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1.
Ann Indian Acad Neurol ; 23(3): 261-264, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1389615

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Recent respiratory infection including SARS-CoV-2 is an independent risk factor for acute cerebrovascular disease. PURPOSE: There have been reports linking haemorrhagic strokes to SARS-CoV-2 infection during this pandemic, which lead us to evaluate if SARS-CoV-2 infection could be associated with increased risk of intracerebral haemorrhage (ICH). METHODS: A retrospective observational study evaluating all stroke cases admitted in our centre in the past one month. RESULTS: More than half (56%) had ICH, compared to 22% last year. Two patients with ICH were SARS-CoV-2 positive and they had no or mild respiratory symptoms and had higher occurrence of renal dysfunction. CONCLUSION: There could be possible association between ICH and SARS-CoV-2 infections. However, a prospective study with larger sample size is needed to elucidate the pathogenesis.

2.
JAMA ; 325(24): 2448-2456, 2021 06 22.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1318650

ABSTRACT

Importance: Cerebral venous sinus thrombosis (CVST) with thrombocytopenia, a rare and serious condition, has been described in Europe following receipt of the ChAdOx1 nCoV-19 vaccine (Oxford/AstraZeneca), which uses a chimpanzee adenoviral vector. A mechanism similar to autoimmune heparin-induced thrombocytopenia (HIT) has been proposed. In the US, the Ad26.COV2.S COVID-19 vaccine (Janssen/Johnson & Johnson), which uses a human adenoviral vector, received Emergency Use Authorization (EUA) on February 27, 2021. By April 12, 2021, approximately 7 million Ad26.COV2.S vaccine doses had been given in the US, and 6 cases of CVST with thrombocytopenia had been identified among the recipients, resulting in a temporary national pause in vaccination with this product on April 13, 2021. Objective: To describe reports of CVST with thrombocytopenia following Ad26.COV2.S vaccine receipt. Design, Setting, and Participants: Case series of 12 US patients with CVST and thrombocytopenia following use of Ad26.COV2.S vaccine under EUA reported to the Vaccine Adverse Event Reporting System (VAERS) from March 2 to April 21, 2021 (with follow-up reported through April 21, 2021). Exposures: Receipt of Ad26.COV2.S vaccine. Main Outcomes and Measures: Clinical course, imaging, laboratory tests, and outcomes after CVST diagnosis obtained from VAERS reports, medical record review, and discussion with clinicians. Results: Patients' ages ranged from 18 to younger than 60 years; all were White women, reported from 11 states. Seven patients had at least 1 CVST risk factor, including obesity (n = 6), hypothyroidism (n = 1), and oral contraceptive use (n = 1); none had documented prior heparin exposure. Time from Ad26.COV2.S vaccination to symptom onset ranged from 6 to 15 days. Eleven patients initially presented with headache; 1 patient initially presented with back pain and later developed headache. Of the 12 patients with CVST, 7 also had intracerebral hemorrhage; 8 had non-CVST thromboses. After diagnosis of CVST, 6 patients initially received heparin treatment. Platelet nadir ranged from 9 ×103/µL to 127 ×103/µL. All 11 patients tested for the heparin-platelet factor 4 HIT antibody by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) screening had positive results. All patients were hospitalized (10 in an intensive care unit [ICU]). As of April 21, 2021, outcomes were death (n = 3), continued ICU care (n = 3), continued non-ICU hospitalization (n = 2), and discharged home (n = 4). Conclusions and Relevance: The initial 12 US cases of CVST with thrombocytopenia after Ad26.COV2.S vaccination represent serious events. This case series may inform clinical guidance as Ad26.COV2.S vaccination resumes in the US as well as investigations into the potential relationship between Ad26.COV2.S vaccine and CVST with thrombocytopenia.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines/adverse effects , Sinus Thrombosis, Intracranial/etiology , Thrombocytopenia/etiology , Adolescent , Adult , Critical Care , Fatal Outcome , Female , Headache/etiology , Humans , Middle Aged , Platelet Count , Sinus Thrombosis, Intracranial/therapy , Thrombocytopenia/therapy
3.
Stroke Vasc Neurol ; 5(3): 279-284, 2020 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1318202

