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1.
J Telemed Telecare ; : 1357633X20943327, 2020 Aug 18.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1927941

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: During the COVID-19 pandemic emergency departments have noted a significant decrease in stroke patients. We performed a timely analysis of the Bavarian telestroke TEMPiS "working diagnosis" database. METHODS: Twelve hospitals from the TEMPiS network were selected. Data collected for January through April in years 2017 through 2020 were extracted and analyzed for presumed and definite ischemic stroke (IS), amongst other disorders. In addition, recommendations for intravenous thrombolysis (rtPA) and endovascular thrombectomy (EVT) were noted and mobility data of the region analyzed. If statistically valid, group-comparison was tested with Fisher's exact test considering unpaired observations and ap-value < 0.05 was considered significant. RESULTS: Upon lockdown in mid-March 2020, we observed a significant reduction in recommendations for rtPA compared to the preceding three years (14.7% [2017-2019] vs. 9.2% [2020], p = 0.0232). Recommendations for EVT were significantly higher in January to mid-March 2020 compared to 2017-2019 (5.4% [2017-2019] vs. 9.3% [2020], p = 0.0013) reflecting its increasing importance. Following the COVID-19 lockdown mid-March 2020 the number of EVT decreased back to levels in 2017-2019 (7.4% [2017-2019] vs. 7.6% [2020], p = 0.1719). Absolute numbers of IS decreased in parallel to mobility data. CONCLUSIONS: The reduced stroke incidence during the COVID-19 pandemic may in part be explained by patient avoidance to seek emergency stroke care and may have an association to population mobility. Increasing mobility may induce a rebound effect and may conflict with a potential second COVID-19 wave. Telemedical networks may be ideal databases to study such effects in near-real time.

2.
Brain Behav Immun ; 87: 115-119, 2020 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1719345

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: Acute stroke remains a medical emergency even during the COVID-19 pandemic. Most patients with COVID-19 infection present with constitutional and respiratory symptoms; while others present with atypical gastrointestinal, cardiovascular, or neurological manifestations. Here we present a series of four patients with COVID-19 that presented with acute stroke. METHODS: We searched the hospital databases for patients that presented with acute stroke and concomitant features of suspected COVID-19 infection. All patients who had radiographic evidence of stroke and PCR-confirmed COVID-19 infection were included in the study. Patients admitted to the hospital with PCR- confirmed COVID-19 disease whose hospital course was complicated with acute stroke while inpatient were excluded from the study. Retrospective patient data were obtained from electronic medical records. Informed consent was obtained. RESULTS: We identified four patients who presented with radiographic confirmation of acute stroke and PCR-confirmed SARS-CoV-2 infection. We elucidate the clinical characteristics, imaging findings, and the clinical course. CONCLUSIONS: Timely assessment and hyperacute treatment is the key to minimize mortality and morbidity of patients with acute stroke. Stroke teams should be wary of the fact that COVID-19 patients can present with cerebrovascular accidents and should dawn appropriate personal protective equipment in every suspected patient. Further studies are urgently needed to improve current understandings of neurological pathology in the setting of COVID-19 infection.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/complications , Pneumonia, Viral/complications , Stroke/metabolism , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Betacoronavirus , COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections/diagnostic imaging , Coronavirus Infections/metabolism , Female , Hospitalization , Humans , Male , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnostic imaging , Pneumonia, Viral/metabolism , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Stroke/complications
3.
Stroke Vasc Neurol ; 5(4): 331-336, 2020 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1318206

