decrease compared to normal vaues, for other tests a positive result was defined as an increase, and for some tests both increase and decrease may have indicated test positivity. None of the studies had either low risk of bias on all domains or low concerns for applicability for all domains. Only three of the tests evaluated had a summary sensitivity and specificity over 50%. These were: increase in interleukin-6, increase in C-reactive protein and lymphocyte count decrease. Blood count Eleven studies evaluated a decrease in white blood cell count, with a median specificity of 93% and a summary sensitivity of 25% (95% CI 8.0% to 27%; very low-certainty evidence). The 15 studies that evaluated an increase in white blood cell count had a lower median specificity and a lower corresponding sensitivity. Four studies evaluated a decrease in neutrophil count. Their median specificity was 93%, corresponding to a summary sensitivity of 10% (95% CI 1.0% to 56%; low-certainty evidence). The 11 studies that evaluated an increase in neutrophil count had a lower median specificity and a lower corresponding sensitivity. The summary sensitivity of an increase in neutrophil percentage (4 studies) was 59% (95% CI 1.0% to 100%) at median specificity (38%; very low-certainty evidence). The summary sensitivity of an increase in monocyte count (4 studies) was 13% (95% CI 6.0% to 26%) at median specificity (73%; very low-certainty evidence). The summary sensitivity of a decrease in lymphocyte count (13 studies) was 64% (95% CI 28% to 89%) at median specificity (53%; low-certainty evidence). Four studies that evaluated a decrease in lymphocyte percentage showed a lower median specificity and lower corresponding sensitivity. The summary sensitivity of a decrease in platelets (4 studies) was 19% (95% CI 10% to 32%) at median specificity (88%; low-certainty evidence). Liver function tests The summary sensitivity of an increase in alanine aminotransferase (9 studies) was 12% (95% CI 3% to 34%) at median specificity (92%; low-certainty evidence). The summary sensitivity of an increase in aspartate aminotransferase (7 studies) was 29% (95% CI 17% to 45%) at median specificity (81%) (low-certainty evidence). The summary sensitivity of a decrease in albumin (4 studies) was 21% (95% CI 3% to 67%) at median specificity (66%; low-certainty evidence). The summary sensitivity of an increase in total bilirubin (4 studies) was 12% (95% CI 3.0% to 34%) at median specificity (92%; very low-certainty evidence). Markers of inflammation The summary sensitivity of an increase in CRP (14 studies) was 66% (95% CI 55% to 75%) at median specificity (44%; very low-certainty evidence). The summary sensitivity of an increase in procalcitonin (6 studies) was 3% (95% CI 1% to 19%) at median specificity (86%; very low-certainty evidence). The summary sensitivity of an increase in IL-6 (four studies) was 73% (95% CI 36% to 93%) at median specificity (58%) (very low-certainty evidence). Other biomarkers The summary sensitivity of an increase in creatine kinase (5 studies) was 11% (95% CI 6% to 19%) at median specificity (94%) (low-certainty evidence). The summary sensitivity of an increase in serum creatinine (four studies) was 7% (95% CI 1% to 37%) at median specificity (91%; low-certainty evidence). The summary sensitivity of an increase in lactate dehydrogenase (4 studies) was 25% (95% CI 15% to 38%) at median specificity (72%; very low-certainty evidence). AUTHORS' CONCLUSIONS: Although these tests give an indication about the general health status of patients and some tests may be specific indicators for inflammatory processes, none of the tests we investigated are useful for accurately ruling in or ruling out COVID-19 on their own. Studies were done in specific hospitalized populations, and future studies should consider non-hospital settings to evaluate how these tests would perform in people with milder symptoms.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Testing/methods , COVID-19/diagnosis , Diagnostic Tests, Routine/methods , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Bias , Biomarkers/blood , C-Reactive Protein/analysis , COVID-19/blood , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19 Testing/standards , Creatine Kinase/blood , Creatinine/blood , Diagnostic Tests, Routine/standards , Humans , Interleukin-6/blood , L-Lactate Dehydrogenase/blood , Leukocyte Count , Liver Function Tests , Lymphocyte Count , Pandemics , Platelet Count , ROC Curve , Reference Values , Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction/standards , Sensitivity and Specificity , Triage
10.
Int J Antimicrob Agents ; 57(3): 106274, 2021 Mar.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1002612