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: COVID-19 is an infectious disease caused by Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). Apart from respiratory complications, acute cerebrovascular disease (CVD) has been observed in some patients with COVID-19. Therefore, we described the clinical characteristics, laboratory features, treatment and outcomes of CVD complicating SARS-CoV-2 infection. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Demographic and clinical characteristics, laboratory findings, treatments and clinical outcomes were collected and analysed. Clinical characteristics and laboratory findings of patients with COVID-19 with or without new-onset CVD were compared. RESULTS: Of 219 patients with COVID-19, 10 (4.6%) developed acute ischaemic stroke and 1 (0.5%) had intracerebral haemorrhage. COVID-19 with new onset of CVD were significantly older (75.7±10.8 years vs 52.1±15.3 years, p<0.001), more likely to present with severe COVID-19 (81.8% vs 39.9%, p<0.01) and were more likely to have cardiovascular risk factors, including hypertension, diabetes and medical history of CVD (all p<0.05). In addition, they were more likely to have increased inflammatory response and hypercoagulable state as reflected in C reactive protein (51.1 (1.3-127.9) vs 12.1 (0.1-212.0) mg/L, p<0.05) and D-dimer (6.9 (0.3-20.0) vs 0.5 (0.1-20.0) mg/L, p<0.001). Of 10 patients with ischemic stroke; 6 received antiplatelet treatment with aspirin or clopidogrel; and 3 of them died. The other four patients received anticoagulant treatment with enoxaparin and 2 of them died. As of 24 March 2020, six patients with CVD died (54.5%). CONCLUSION: Acute CVD is not uncommon in COVID-19. Our findings suggest that older patients with risk factors are more likely to develop CVD. The development of CVD is an important negative prognostic factor which requires further study to identify optimal management strategy to combat the COVID-19 outbreak.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus/pathogenicity , Cerebrovascular Disorders/virology , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Pneumonia, Viral/virology , Acute Disease , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Anticoagulants/therapeutic use , COVID-19 , Cerebrovascular Disorders/diagnosis , Cerebrovascular Disorders/drug therapy , Cerebrovascular Disorders/mortality , China , Coronavirus Infections/diagnosis , Coronavirus Infections/mortality , Coronavirus Infections/therapy , Female , Host-Pathogen Interactions , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Platelet Aggregation Inhibitors/therapeutic use , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnosis , Pneumonia, Viral/mortality , Pneumonia, Viral/therapy , Retrospective Studies , Risk Assessment , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2 , Treatment Outcome
6.
J Clin Neurosci ; 89: 271-278, 2021 Jul.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1213386

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus Disease 19 (COVID-19) pandemic affects the worldwide healthcare system and our understanding of this disease grows rapidly. Although COVID-19 is a mainly respiratory disease, neurological manifestations are not uncommon. The aim of this review is to report on the etiology, clinical profile, location, and outcome of patients with intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) and COVID-19. This review includes 36 studies examining ICH in the clinical presentation of COVID-19. Overall, 217 cases with intracranial hemorrhage, of which 188 ICHs, were reported. Generally, a low incidence of both primary and secondary ICH was found in 8 studies [106 (0.25%) out of 43,137 hospitalized patients with COVID-19]. Available data showed a median age of 58 years (range: 52-68) and male sex 64%, regarding 36 and 102 patients respectively. Furthermore, 75% of the patients were on prior anticoagulation treatment, 52% had a history of arterial hypertension, and 61% were admitted in intensive care unit. Location of ICH in deep structures/basal ganglia was ascertained in only 7 cases making arterial hypertension an improbable etiopathogenetic mechanism. Mortality was calculated at 52.7%. Disease related pathophysiologic mechanisms support the hypothesis that SARS-CoV2 can cause ICH, however typical ICH risk factors such as anticoagulation treatment, or admission to ICU should also be considered as probable causes. Physicians should strongly suspect the possibility of ICH in individuals with severe COVID-19 admitted to ICU and treated with anticoagulants. It is not clear whether ICH is related directly to COVID-19 or reflects expected comorbidity and/or complications observed in severely ill patients.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/diagnostic imaging , COVID-19/epidemiology , Cerebral Hemorrhage/diagnostic imaging , Cerebral Hemorrhage/epidemiology , Adult , Aged , Anticoagulants/pharmacology , Anticoagulants/therapeutic use , Blood Coagulation/drug effects , Blood Coagulation/physiology , COVID-19/drug therapy , Cerebral Hemorrhage/drug therapy , Hospitalization/trends , Humans , Hypertension/diagnostic imaging , Hypertension/drug therapy , Hypertension/epidemiology , Intensive Care Units/trends , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2
7.
J Neurol Sci ; 426: 117479, 2021 Jul 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1213385