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: COVID-19, caused by SARS-CoV-2, is a global pandemic that has been an immense burden on healthcare systems all over the world. These patients may be at higher risk for acute ischaemic stroke (AIS). We present our experience with AIS in patients with COVID-19. METHODS: We reviewed all patients admitted to our hospital during a 6-week period with a positive nasopharyngeal swab test for SARS-CoV-2. Among these patients, we identified AIS. We reviewed the demographics, clinical, laboratory, imaging characteristics, treatments received and outcomes of AIS in patients with COVID-19. RESULTS: We identified 683 patients admitted with COVID-19 during the study period, of which 20 patients had AIS. Large-vessel occlusion (LVO) was noted in 11 patients (55%). Intravenous alteplase was administered in four patients (20%) and mechanical thrombectomy was performed in five patients (25%). Respiratory symptoms preceded the onset of AIS in most of the patients (70%) by 1 to 21 days. Mortality in patients with AIS was 50% compared with 26% of all COVID-19 admissions. Most of these patients died due to non-neurological causes (70%). Three patients with AIS had clinical and imaging findings consistent with COVID-19, but were negative for multiple nasopharyngeal swab tests. INTERPRETATION: LVO was more common in patients with AIS and COVID-19. They had more severe disease and higher mortality rates. Most of the patients had respiratory symptoms preceding AIS by days to weeks. This could explain certain patients with clinical picture of COVID-19 but negative nasopharyngeal swab tests.


Subject(s)
Brain Ischemia , COVID-19 , Stroke , Humans , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , Stroke/diagnosis , Thrombectomy
5.
Platelets ; 32(8): 1009-1017, 2021 Nov 17.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1258665

ABSTRACT

Platelets may be a target of bacteria and viruses, which can directly or indirectly activate them so promoting thrombosis. In accordance with this, community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) is complicated by ischemia-related vascular disease (myocardial infarction and stroke) in roughly 10% of patients while the incidence of venous thrombosis is uncertain. In CAP platelet biosynthesis of TxA2 is augmented and associated with myocardial infarction; however, a cause-effect relationship is still unclear as unclear is if platelet activation promotes thrombosis or functional changes of coronary tree such vasospasm. Retrospective studies suggested a potential role of aspirin in reducing mortality but the impact on vascular disease is still unknown. Coronavirus disease 2019 (Covid-19) is complicated by thrombosis in roughly 20% of patients with an almost equivalent localization in arterial and venous circulation. Platelet activation seems to have a pivot role in the thrombotic process in Covid-19 as consistently evidenced by its involvement in promoting Tissue Factor up-regulation via leucocyte interaction. Until now, antiplatelet treatment has been scarcely considered for the treatment of Covid-19; interventional trials, however, are in progress to explore this issue. The aim of this review is 1) to compare the type of vascular diseases complicating CAP and Covid-19 2) to assess the different role of platelets in both diseases and 3) to discuss if antiplatelet treatment is potentially useful to improve clinical outcomes.


Subject(s)
Aspirin/therapeutic use , Blood Platelets/metabolism , COVID-19 , Myocardial Infarction , SARS-CoV-2/metabolism , Stroke , Thrombosis , COVID-19/drug therapy , COVID-19/metabolism , COVID-19/mortality , Humans , Myocardial Infarction/drug therapy , Myocardial Infarction/metabolism , Myocardial Infarction/mortality , Stroke/drug therapy , Stroke/metabolism , Stroke/mortality , Thrombosis/drug therapy , Thrombosis/metabolism , Thrombosis/mortality
6.
Int J Med Inform ; 152: 104442, 2021 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1245977

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: When it comes to critical early post-acute TIA/stroke phase, there is a lack of a comprehensive multi-parametric telemonitoring system. The COVID-19 emergency, its related global mobility restrictions and fear of hospitalization further highlighted the need of a comprehensive solution. OBJECTIVE: We aimed to design and test a pragmatic e-Health system based on multiparametric telemonitoring to support of TIA/stroke patients in sub-acute phase during the COVID-19 pandemic. METHODS: We proposed a telemonitoring system and protocol for TIA/minor stroke patients during COVID-19 pandemic for patients at risk of stroke recurrence. This system involves the use of portable devices for BP/HR/SpO2/temperature sensing, panic-button, gateway, and a dedicated ICT platform. The protocol is a 14-day multiparametric telemonitoring, therapy, and emergency intervention based on vital sign alteration notifications. We conducted a proof-of-concept validation test on 8 TIA/minor stroke patients in the early post-acute phase (< 14 days from ischemic event). RESULTS: The proposed solution allowed to promptly and remotely identify vital sign alterations at home during the early post-acute phase, allowing therapy and behavioral intervention adjustments. Also, we observed a significant improvement of quality of life, as well as a significant reduction of anxiety and depression status. TUQ showed ease of use, good interface quality and high user satisfaction of the proposed solution. The 3-month follow-up showed total adherence of prescribed therapy and no stroke/TIA recurrence or other emergency department admissions. CONCLUSION: The proposed e-Health solution and telemonitoring protocol may be highly useful for early post-acute remote patient management, thus supporting constant monitoring and patient adherence to the treatment pathway, especially during the COVID-19 emergency.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Ischemic Attack, Transient , Stroke , Telemedicine , Humans , Ischemic Attack, Transient/epidemiology , Pandemics , Quality of Life , SARS-CoV-2 , Stroke/epidemiology , Stroke/therapy
7.
J Neurol ; 269(1): 1-11, 2022 Jan.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1241609