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Urgent action is needed to fight the ongoing coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic by reducing the number of infected cases, contagiousness and severity. Chlorpromazine (CPZ), an antipsychotic from the phenothiazine group, is known to inhibit clathrin-mediated endocytosis and has antiviral activity against severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-1 (SARS-CoV-1) and Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus. The aim of this in-vitro study was to test CPZ against SARS-CoV-2 in monkey and human cells. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Monkey VeroE6 cells and human alveolar basal epithelial A549-ACE2 cells were infected with SARS-CoV-2 in the presence of various concentrations of CPZ. Supernatants were harvested at day 2 and analysed by quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR) for the presence of SARS-CoV-2 RNA. Cell viability was assessed in non-infected cells. RESULTS: CPZ was found to have antiviral activity against SARS-CoV-2 in monkey VeroE6 cells, with a half maximal inhibitory concentration (IC50) of 8.2 µM, half maximal cytotoxic concentration (CC50) of 13.5 µM, and selectivity index (SI) of 1.65. In human A549-ACE2 cells, CPZ was also found to have anti-SARS-CoV-2 activity, with IC50 of 11.3 µM, CC50 of 23.1 µM and SI of 2.04. DISCUSSION: Although the measured SI values are low, the IC50 values measured in vitro may translate to CPZ dosages used in routine clinical practice because of the high biodistribution of CPZ in lungs and saliva. Also, the distribution of CPZ in brain could be of interest for treating or preventing neurological and psychiatric forms of COVID-19. CONCLUSIONS: These preclinical findings support clinical investigation of the repurposing of CPZ, a drug with mild side effects, in the treatment of patients with COVID-19.


Subject(s)
Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , Chlorpromazine/pharmacology , Drug Repositioning , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects , Virus Replication/drug effects , A549 Cells , Animals , COVID-19/drug therapy , Cell Line , Chlorocebus aethiops , Chlorpromazine/pharmacokinetics , Humans , Tissue Distribution , Vero Cells
11.
Eur J Clin Microbiol Infect Dis ; 40(3): 477-484, 2021 Mar.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1002105

ABSTRACT

The emergence of COVID-19 disease due to SARS-CoV-2 at the end of 2019 was rapidly associated with the isolation of the strain from co-culture onto VERO cells. These isolations quickly made it possible to carry out the first tests for antiviral agents' susceptibility and drug repurposing. However, it seems important to make an inventory of all the cells that can support the growth of this virus and evaluate possible differences between isolates. In the present work, we tested 4 strains of SARS-CoV-2 locally isolated on a panel of 34 cell lines present in our laboratory and commonly used for the isolation of human pathogenic microorganism. After inoculation, cells were observed for cytopathic effects and quantitative real-time polymerase reaction was used to measure the virus replication on the cells. We were able to obtain growth on 7 cell lines, 6 simian, and the human Caco-2. The cytopathogenic effects are variable, ranging from lysis of the cell monolayer in 48-72 h to no cytopathic effect in spite of intense multiplication, as in Caco-2 cells. Interestingly, effect and multiplication varied widely according to the strain tested. In this paper, we explored the species specificity and tissue tropism of SARS-CoV-2 in vitro on a panel of cells available in our laboratory and identified human and animal cell lines susceptible to support SARS-CoV-2 replication. Our work highlights the importance of testing multiple strains when testing antiviral molecules and performing patho-physiological analyzes.