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Growing evidence has been published as to the impact of SARS-CoV-2 (Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2) on cerebrovascular events over the last few months, with considerable attention paid to ischemic strokes. Conversely, little is known about the clinical course of intracerebral haemorrhage (ICH) and simultaneous SARS-CoV-2 infection. METHOD: The Italian Society of Hospital Neurosciences (SNO) promoted a multicentre, retrospective, observational study (SNO-COVID-19), involving 20 Neurological Departments in Northern Italy. Clinical data on patients with acute cerebrovascular diseases, admitted from March 1st to April 30th, 2020, were collected. A comparison was made of the demographical and clinical features of both SARS-CoV-2 positive and negative patients with ICH. RESULTS: 949 patients were enrolled (average age 73.4 years; 52.7% males); 135 patients had haemorrhagic stroke and 127 (13.4%) had a primary ICH. Only 16 patients with ICH (12.6%) had laboratory confirmed SARS-CoV-2 infection, both symptomatic and asymptomatic. SARS-CoV-2 related pneumonia or respiratory distress (OR 5.4), lobar location (OR 5.0) and previous antiplatelet or anticoagulant treatment (OR 2.9) were the only factors significantly associated with increased mortality in ICH. SARS-CoV-2 infection, regardless of respiratory involvement, led to a non-significantly increased risk of in-hospital death (37.5% vs 23.4%, p = 0.2). DISCUSSION: ICH patients with COVID-19 did not experience an increase in mortality as striking as ischemic stroke. The inflammatory response and respiratory complications could justify the slight increase of death in ICH. Bleeding sites and previous antiplatelet or anticoagulant treatment were the only other predictors of a worse outcome.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Aged , Cerebral Hemorrhage/complications , Cerebral Hemorrhage/epidemiology , Female , Hospital Mortality , Humans , Italy/epidemiology , Male , Retrospective Studies
8.
J Biomol Struct Dyn ; : 1-12, 2021 Apr 20.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1195663

ABSTRACT

Acetaminophen and N-acetyl cysteine (NAC) are being used as supportive care in patients suffering from coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). The coagulopathy and cerebral hemorrhage have been recently reported in these patients. Prolonged acetaminophen use increases the international normalized ratio (INR) and the risk of bleeding among patients taking anti-coagulants. Inhibition of vitamin K epoxide reductase (VKOR) by acetaminophen and NAC in chronic applications has been reported, however, detailed knowledge of the molecular mechanism and binding sites are not clear. Herein, we built the homology model of human VKOR (hVKOR) using ITASSER server, confirmed, and applied it for docking analysis of its interaction with acetaminophen and its metabolite, N-acetyl-p-benzoquinone imine (NAPQI), and NAC. We also calculated the lipophilicity and predicted the blood-brain-barrier (BBB) permeation of NAPQI by Swiss ADME. Our analysis showed that NAPQI and NAC, but not acetaminophen, bind strongly to the similar sites in hVKOR via both hydrogen and van der Waals bonding; particularly with Cys135. Thus, it interrupted the vitamin K reducing electron transfer pathway. Further, molecular dynamic (MD) simulation study revealed that the interactions of the ligands with hVKOR are stable. In conclusion, our analysis shed a light on the molecular mechanism of acetaminophen-induced coagulopathy previously reported in some clinical cases with chronic acetaminophen use. Furthermore, considering the anti-coagulopathy of NAPQI and NAC but not acetaminophen, the BBB permeation potency of these agents, and the risk of coagulopathy in COVID-19, we suggest a regular prothrombin time (PT) and INR monitoring of these patients taking acetaminophen and/or NAC.Communicated by Ramaswamy H. Sarma.