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To characterize patients with acute ischemic stroke related to SARS-CoV-2 infection and assess the classification performance of clinical and laboratory parameters in predicting in-hospital outcome of these patients. METHODS: In the setting of the STROKOVID study including patients with acute ischemic stroke consecutively admitted to the ten hub hospitals in Lombardy, Italy, between March 8 and April 30, 2020, we compared clinical features of patients with confirmed infection and non-infected patients by logistic regression models and survival analysis. Then, we trained and tested a random forest (RF) binary classifier for the prediction of in-hospital death among patients with COVID-19. RESULTS: Among 1013 patients, 160 (15.8%) had SARS-CoV-2 infection. Male sex (OR 1.53; 95% CI 1.06-2.27) and atrial fibrillation (OR 1.60; 95% CI 1.05-2.43) were independently associated with COVID-19 status. Patients with COVID-19 had increased stroke severity at admission [median NIHSS score, 9 (25th to75th percentile, 13) vs 6 (25th to75th percentile, 9)] and increased risk of in-hospital death (38.1% deaths vs 7.2%; HR 3.30; 95% CI 2.17-5.02). The RF model based on six clinical and laboratory parameters exhibited high cross-validated classification accuracy (0.86) and precision (0.87), good recall (0.72) and F1-score (0.79) in predicting in-hospital death. CONCLUSIONS: Ischemic strokes in COVID-19 patients have distinctive risk factor profile and etiology, increased clinical severity and higher in-hospital mortality rate compared to non-COVID-19 patients. A simple model based on clinical and routine laboratory parameters may be useful in identifying ischemic stroke patients with SARS-CoV-2 infection who are unlikely to survive the acute phase.


Subject(s)
Brain Ischemia , COVID-19 , Ischemic Stroke , Stroke , Brain Ischemia/complications , Brain Ischemia/epidemiology , Hospital Mortality , Humans , Italy/epidemiology , Male , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2 , Stroke/epidemiology
8.
Vasc Med ; 26(6): 626-632, 2021 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1234444

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) caused by SARS-CoV-2 is an ongoing viral pandemic marked by increased risk of thrombotic events. However, the role of platelets in the elevated observed thrombotic risk in COVID-19 and utility of antiplatelet agents in attenuating thrombosis is unknown. We aimed to determine if the antiplatelet effect of aspirin may mitigate risk of myocardial infarction, cerebrovascular accident, and venous thromboembolism in COVID-19. We evaluated 22,072 symptomatic patients tested for COVID-19. Propensity-matched analyses were performed to determine if treatment with aspirin or nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) affected thrombotic outcomes in COVID-19. Neither aspirin nor NSAIDs affected mortality in COVID-19. Thus, aspirin does not appear to prevent thrombosis and death in COVID-19. The mechanisms of thrombosis in COVID-19, therefore, appear distinct and the role of platelets as direct mediators of SARS-CoV-2-mediated thrombosis warrants further investigation.