Subject(s)
SARS-CoV-2/growth & development , Animals , COVID-19/virology , Cell Line , Cytopathogenic Effect, Viral , Host Specificity , Humans , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Virus Replication
12.
Med Sci Monit ; 26: e927240, 2020 Dec 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-985826

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND Infants and young children with acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) have acute progressive hypoxic respiratory failure caused by a variety of extrapulmonary pathogenic factors and cardiogenic factors. Diffuse alveolar injury and pulmonary fibrosis both are pathological features of ARDS. This study investigated the effect of Rehmannia Radix extract (RRE) on pulmonary fibrosis of infants with ARDS. MATERIAL AND METHODS The human lung fibroblasts cell line HFL1 was treated with various concentrations of Rehmannia Radix extract in different groups for different times. Flow cytometry and TUNEL assay were performed to detect cell apoptosis, and CCK8 assay was utilized to analyze cell proliferation. TGF-ß1 expression was detected by real-time quantitative PCR, and protein-level expressions of Caspase3, TGF-ß1, Bcl-2, and Smad3 were measured by western blot and immunohistochemical staining in cells or tissues. TGF-ß1 was overexpressed by recombinant human TGF-ß1 (2 ng/mL) and the treated cells and culture supernatant were harvested for analysis in each step. Bleomycin was used to induce a mouse model of pulmonary fibrosis and was confirmed by HE pathological sections. RESULTS Flow cytometry and TUNEL results showed that RRE promoted the apoptosis of HFL1 cells in a concentration-dependent manner, and it inhibited the proliferation of HFL1 cells. Upregulation of TGF-ß1 reversed the effects of RRE in HFL1 cells. RRE alleviated pulmonary fibrosis in mice through downregulating Bcl-2, TGF-ß1, and Smad3 expression. CONCLUSIONS RRE promoted apoptosis and inhibited proliferation of HFL1, and then arrested the progression of pulmonary fibrosis. RRE had a significant inhibitory effect on TGF-ß1 and Smad3. These results suggest that RRE directly prevents the development of pulmonary fibrosis by affecting the expression of TGF-ß1 and Smad3.


Subject(s)
Plant Extracts/therapeutic use , Pulmonary Fibrosis/chemically induced , Pulmonary Fibrosis/drug therapy , Rehmannia/chemistry , Transforming Growth Factor beta1/metabolism , Animals , Apoptosis/drug effects , Bleomycin , Cell Line , Cell Proliferation/drug effects , Disease Progression , Humans , Mice , Plant Extracts/pharmacology , Pulmonary Fibrosis/metabolism , Pulmonary Fibrosis/pathology
13.
Pharmacol Res ; 156: 104761, 2020 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-830796

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: Lianhuaqingwen (LH) as traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) formula has been used to treat influenza and exerted broad-spectrum antiviral effects on a series of influenza viruses and immune regulatory effects Ding et al. (2017). The goal of this study is to demonstrate the antiviral activity of LH against the novel SARS-CoV-2 virus and its potential effect in regulating host immune response. METHODS: The antiviral activity of LH against SARS-CoV-2 was assessed in Vero E6 cells using CPE and plaque reduction assay. The effect of LH on virion morphology was visualized under transmission electron microscope. Pro-inflammatory cytokine expression levels upon SARS-CoV-2 infection in Huh-7 cells were measured by real-time quantitative PCR assays. RESULTS: LH significantly inhibited SARS-CoV-2 replication in Vero E6 cells and markedly reduced pro-inflammatory cytokines (TNF-α, IL-6, CCL-2/MCP-1 and CXCL-10/IP-10) production at the mRNA levels. Furthermore, LH treatment resulted in abnormal particle morphology of virion in cells. CONCLUSIONS: LH significantly inhibits the SARS-COV-2 replication, affects virus morphology and exerts anti-inflammatory activity in vitro. These findings indicate that LH protects against the virus attack, making its use a novel strategy for controlling the COVID-19 disease.