9.
PLoS One ; 16(4): e0248728, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1183650

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To examine the outcomes of adult patients with spontaneous intracranial and subarachnoid hemorrhage diagnosed with comorbid COVID-19 infection in a large, geographically diverse cohort. METHODS: We performed a retrospective analysis using the Vizient Clinical Data Base. We separately compared two cohorts of patients with COVID-19 admitted April 1-October 31, 2020-patients with intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) and those with subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH)-with control patients with ICH or SAH who did not have COVID-19 admitted at the same hospitals in 2019. The primary outcome was in-hospital death. Favorable discharge and length of hospital and intensive-care stay were the secondary outcomes. We fit multivariate mixed-effects logistic regression models to our outcomes. RESULTS: There were 559 ICH-COVID patients and 23,378 ICH controls from 194 hospitals. In the ICH-COVID cohort versus controls, there was a significantly higher proportion of Hispanic patients (24.5% vs. 8.9%), Black patients (23.3% vs. 20.9%), nonsmokers (11.5% vs. 3.2%), obesity (31.3% vs. 13.5%), and diabetes (43.4% vs. 28.5%), and patients had a longer hospital stay (21.6 vs. 10.5 days), a longer intensive-care stay (16.5 vs. 6.0 days), and a higher in-hospital death rate (46.5% vs. 18.0%). Patients with ICH-COVID had an adjusted odds ratio (aOR) of 2.43 [1.96-3.00] for the outcome of death and an aOR of 0.55 [0.44-0.68] for favorable discharge. There were 212 SAH-COVID patients and 5,029 controls from 119 hospitals. The hospital (26.9 vs. 13.4 days) and intensive-care (21.9 vs. 9.6 days) length of stays and in-hospital death rate (42.9% vs. 14.8%) were higher in the SAH-COVID cohort compared with controls. Patients with SAH-COVID had an aOR of 1.81 [1.26-2.59] for an outcome of death and an aOR of 0.54 [0.37-0.78] for favorable discharge. CONCLUSIONS: Patients with spontaneous ICH or SAH and comorbid COVID infection were more likely to be a racial or ethnic minority, diabetic, and obese and to have higher rates of death and longer hospital length of stay when compared with controls.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Cerebral Hemorrhage/therapy , Subarachnoid Hemorrhage/therapy , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , COVID-19/mortality , Cerebral Hemorrhage/epidemiology , Cerebral Hemorrhage/mortality , Child , Child, Preschool , Cohort Studies , Female , Hospital Mortality , Hospitalization/statistics & numerical data , Humans , Infant , Length of Stay , Male , Middle Aged , Minority Groups , Patient Discharge , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Subarachnoid Hemorrhage/epidemiology , Subarachnoid Hemorrhage/mortality , Treatment Outcome , United States/epidemiology
11.
Curr Radiol Rep ; 9(4): 4, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1130964

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: Despite an overall reduction in the number of stroke cases presenting to hospitals during the COVID-19 pandemic, a remarkably high incidence of acute cerebrovascular disease associated with the infection has been reported. In this systematic review, we assess the neurological outcomes and complications of endovascular thrombectomy (EVT) for large vessel occlusions (LVO) in COVID-19 patients. METHODS: A literature search was performed in PubMed from December 1, 2019 through September 1st, 2020 using different combinations of suitable keywords. Ten studies reporting EVT outcomes and complications were identified. Two studies that included non-LVO pathologies and COVID-19 negative patients with the outcomes analysis were excluded. Patient demographics, comorbidities, anatomic thrombus location, neurological and angiographic outcomes were assessed. RESULTS: A total of 8 studies, in addition to our institutional case series, were ultimately included in this review. The mean age was 62.2 years, of which 67.6% were males. M1 segment involvement was the most commonly reported (53.8%) thrombus location. The mean NIHSS at presentation was 20.4 with no significant change at 24 h. Successful revascularization (TICI ≥ 2b) was achieved in 89%. Early proximal cerebral re-occlusion was reported in 6 patients (11%) and cerebral hemorrhage in 3 patients (4%). In hospital mortality was reported in 15 patients (28.8%). CONCLUSION: Despite angiographically successful EVT of LVOs in the majority of patients, this literature analysis demonstrates overall poor outcomes and high mortality in COVID-19 patients post EVT. An unusual incidence of early intracerebral proximal arterial re-occlusion was notable.