Subject(s)
Anti-Inflammatory Agents, Non-Steroidal/administration & dosage , Aspirin/administration & dosage , COVID-19/complications , Inpatients , Thrombosis/prevention & control , Adult , Aged , Anti-Inflammatory Agents, Non-Steroidal/adverse effects , Aspirin/adverse effects , Female , Hospitalization , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , Thrombosis/virology
9.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 10277, 2021 05 13.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1228275

ABSTRACT

Patients with stroke are likely to experience impaired health-related quality of life (QOL), especially during the COVID-19 pandemic. This study aimed to evaluate the QOL of Chinese patients with stroke during the pandemic and explore the associated variables. A matched-pair, multicenter survey was conducted before and during the COVID-19 pandemic. Questionnaires including the 36-item Short-Form Health Survey (SF-36), the Activities of Daily Living (ADL) scale, and the Questionnaire about the Process of Recovery (QPR) were used. A total of 172 matched pairs (344 patients) were recruited in this study. Hierarchical multiple regression analysis was performed to analyze variables associated with QOL. Physical and mental component scores (PCS and MCS) were higher among the stroke patients during the pandemic (44.20 ± 18.92 and 54.24 ± 19.08) than before the pandemic (37.98 ± 14.52 and 43.50 ± 20.94). Pandemic stress, demographic and clinical characteristics were negative variables associated with PCS and MCS. QPR was positively associated with PCS and MCS. The QOL of Chinese stroke patients was higher during than before the COVID-19 pandemic. Pandemic stress aggravated stroke patients' QOL, while personal recovery could alleviate the detrimental effect of pandemic stress on QOL for stroke patients.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Quality of Life , Stroke , Activities of Daily Living , Aged , COVID-19/epidemiology , China/epidemiology , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Socioeconomic Factors , Stroke/epidemiology , Stroke Rehabilitation
10.
Can J Surg ; 64(3): E289-E297, 2021 05 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1225820

ABSTRACT

Since COVID-19 was declared a pandemic a year ago, our understanding of its effects on the vascular system has slowly evolved. At the cellular level, SARS-CoV-2 - the virus that causes COVID-19 - accesses the vascular endothelium through the angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE-2) receptor and induces proinflammatory and prothrombotic responses. At the clinical level, these pathways lead to thromboembolic events that affect the pulmonary, extracranial, mesenteric, and lower extremity vessels. At the population level, the presence of vascular risk factors predisposes individuals to more severe forms of COVID-19, whereas the absence of vascular risk factors does not spare patients with COVID-19 from unprecedented rates of stroke, pulmonary embolism and acute limb ischemia. Finally, at the community and global level, the fear of COVID-19, measures taken to limit the spread of SARS-CoV-2 and reallocation of limited hospital resources have led to delayed presentations of severe forms of ischemia, surgery cancellations and missed opportunities for limb salvage. The purpose of this narrative review is to present some of the data on COVID-19, from cellular mechanisms to clinical manifestations, and discuss its impact on the local and global surgical communities from a vascular perspective.


Depuis que la COVID-19 s'est vu donner le statut de pandémie il y a 1 an, notre connaissance des effets de cette maladie sur le système vasculaire a évolué. À l'échelle cellulaire, le SRAS-CoV-2 ­ le virus qui cause la COVID-19 ­ accède à l'endothélium vasculaire par le récepteur de l'enzyme de conversion de l'angiotensine-2 (ACE-2) et provoque des réponses proinflammatoires et prothrombotiques. À l'échelle clinique, ces réponses peuvent mener à une activité thromboembolique touchant les vaisseaux pulmonaires, extracrâniens, mésentériques et des membres inférieurs. À l'échelle populationnelle, la présence chez certaines personnes de facteurs de risque vasculaires les prédispose à une forme plus grave de la COVID-19, mais l'absence de ces facteurs n'empêche pas les patients atteints de la COVID-19 de présenter des taux sans précédent d'AVC, d'embolie pulmonaire et d'ischémie aiguë aux membres. Enfin, à l'échelle locale et mondiale, la peur entourant la COVID-19, les mesures prises pour en endiguer la propagation et le redéploiement des ressources limitées des hôpitaux ont mené au report de visites à l'hôpital pour des formes graves d'ischémie, à l'annulation de chirurgies et à des occasions manquées de préserver des membres. La présente revue non systématique a pour objectif de présenter une partie des données sur la COVID-19, de ses mécanismes cellulaires à ses manifestations cliniques, et de discuter des répercussions de la crise sur les communautés chirurgicales locales et mondiales, dans une optique vasculaire.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , Vascular Diseases/etiology , Cells/virology , Elective Surgical Procedures , Humans , Internationality , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity
11.
Expert Rev Med Devices ; 18(6): 523-531, 2021 Jun.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1221433