Subject(s)
Anti-Inflammatory Agents/pharmacology , Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , Betacoronavirus/drug effects , Drugs, Chinese Herbal/pharmacology , Animals , Betacoronavirus/ultrastructure , Cell Line , Chlorocebus aethiops , Microscopy, Electrochemical, Scanning , SARS-CoV-2
14.
Phytomedicine ; 78: 153296, 2020 Nov.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-747894

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) has extensively and rapidly spread in the world, causing an outbreak of acute infectious pneumonia. However, no specific antiviral drugs or vaccines can be used. Phillyrin (KD-1), a representative ingredient of Forsythia suspensa, possesses anti-inflammatory, anti-oxidant, and antiviral activities. However, little is known about the antiviral abilities and mechanism of KD-1 against SARS-CoV-2 and human coronavirus 229E (HCoV-229E). PURPOSE: The study was designed to investigate the antiviral and anti-inflammatory activities of KD-1 against the novel SARS-CoV-2 and HCoV-229E and its potential effect in regulating host immune response in vitro. METHODS: The antiviral activities of KD-1 against SARS-CoV-2 and HCoV-229E were assessed in Vero E6 cells using cytopathic effect and plaque-reduction assay. Proinflammatory cytokine expression levels upon infection with SARS-CoV-2 and HCoV-229E infection in Huh-7 cells were measured by real-time quantitative PCR assays. Western blot assay was used to determine the protein expression of nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB) p65, p-NF-κB p65, IκBα, and p-IκBα in Huh-7 cells, which are the key targets of the NF-κB pathway. RESULTS: KD-1 could significantly inhibit SARS-CoV-2 and HCoV-229E replication in vitro. KD-1 could also markedly reduce the production of proinflammatory cytokines (TNF-α, IL-6, IL-1ß, MCP-1, and IP-10) at the mRNA levels. Moreover, KD-1 could significantly reduce the protein expression of p-NF-κB p65, NF-κB p65, and p-IκBα, while increasing the expression of IκBα in Huh-7 cells. CONCLUSIONS: KD-1 could significantly inhibit virus proliferation in vitro, the up-regulated expression of proinflammatory cytokines induced by SARS-CoV-2 and HCoV-229E by regulating the activity of the NF-кB signaling pathway. Our findings indicated that KD-1 protected against virus attack and can thus be used as a novel strategy for controlling the coronavirus disease 2019.


Subject(s)
Anti-Inflammatory Agents/pharmacology , Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , Betacoronavirus/drug effects , Coronavirus 229E, Human/drug effects , Coronavirus Infections , Glucosides/pharmacology , NF-kappa B/metabolism , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral , Animals , COVID-19 , Chlorocebus aethiops , Coronavirus/drug effects , Coronavirus Infections/metabolism , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Cytokines/metabolism , Forsythia/chemistry , Humans , Phytotherapy , Plant Extracts/pharmacology , Pneumonia, Viral/metabolism , Pneumonia, Viral/virology , SARS-CoV-2 , Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome/virology , Signal Transduction/drug effects , Vero Cells , Virus Replication/drug effects
15.
Mol Cell ; 80(1): 164-174.e4, 2020 10 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-709380

ABSTRACT

SARS-CoV-2 infections are rapidly spreading around the globe. The rapid development of therapies is of major importance. However, our lack of understanding of the molecular processes and host cell signaling events underlying SARS-CoV-2 infection hinders therapy development. We use a SARS-CoV-2 infection system in permissible human cells to study signaling changes by phosphoproteomics. We identify viral protein phosphorylation and define phosphorylation-driven host cell signaling changes upon infection. Growth factor receptor (GFR) signaling and downstream pathways are activated. Drug-protein network analyses revealed GFR signaling as key pathways targetable by approved drugs. The inhibition of GFR downstream signaling by five compounds prevents SARS-CoV-2 replication in cells, assessed by cytopathic effect, viral dsRNA production, and viral RNA release into the supernatant. This study describes host cell signaling events upon SARS-CoV-2 infection and reveals GFR signaling as a central pathway essential for SARS-CoV-2 replication. It provides novel strategies for COVID-19 treatment.