12.
Neurocrit Care ; 34(3): 739-747, 2021 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1095736

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Hypercoagulability in Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) causes deep vein thrombosis and pulmonary embolism necessitating systemic anticoagulation. Case reports of intracerebral hemorrhages in ventilated COVID-19 patients warrant precaution. It is unclear, however, if COVID-19 patients with acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) with or without veno-venous extracorporeal membrane oxygenation therapy (VV-ECMO) have more intracerebral hemorrhages (ICH) compared to other ARDS patients. METHODS: We conducted a retrospective observational single-center study enrolling all patients with ARDS from 01/2018 to 05/2020. PCR-positive SARS-CoV-2 patients with ARDS were allocated to the COVID-19 group. Propensity score matching was performed for age, VV-ECMO, and bleeding risk. RESULTS: A total of 163 patients with moderate or severe ARDS were identified, 47 (28.8%) in the COVID-19 group, and 116 (71.2%) in the non-COVID-19 group. In 63/163 cases (38.7%), VV-ECMO therapy was required. The ICU survival was 52.8%. COVID-19 patients were older, more often male, and exhibited a lower SOFA score, but the groups showed similar rates of VV-ECMO therapy. Treatments with antiplatelet agents (p = 0.043) and therapeutic anticoagulation (p = 0.028) were significantly more frequent in the COVID-19 patients. ICH was detected in 22 patients (13.5%) with no statistical difference between the groups (11.2 vs. 19.1% without and with SARS-CoV-2, respectively, p = 0.21). Propensity score matching confirmed similar rates of ICH in both groups (12.8 vs. 19.1% without and with SARS-CoV-2, respectively, p = 0.57), thus leveling out possible confounders. CONCLUSIONS: Intracerebral hemorrhage was detected in every tenth patient with ARDS. Despite statistically higher rates of antiplatelet therapy and therapeutic anticoagulation in COVID-19 patients, we found a similar rate of ICH in patients with ARDS due to COVID-19 compared to other causes of ARDS.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , Cerebral Hemorrhage/epidemiology , Cerebral Hemorrhage/virology , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/virology , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , COVID-19/mortality , COVID-19/therapy , Cerebral Hemorrhage/therapy , Critical Care , Extracorporeal Membrane Oxygenation , Female , Germany , Humans , Length of Stay , Male , Middle Aged , Propensity Score , Registries , Respiration, Artificial , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/mortality , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/therapy , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors , Survival Rate , Young Adult
13.
BMC Neurol ; 21(1): 83, 2021 Feb 19.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1090685

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The respiratory system involvement is the most common presentation of Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). However, other organs including the central nervous system (CNS) could be affected by the virus. Strokes, seizures, change in mental status, and encephalitis have been reported as the neurological manifestation of the disease. We hypothesized that COVID-19 could predispose younger patients to spontaneous intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH). The present study aimed to investigate whether COVID-19 has any relationship with the occurrence of spontaneous ICH in young or not. METHODS: We retrospectively evaluated all the patients with spontaneous ICH who were referred to our center between 20 Feb and 1 Sep 2020. The demographic, clinical, radiological, and laboratory test data were evaluated. Patients were divided into two groups. The COVID-19 positive patients and COVID-19 negative ones. All the variables including age, sex, history of hypertension, diabetes mellitus, smoking, Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS), hematoma volume and location, the presence of intraventricular hemorrhage and hydrocephalus on admission, the length of hospital stay, the lab test results and the clinical outcome at last visit or discharge as Glasgow Outcome Scale (GOS) were compared between the two groups. RESULTS: There were 22 COVID-19 positive patients (20.8%) and 84 COVID-19 negative ones (79.2%). The mean age of the patients in the case group (54.27 ± 4.67) was significantly lower than that in the control group (69.88 ± 4.47) (p < 0.05). Meanwhile, our results showed a significant difference between the two groups based on the presence of chronic arterial hypertension (p < 0.05). There were no significant differences between the two groups based on gender, diabetes mellitus, smoking, Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS), hematoma volume, need for surgery, the presence of intraventricular hemorrhage and hydrocephalus on admission, White Blood Cell (WBC) count, platelet count, Prothrombin Time (PT), and Partial Thromboplastin Time (PTT) (p > 0.05). CONCLUSIONS: Our results show that COVID positive patients with ICH are younger and with less predisposing factors than COVID negative subjects with ICH.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , Cerebral Hemorrhage/epidemiology , Hematoma/epidemiology , Aged , Case-Control Studies , Female , Glasgow Coma Scale , Glasgow Outcome Scale , Hematoma/surgery , Hospitalization , Humans , Hydrocephalus/epidemiology , Length of Stay , Leukocyte Count , Male , Middle Aged , Retrospective Studies
14.
J Neurol ; 268(9): 3105-3115, 2021 Sep.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1064490