ABSTRACT

Introduction: In this review, we will summarize the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on neurointerventional care for patients with cerebrovascular disease, with a particular emphasis on epidemiology, neurointerventional processes, and lessons learned from paradigm shifts in endovascular care.Areas covered: Peer-reviewed research is summarized regarding the complications of COVID-19 as related to the pandemic's impact on hospital admissions, imaging capabilities, treatment times, and outcomes of neurointerventional cases.Expert opinion: In the first wave of the COVID-19 pandemic, there was a global decline in neuroimaging, use of intravenous thrombolysis, thrombectomy, and coil embolization for ruptured intracranial aneurysms. An early recommendation to utilize general anesthesia and intubate all patients undergoing intervention to avoid an emergent aerosolizing procedure was found to have worse outcomes. The decline in new stroke and subarachnoid hemorrhage diagnoses may be related to patient and/or family fear of seeking acute medical care. A true shift in stroke epidemiology is also possible. As several vaccines become more readily available and the world rebounds from this pandemic, we hope to transform the neurointerventional experiences discussed in this paper into strategies that may improve care delivery of neurologically ill patients during a global crisis.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Delivery of Health Care/statistics & numerical data , Stroke/diagnosis , Stroke/therapy , COVID-19/epidemiology , Delivery of Health Care/trends , Humans , Pandemics , Stroke/epidemiology , Thrombectomy
12.
J Stroke Cerebrovasc Dis ; 30(8): 105857, 2021 Aug.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1213403

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To characterize differences in disposition arrangement among rehab-eligible stroke patients at a Comprehensive Stroke Center before and during the COVID-19 pandemic. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We retrospectively analyzed a prospective registry for demographics, hospital course, and discharge dispositions of rehab-eligible acute stroke survivors admitted 6 months prior to (10/2019-03/2020) and during (04/2020-09/2020) the COVID-19 pandemic. The primary outcome was discharge to an inpatient rehabilitation facility (IRF) as opposed to other facilities using descriptive statistics, and IRF versus home using unadjusted and adjusted backward stepwise logistic regression. RESULTS: Of the 507 rehab-eligible stroke survivors, there was no difference in age, premorbid disability, or stroke severity between study periods (p>0.05). There was a 9% absolute decrease in discharges to an IRF during the pandemic (32.1% vs. 41.1%, p=0.04), which translated to 38% lower odds of being discharged to IRF versus home in unadjusted regression (OR 0.62, 95%CI 0.42-0.92, p=0.016). The lower odds of discharge to IRF persisted in the multivariable model (aOR 0.16, 95%CI 0.09-0.31, p<0.001) despite a significant increase in discharge disability (median discharge mRS 4 [IQR 2-4] vs. 2 [IQR 1-3], p<0.001) during the pandemic. CONCLUSIONS: Admission for stroke during the COVID-19 pandemic was associated with a significantly lower probability of being discharged to an IRF. This effect persisted despite adjustment for predictors of IRF disposition, including functional disability at discharge. Potential reasons for this disparity are explored.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Patient Discharge/trends , Patient Transfer/trends , Practice Patterns, Physicians'/trends , Stroke Rehabilitation/trends , Stroke/therapy , Aged , Disability Evaluation , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , New Jersey , Recovery of Function , Registries , Retrospective Studies , Stroke/diagnosis , Stroke/physiopathology , Time Factors
13.
J Nepal Health Res Counc ; 19(1): 218-220, 2021 Apr 23.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1209512