Subject(s)
Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , Betacoronavirus/drug effects , Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinases/genetics , Phosphatidylinositol 3-Kinase/genetics , Receptors, Growth Factor/genetics , Viral Proteins/genetics , Adrenal Cortex Hormones/therapeutic use , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme Inhibitors/therapeutic use , Antibodies, Neutralizing/therapeutic use , Betacoronavirus/immunology , Betacoronavirus/pathogenicity , Caco-2 Cells , Gene Expression Regulation , Host-Pathogen Interactions/drug effects , Host-Pathogen Interactions/genetics , Humans , Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinases/antagonists & inhibitors , Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinases/metabolism , Phosphatidylinositol 3-Kinase/metabolism , Phosphoproteins/antagonists & inhibitors , Phosphoproteins/genetics , Phosphoproteins/metabolism , Phosphorylation , Receptors, Growth Factor/antagonists & inhibitors , Receptors, Growth Factor/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2 , Signal Transduction , Viral Proteins/antagonists & inhibitors , Viral Proteins/metabolism , Virus Replication/drug effects
16.
J Virol ; 94(15)2020 07 16.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-661225

ABSTRACT

The emergence of a novel coronavirus, severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), resulted in a pandemic. Here, we used X-ray structures of human ACE2 bound to the receptor-binding domain (RBD) of the spike protein (S) from SARS-CoV-2 to predict its binding to ACE2 proteins from different animals, including pets, farm animals, and putative intermediate hosts of SARS-CoV-2. Comparing the interaction sites of ACE2 proteins known to serve or not serve as receptors allows the definition of residues important for binding. From the 20 amino acids in ACE2 that contact S, up to 7 can be replaced and ACE2 can still function as the SARS-CoV-2 receptor. These variable amino acids are clustered at certain positions, mostly at the periphery of the binding site, while changes of the invariable residues prevent S binding or infection of the respective animal. Some ACE2 proteins even tolerate the loss or acquisition of N-glycosylation sites located near the S interface. Of note, pigs and dogs, which are not infected or are not effectively infected and have only a few changes in the binding site, exhibit relatively low levels of ACE2 in the respiratory tract. Comparison of the RBD of S of SARS-CoV-2 with that from bat coronavirus strain RaTG13 (Bat-CoV-RaTG13) and pangolin coronavirus (Pangolin-CoV) strain hCoV-19/pangolin/Guangdong/1/2019 revealed that the latter contains only one substitution, whereas Bat-CoV-RaTG13 exhibits five. However, ACE2 of pangolin exhibits seven changes relative to human ACE2, and a similar number of substitutions is present in ACE2 of bats, raccoon dogs, and civets, suggesting that SARS-CoV-2 may not be especially adapted to ACE2 of any of its putative intermediate hosts. These analyses provide new insight into the receptor usage and animal source/origin of SARS-CoV-2.IMPORTANCE SARS-CoV-2 is threatening people worldwide, and there are no drugs or vaccines available to mitigate its spread. The origin of the virus is still unclear, and whether pets and livestock can be infected and transmit SARS-CoV-2 are important and unknown scientific questions. Effective binding to the host receptor ACE2 is the first prerequisite for infection of cells and determines the host range. Our analysis provides a framework for the prediction of potential hosts of SARS-CoV-2. We found that ACE2 from species known to support SARS-CoV-2 infection tolerate many amino acid changes, indicating that the species barrier might be low. Exceptions are dogs and especially pigs, which revealed relatively low ACE2 expression levels in the respiratory tract. Monitoring of animals is necessary to prevent the generation of a new coronavirus reservoir. Finally, our analysis also showed that SARS-CoV-2 may not be specifically adapted to any of its putative intermediate hosts.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus/physiology , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Peptidyl-Dipeptidase A/metabolism , Pneumonia, Viral/virology , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/metabolism , Virus Attachment , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2 , Animals , Animals, Domestic , Betacoronavirus/metabolism , COVID-19 , Chiroptera/virology , Coronavirus Infections/metabolism , Dogs , Glycosylation , Host-Pathogen Interactions , Humans , Models, Animal , Pandemics , Pets , Pneumonia, Viral/metabolism , Protein Binding , Protein Conformation , Protein Interaction Domains and Motifs , Raccoons/virology , SARS-CoV-2 , Sequence Alignment , Sequence Analysis, Protein , Swine , Viverridae/virology
17.
Biochim Biophys Acta Gen Subj ; 1864(10): 129672, 2020 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-601229