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: There are very few studies of the characteristics and causes of ICH in COVID-19, yet such data are essential to guide clinicians in clinical management, including challenging anticoagulation decisions. We aimed to describe the characteristics of spontaneous symptomatic intracerebral haemorrhage (ICH) associated with COVID-19. METHODS: We systematically searched PubMed, Embase and the Cochrane Central Database for data from patients with SARS-CoV-2 detected prior to or within 7 days after symptomatic ICH. We did a pooled analysis of individual patient data, then combined data from this pooled analysis with aggregate-level data. RESULTS: We included data from 139 patients (98 with individual data and 41 with aggregate-level data). In our pooled individual data analysis, the median age (IQR) was 60 (53-67) years and 64% (95% CI 54-73.7%) were male; 79% (95% CI 70.0-86.9%) had critically severe COVID-19. The pooled prevalence of lobar ICH was 67% (95% CI 56.3-76.0%), and of multifocal ICH was 36% (95% CI 26.4-47.0%). 71% (95% CI 61.0-80.4%) of patients were treated with anticoagulation (58% (95% CI 48-67.8%) therapeutic). The median NIHSS was 28 (IQR 15-28); mortality was 54% (95% CI 43.7-64.2%). Our combined analysis of individual and aggregate data showed similar findings. The pooled incidence of ICH across 12 cohort studies of inpatients with COVID-19 (n = 63,390) was 0.38% (95% CI 0.22-0.58%). CONCLUSIONS: Our data suggest that ICH associated with COVID-19 has different characteristics compared to ICH not associated with COVID-19, including frequent lobar location and multifocality, a high rate of anticoagulation, and high mortality. These observations suggest different underlying mechanisms of ICH in COVID-19 with potential implications for clinical treatment and trials.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Cerebral Hemorrhage/complications , Cerebral Hemorrhage/epidemiology , Cohort Studies , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , SARS-CoV-2
15.
J Neuroimaging ; 31(2): 228-243, 2021 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1015550

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: The ongoing Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic is caused by the novel severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). COVID-19 is occasionally associated with manifold diseases of the central nervous system (CNS). We sought to present the neuroimaging features of such CNS involvement. In addition, we sought to identify typical neuroimaging patterns that could indicate possible COVID-19-associated neurological manifestations. METHODS: In this systematic literature review, typical neuroimaging features of cerebrovascular diseases and inflammatory processes associated with COVID-19 were analyzed. Reports presenting individual patient data were included in further quantitative analysis with descriptive statistics. RESULTS: We identified 115 studies reporting a total of 954 COVID-19 patients with associated neurological manifestations and neuroimaging alterations. A total of 95 (82.6%) of the identified studies were single case reports or case series, whereas 660 (69.2%) of the reported cases included individual information and were thus included in descriptive statistical analysis. Ischemia with neuroimaging patterns of large vessel occlusion event was revealed in 59.9% of ischemic stroke patients, whereas 69.2% of patients with intracerebral hemorrhage exhibited bleeding in a location that was not associated with hypertension. Callosal and/or juxtacortical location was identified in 58.7% of cerebral microbleed positive images. Features of hemorrhagic necrotizing encephalitis were detected in 28.8% of patients with meningo-/encephalitis. CONCLUSIONS: Manifold CNS involvement is increasingly reported in COVID-19 patients. Typical and atypical neuroimaging features have been observed in some disease entities, so that familiarity with these imaging patterns appears reasonable and may assist clinicians in the differential diagnosis of COVID-19 CNS manifestations.