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 pandemic has significantly affected health care delivery globally. COVID-19 is associated with varied neurological manifestations including acute ischemic stroke. In densely populated South Asian nations like Nepal that have suboptimal baseline health care systems, we foresee unique challenges during this pandemic to ensure effective stroke management as well as the safety of health care workers involved in the management of stroke patients. Keywords: COVID-19; health care workers; safety; stroke management.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/epidemiology , Stroke/therapy , Stroke/virology , Humans , Nepal/epidemiology , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2
14.
Front Cardiovasc Med ; 8: 649922, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1186796

ABSTRACT

Since the early days of the pandemic, there have been several reports of cerebrovascular complications during the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection. Numerous studies proposed a role for SARS-CoV-2 in igniting stroke. In this review, we focused on the pathoetiology of stroke among the infected patients. We pictured the results of the SARS-CoV-2 invasion to the central nervous system (CNS) via neuronal and hematogenous routes, in addition to viral infection in peripheral tissues with extensive crosstalk with the CNS. SARS-CoV-2 infection results in pro-inflammatory cytokine and chemokine release and activation of the immune system, COVID-19-associated coagulopathy, endotheliitis and vasculitis, hypoxia, imbalance in the renin-angiotensin system, and cardiovascular complications that all may lead to the incidence of stroke. Critically ill patients, those with pre-existing comorbidities and patients taking certain medications, such as drugs with elevated risk for arrhythmia or thrombophilia, are more susceptible to a stroke after SARS-CoV-2 infection. By providing a pictorial narrative review, we illustrated these associations in detail to broaden the scope of our understanding of stroke in SARS-CoV-2-infected patients. We also discussed the role of antiplatelets and anticoagulants for stroke prevention and the need for a personalized approach among patients with SARS-CoV-2 infection.

15.
J Clin Neurol ; 17(2): 155-163, 2021 Apr.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1175631

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) can reportedly manifest as an acute stroke, with most cases presenting as large vessel ischemic stroke in patients with or without comorbidities. The exact pathomechanism of stroke in COVID-19 remains ambiguous. The findings of previous studies indicate that the most likely underlying mechanisms are cerebrovascular pathological conditions following viral infection, inflammation-induced endothelial dysfunction, and hypercoagulability. Acute endothelial damage due to inflammation triggers a coagulation cascade, thrombosis propagation, and destabilization of atherosclerosis plaques, leading to large-vessel occlusion and plaque ulceration with concomitant thromboemboli, and manifests as ischemic stroke. Another possible mechanism is the downregulation of angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 as the target action of severe acute respiratory syndrome-coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2). Acute stroke management protocols need to be modified during the COVID-19 pandemic in order to adequately manage stroke patients with COVID-19.

16.
J Prev Interv Community ; 49(2): 127-135, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1172608

ABSTRACT

Patients with COVID-19 may present with neurological manifestations, lack of oxygenation, or clotting disorders such as ischemic or hemorrhagic strokes. This has been observed in even young patients with mild symptoms. The aim of this study was to explore current online news coverage of acute stroke associated with COVID-19 in the four-month period from April 2020 to July 2020, a time during which the US found itself in the center of the pandemic. The relevant Google News stories were reviewed for content. The analysis indicated that 118 online news reports covered the topic to varying degrees, including data from reputable sources, references to the neurological symptoms, and to the incidence of stroke in young patients. It is important that health professionals be aware of this risk and convey to the public the possibility of stroke due to COVID-19 so as to increase the probability of early diagnosis and optimal outcomes.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Internet , Mass Media , Stroke/etiology , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Female , Humans , Information Storage and Retrieval , Male , Middle Aged , SARS-CoV-2 , Stroke/mortality , United States/epidemiology , Young Adult
17.
Eur J Vasc Endovasc Surg ; 62(1): 119-125, 2021 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1171631