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Exposure to PM2.5 has been associated with increased morbidity and mortality of lung diseases although the underlying mechanisms have not been fully uncovered. Airway inflammation is a critical event in the pathogenesis of lung diseases. This study aimed to examine the role of oxidative stress and epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) in PM2.5-induced pro-inflammatory response in a human bronchial epithelial cell line, BEAS-2B. METHODS: BEAS-2B cells were exposed to 0, 20, 50, 100 and 150 µg/ml of PM2.5. Secretion of pro-inflammatory mediators including interleukin-6 (IL-6), IL-8 and IL-1ß was determined using enzyme linked immunosorbent assay. Levels of intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) were determined using flow cytometry. Phosphorylation of the EGFR was examined with immunoblotting. RESULTS: PM2.5 exposure increased the secretion of IL-6, IL-8, and IL-1ß in a concentration-dependent fashion. Moreover, exposure to PM2.5 elevated intracellular levels of ROS, and phosphorylation of the EGFR (Y1068). Pretreatment of BEAS-2B cells with either an antioxidant or a specific EGFR inhibitor significantly reduced PM2.5-induced IL-6, IL-8 and IL-1ß secretion, implying that both oxidative stress and EGFR activation were involved in PM2.5-induced pro-inflammatory response. Furthermore, pre-treatment of BEAS-2B cells with an antioxidant significantly blunted PM2.5-induced EGFR activation, suggesting that oxidative stress was required for PM2.5-induced EGFR activation. CONCLUSION: PM2.5 exposure induces pro-inflammatory response in human bronchial epithelial cells through oxidative stress-mediated EGFR activation.


Subject(s)
Air Pollutants/adverse effects , Epithelial Cells/metabolism , Inflammation Mediators/metabolism , Oxidative Stress , Particulate Matter/adverse effects , Bronchi/cytology , Bronchi/metabolism , Cell Line , Epithelial Cells/cytology , ErbB Receptors/metabolism , Humans , Inflammation/etiology , Inflammation/metabolism , Interleukin-1beta/metabolism , Interleukin-6/metabolism
18.
Trials ; 21(1): 498, 2020 Jun 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-591348