Subject(s)
Brain/diagnostic imaging , COVID-19/diagnostic imaging , Humans , Magnetic Resonance Imaging , Neuroimaging , Pandemics , Tomography, X-Ray Computed
16.
Br J Neurosurg ; : 1-6, 2020 Dec 21.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-990267

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Recently, weeks after the COVID-19 prevalence, there were reports of brain involvement and neurologic presentations in the COVID-19. CASE PRESENTATION: We present five cases of COVID-19 and cerebrovascular events. A 34-year-old woman with IVH and ischemic stroke. A 60-year-old man with multiple small hemorrhagic foci and mild IVH in the occipital horn. A 63-year-old woman with large left parietooccipital intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) and IVH. A 56-year-old man with left hemispheric and midbrain ICH, lateral ventricular IVH, and hydrocephalus. A 85-year-old woman with right parietal hemorrhagic infarct. The coagulation profile was normal in all of them. The chest CT scan showed the typical ground-glass appearance of COVID-19. CONCLUSIONS: Recently, there were reports of brain involvement and neurologic presentations in the COVID-19. These reports and the present study necessitate the aimed and designed studies with emphasis on neurologic presentations in COVID-19 patients to illustrate the exact effects of coronavirus-2 on the central nervous system.

17.
Neuroradiol J ; 34(2): 147-150, 2021 Apr.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-975845

ABSTRACT

We present a case of a fatal cerebral haemorrhage in an 82-year-old male patient with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), who was taking prophylactic oral anticoagulation because of atrial fibrillation (rivaroxaban 20 mg q.d. for two years). On admission, the patient was deeply comatose, mechanically ventilated, with tachycardia up to 150 bpm, high blood pressure >210/120 mmHg and a body temperature >39°C. A computed tomography scan of the head showed a large intracerebral haemorrhage located in the deep structures of the right hemisphere, with a mass effect and bleeding to the ventricles. Rivaroxaban was discontinued at admission. The patient tested positive for severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), but he did not have typical symptoms of pneumonia. In the following days, the patient's neurological condition did not improve, and a fever of up to 40°C and abnormal coagulation parameters remained resistant to pharmacotherapy. The patient developed multi-system organ failure and died on day 8. Here, we review the recent literature and discuss the possible association of SARS-CoV-2-mediated endothelial injury and cardiovascular disorders with cerebrovascular complications. We postulate that anti-inflammatory treatment in COVID-19 and the stabilisation of endothelium functions can be particularly important in patients with pre-existing cardiovascular conditions.


Subject(s)
Atrial Fibrillation/drug therapy , COVID-19/complications , Cerebral Hemorrhage/etiology , Factor Xa Inhibitors/adverse effects , Hypertension/complications , Rivaroxaban/adverse effects , Stroke/prevention & control , Aged, 80 and over , Atrial Fibrillation/complications , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/physiopathology , Cerebral Hemorrhage/diagnostic imaging , Cerebral Hemorrhage/therapy , Fatal Outcome , Humans , Hypotension/etiology , Male , Multiple Organ Failure/etiology , Respiratory Insufficiency/etiology , SARS-CoV-2 , Stroke/etiology , Tachycardia/etiology
18.
Minerva Cardioangiol ; 2020 Dec 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-951363

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The Lombardy region, in Northern Italy, suffered a major outbreak of Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) at the end of February 2020. The health system was rapidly overwhelmed by the pandemic. It became evident that patients suffering from timesensitive medical emergencies like stroke, cerebral hemorrhage, trauma and acute myocardial infarction required timely, effective and safe pathways to be treated. The problem was addressed by a regional decree that created a hub-and-spoke system for time-sensitive medical emergencies. METHODS: We report the re-organizational changes adopted at a hub hospital (despite having already destined to COVID-19 patients most resources), and the number of emergent procedures for medical emergencies on the first 30-day of activity. These data were compared with the hospital activity in the same period of the previous year. RESULTS: Organizational changes were implemented in few hours. Dedicated pathways for non-COVID-19 patients affected by a medical emergency were set up in the emergency department, in the labs and in the operating theater. Ten intensive beds were implemented from a high-dependency unit; two operating rooms were reserved 24h/day to neurosurgical or trauma emergencies. The number of emergent procedures was not different from that of the previous year, no admission refusal, no treatment delay and no viral transmission to the treated patients were recorded. No viral transmission to health care workers was observed. CONCLUSIONS: Re-organization of a hospital in order to adopt a hub-and-spoke model resulted feasible and allowed to face acute coronary syndrome and other time-sensitive medical emergencies timely and safely.