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: The primary objective is to determine the efficacy of a single dose of ivermectin, administered to low risk, non-severe COVID-19 patients in the first 48 hours after symptom onset to reduce the proportion of patients with detectable SARS-CoV-2 RNA by Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) test from nasopharyngeal swab at day 7 post-treatment. The secondary objectives are: 1.To assess the efficacy of ivermectin to reduce the SARS-CoV-2 viral load in the nasopharyngeal swab at day 7 post treatment.2.To assess the efficacy of ivermectin to improve symptom progression in treated patients.3.To assess the proportion of seroconversions in treated patients at day 21.4.To assess the safety of ivermectin at the proposed dose.5.To determine the magnitude of immune response against SARS-CoV-2.6.To assess the early kinetics of immunity against SARS-CoV-2. TRIAL DESIGN: SAINT is a single centre, double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled, superiority trial with two parallel arms. Participants will be randomized to receive a single dose of 400 µg/kg ivermectin or placebo, and the number of patients in the treatment and placebo groups will be the same (1:1 ratio). PARTICIPANTS: The population for the study will be patients with a positive nasopharyngeal swab PCR test for SARS-CoV-2, with non-severe COVID-19 disease, and no risk factors for progression to severity. Vulnerable populations such as pregnant women, minors (i.e.; under 18 years old), and seniors (i.e.; over 60 years old) will be excluded. Inclusion criteria 1. Patients diagnosed with COVID-19 in the emergency room of the Clínica Universidad de Navarra (CUN) with a positive SARS-CoV-2 PCR. 2. Residents of the Pamplona basin ("Cuenca de Pamplona"). 3. The patient must be between the ages of 18 and 60 years of age. 4. Negative pregnancy test for women of child bearing age*. 5. The patient or his/her representative, has given informed consent to participate in the study. 6. The patient should, in the PI's opinion, be able to comply with all the requirements of the clinical trial (including home follow up during isolation). Exclusion criteria 1. Known history of ivermectin allergy. 2. Hypersensitivity to any component of ivermectin. 3. COVID-19 pneumonia. Diagnosed by the attending physician.Identified in a chest X-ray. 4. Fever or cough present for more than 48 hours. 5. Positive IgG against SARS-CoV-2 by rapid diagnostic test. 6. Age under 18 or over 60 years. 7. The following co-morbidities (or any other disease that might interfere with the study in the eyes of the PI): Immunosuppression.Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease.Diabetes.Hypertension.Obesity.Acute or chronic renal failure.History of coronary disease.History of cerebrovascular disease.Current neoplasm. 8. Recent travel history to countries that are endemic for Loa loa (Angola, Cameroon, Central African Republic, Chad, Democratic Republic of Congo, Ethiopia, Equatorial, Guinea, Gabon, Republic of Congo, Nigeria and Sudan). 9. Current use of CYP 3A4 or P-gp inhibitor drugs such as quinidine, amiodarone, diltiazem, spironolactone, verapamil, clarithromycin, erythromycin, itraconazole, ketoconazole, cyclosporine, tacrolimus, indinavir, ritonavir or cobicistat. Use of critical CYP3A4 substrate drugs such as warfarin. *Women of child bearing age may participate if they use a safe contraceptive method for the entire period of the study and at least one month afterwards. A woman is considered to not have childbearing capacity if she is post-menopausal (minimum of 2 years without menstruation) or has undergone surgical sterilization (at least one month before the study). The trial is currently planned at a single center, Clínica Universidad de Navarra, in Navarra (Spain), and the immunology samples will be analyzed at the Barcelona Institute for Global Health (ISGlobal), in Barcelona (Spain). Participants will be recruited by the investigators at the emergency room and/or COVID-19 area of the CUN. They will remain in the trial for a period of 28 days at their homes since they will be patients with mild disease. In the interest of public health and to contain transmission of infection, follow-up visits will be conducted in the participant's home by a clinical trial team comprising nursing and medical members. Home visits will assess clinical and laboratory parameters of the patients. INTERVENTION AND COMPARATOR: Ivermectin will be administered to the treatment group at a 400µg/Kg dose (included in the EU approved label of Stromectol and Scabioral). The control group will receive placebo. There is no current data on the efficacy of ivermectin against the virus in vivo, therefore the use of placebo in the control group is ethically justified. MAIN OUTCOMES: Primary Proportion of patients with a positive SARS-CoV-2 PCR from a nasopharyngeal swab at day 7 post-treatment. Secondary 1.Mean viral load as determined by PCR cycle threshold (Ct) at baseline and on days 4, 7, 14, and 21.2.Proportion of patients with fever and cough at days 4, 7, 14, and 21 as well as proportion of patients progressing to severe disease or death during the trial.3.Proportion of patients with seroconversion at day 21.4.Proportion of drug-related adverse events during the trial.5.Median levels of IgG, IgM, IgA measured by Luminex, frequencies of innate and SARS-CoV-2-specific T cells assessed by flow cytometry, median levels of inflammatory and activation markers measured by Luminex and transcriptomics.6.Median kinetics of IgG, IgM, IgA levels during the trial, until day 28. RANDOMISATION: Eligible patients will be allocated in a 1:1 ratio using a randomization list generated by the trial statistician using blocks of four to ensure balance between the groups. A study identification code with the format "SAINT-##" (##: from 01 to 24) will be generated using a sequence of random numbers so that the randomization number does not match the subject identifier. The sequence and code used will be kept in an encrypted file accessible only to the trial statistician. A physical copy will be kept in a locked cabinet at the CUN, accessible only to the person administering the drug who will not enrol or attend to patient care. A separate set of 24 envelopes for emergency unblinding will be kept in the study file. BLINDING (MASKING): The clinical trial team and the patients will be blinded. The placebo will not be visibly identical, but it will be administered by staff not involved in the clinical care or participant follow up. NUMBERS TO BE RANDOMISED (SAMPLE SIZE): The sample size is 24 patients: 12 participants will be randomised to the treatment group and 12 participants to the control group. TRIAL STATUS: Current protocol version: 1.0 dated 16 of April 2020. Recruitment is envisioned to begin by May 14th and end by June 14th. TRIAL REGISTRATION: EudraCT number: 2020-001474-29, registered April 1st. Clinicaltrials.gov: submitted, pending number FULL PROTOCOL: The full protocol is attached as an additional file, accessible from the Trials website (Additional file 1). In the interest in expediting dissemination of this material, the familiar formatting has been eliminated; this Letter serves as a summary of the key elements of the full protocol.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus , Coronavirus Infections/drug therapy , Ivermectin/therapeutic use , Pneumonia, Viral/drug therapy , Randomized Controlled Trials as Topic , Adolescent , Adult , COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections/prevention & control , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Double-Blind Method , Evaluation Studies as Topic , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics/prevention & control , Pilot Projects , Pneumonia, Viral/prevention & control , Pneumonia, Viral/virology , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2 , Time Factors , Viral Load , Young Adult
19.
Molecules ; 25(10)2020 May 17.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-276849

ABSTRACT

Remdesivir is a nucleotide prodrug that is currently undergoing extensive clinical trials for the treatment of COVID-19. The prodrug is metabolized to its active triphosphate form and interferes with the action of RNA-dependent RNA polymerase of SARS-COV-2. Herein, we report the antiviral activity of remdesivir against human coronavirus 229E (HCoV-229E) compared to known anti-HIV agents. These agents included tenofovir (TFV), 4'-ethynyl-2-fluoro-2'-deoxyadenosine (EFdA), alovudine (FLT), lamivudine (3TC), and emtricitabine (FTC), known as nucleoside reverse-transcriptase inhibitors (NRTIs), and a number of 5'-O-fatty acylated anti-HIV nucleoside conjugates. The anti-HIV nucleosides interfere with HIV RNA-dependent DNA polymerase and/or act as chain terminators. Normal human fibroblast lung cells (MRC-5) were used to determine the cytotoxicity of the compounds. The study revealed that remdesivir exhibited an EC50 value of 0.07 µM against HCoV-229E with TC50 of > 2.00 µM against MRC-5 cells. Parent NRTIs were found to be inactive against (HCoV-229E) at tested concentrations. Among all the NRTIs and 5'-O-fatty acyl conjugates of NRTIs, 5'-O-tetradecanoyl ester conjugate of FTC showed modest activity with EC50 and TC50 values of 72.8 µM and 87.5 µM, respectively. These data can be used for the design of potential compounds against other coronaviruses.


Subject(s)
Adenosine Monophosphate/analogs & derivatives , Alanine/analogs & derivatives , Anti-HIV Agents/pharmacology , Coronavirus 229E, Human/drug effects , Reverse Transcriptase Inhibitors/pharmacology , Adenosine Monophosphate/pharmacology , Alanine/pharmacology , Anti-HIV Agents/chemistry , Betacoronavirus/drug effects , Betacoronavirus/enzymology , COVID-19 , Cell Line , Coronavirus 229E, Human/enzymology , Coronavirus Infections/drug therapy , Humans , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/drug therapy , RNA-Dependent RNA Polymerase/metabolism , Reverse Transcriptase Inhibitors/chemistry , SARS-CoV-2
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