19.
Front Neurol ; 11: 574694, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-948039

ABSTRACT

Importance: Reported cerebrovascular events in patients with COVID-19 are mainly ischemic, but hemorrhagic strokes and cerebral venous sinus thrombosis (CSVT), especially in critically ill patients, have also been described. To date, it is still not clear whether cerebrovascular manifestations are caused by direct viral action or indirect action mediated by inflammatory hyperactivation, and in some cases, the association may be casual rather than causal. Objective: To conduct a systematic review on the cerebrovascular events in COVID-19 infection. Evidence review: A comprehensive literature search on PubMed was performed including articles published from January 1, 2020, to July 23, 2020, using a suitable keyword strategy. Additional sources were added by the authors by reviewing related references. The systematic review was conducted in accordance with the PRISMA guidelines. Only articles reporting individual data on stroke mechanism and etiology, sex, age, past cardiovascular risk factors, COVID symptoms, admission NIHSS, D-dimer levels, and acute stroke treatment were selected for the review. Articles that did not report the clinical description of the cases were excluded. A descriptive statistical analysis of the data collected was performed. Finding: From a total of 1,210 articles published from January 1, 2020, to July 23, 2020, 80 articles (275 patients), which satisfied the abovementioned criteria, were included in this review. A total of 226 cases of ischemic stroke (IS), 35 cases of intracranial bleeding, and 14 cases of CVST were found. Among patients with IS, the mean age was 64.16 ±14.73 years (range 27-92 years) and 53.5% were male. The mean NIHSS score reported at the onset of stroke was 15.23 ±9.72 (range 0-40). Primary endovascular thrombectomy (EVT) was performed in 24/168 patients (14.29%), intravenous thrombolysis (IVT) was performed in 17/168 patients (10.12%), and combined IVT+EVT was performed in 11/168 patients (6.55%). According to the reported presence of large vessel occlusion (LVO) (105 patients), 31 patients (29.52%) underwent primary EVT or bridging. Acute intracranial bleeding was reported in 35 patients: 24 patients (68.57%) had intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH), 4 patients (11.43%) had non-traumatic subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH), and the remaining 7 patients (20%) had the simultaneous presence of SAH and ICH. Fourteen cases of CVST were reported in the literature (50% males), mean age 42.8 years ±15.47 (range 23-72). Treatment was reported only in nine patients; seven were treated with anticoagulant therapy; one with acetazolamide, and one underwent venous mechanical thrombectomy. Conclusion: Cerebrovascular events are relatively common findings in COVID-19 infection, and they could have a multifactorial etiology. More accurate and prospective data are needed to better understand the impact of cerebrovascular events in COVID-19 infection.

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Drug Chem Toxicol ; : 1-4, 2020 Nov 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-917568

ABSTRACT

During the COVID-19 pandemic, methanol-containing beverages' consumption has risen because people mistakenly believed that alcohol might protect them against the virus. This study aimed to evaluate the prevalence and predisposing factors of brain lesions in patients with methanol toxicity and its outcome. A total of 516 patients with confirmed methanol poisoning were enrolled in this retrospective study, of which 40 patients underwent spiral brain computed tomography (CT) scan. The presence of unilateral or bilateral brain necrosis was significantly higher in the non-survival group (p = 0.001). Also, intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) and brain edema were prevalent among patients that subsequently died (p = 0.004 and p = 0.002, respectively). Lower Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS) was related to a higher mortality rate (p = 0.001). The mortality rate in chronic alcohol consumption was lower than the patients who drank alcohol for the first time (p = 0.014). In conclusion, increasing the number of methanol poisoning and its associated mortality and morbidity should be considered a threat during the COVID-19 pandemic.

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