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: A previous study revealed a preliminary trend towards higher in hospital mortality in patients admitted as an emergency with acute stroke during the COVID-19 pandemic in Germany. The current study aimed to further examine the possible impact of a confirmed SARS-CoV-2 infection on in hospital mortality. METHODS: This was a retrospective analysis of health insurance claims data from the second largest insurance fund in Germany, BARMER. Patients hospitalised for ST elevation (STEMI) and non-ST elevation (NSTEMI) myocardial infarction, acute limb ischaemia (ALI), aortic rupture, acute stroke, or transient ischaemic attack (TIA) between 1 January 2017, and 31 October 2020, were included. Admission rates per 10 000 insured and mortality were compared between March - June 2017 - 2019 (pre-COVID) and March - June 2020 (COVID). Mortality rates were determined by the occurrence of a confirmed SARS-CoV-2 infection. RESULTS: A total of 316 718 hospitalisations were included (48.7% female, mean 72.5 years), and 21 191 (6.7%, 95% CI 6.6% - 6.8%) deaths occurred. In hospital mortality increased during the COVID-19 pandemic when compared with the three previous years for patients with acute stroke from 8.3% (95% CI 8.0 - 8.5) to 9.6% (95% CI 9.1 - 10.2), while no statistically significant changes were observed for STEMI, NSTEMI, ALI, aortic rupture, and TIA. When comparing patients with confirmed SARS-CoV-2 infection (2.4%, 95% CI 2.3 - 2.5) vs. non-infected patients, a higher in hospital mortality was observed for acute stroke (12.4% vs. 9.0%), ALI (14.3% vs. 5.0%), and TIA (2.7% vs. 0.3%), while no statistically significant differences were observed for STEMI, NSTEMI, and aortic rupture. CONCLUSION: This retrospective analysis of claims data has provided hints of an association between the COVID-19 pandemic and increased in hospital mortality in patients with acute stroke. Furthermore, confirmed SARS-CoV-2 infection was associated with increased mortality in patients with stroke, TIA, and ALI. Future studies are urgently needed to better understand the underlying mechanism and relationship between the new coronavirus and acute stroke.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , Ischemic Attack, Transient/mortality , Peripheral Arterial Disease/mortality , Stroke/mortality , Administrative Claims, Healthcare/statistics & numerical data , Aged , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/epidemiology , Emergencies/epidemiology , Extremities/blood supply , Female , Germany/epidemiology , Hospital Mortality/trends , Humans , Insurance, Health/statistics & numerical data , Ischemic Attack, Transient/complications , Ischemic Attack, Transient/therapy , Male , Pandemics/statistics & numerical data , Peripheral Arterial Disease/complications , Peripheral Arterial Disease/therapy , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Stroke/complications , Stroke/therapy
18.
J Stroke Cerebrovasc Dis ; 30(8): 105806, 2021 Aug.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1171234

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The COVID-19 pandemic has strained the healthcare systems across the world but its impact on acute stroke care is just being elucidated. We hypothesized a major global impact of COVID-19 not only on stroke volumes but also on various aspects of thrombectomy systems. AIMS: We conducted a convenience electronic survey with a 21-item questionnaire aimed to identify the changes in stroke admission volumes and thrombectomy treatment practices seen during a specified time period of the COVID-19 pandemic. METHODS: The survey was designed using Qualtrics software and sent to stroke and neuro-interventional physicians around the world who are part of the Global Executive Committee (GEC) of Mission Thrombectomy 2020, a global coalition under the aegis of Society of Vascular and Interventional Neurology, between April 5th and May 15th, 2020. RESULTS: There were 113 responses to the survey across 25 countries with a response rate of 31% among the GEC members. Globally there was a median 33% decrease in stroke admissions and a 25% decrease in mechanical thrombectomy (MT) procedures during the COVID-19 pandemic period until May 15th, 2020 compared to pre-pandemic months. The intubation policy for MT procedures during the pandemic was highly variable across participating centers: 44% preferred intubating all patients, including 25% of centers that changed their policy to preferred-intubation (PI) from preferred non-intubation (PNI). On the other hand, 56% centers preferred not intubating patients undergoing MT, which included 27% centers that changed their policy from PI to PNI. There was no significant difference in rate of COVID-19 infection between PI versus PNI centers (p=0.60) or if intubation policy was changed in either direction (p=1.00). Low-volume (<10 stroke/month) compared with high-volume stroke centers (>20 strokes/month) were less likely to have neurointerventional suite specific written personal protective equipment protocols (74% vs 88%) and if present, these centers were more likely to report them to be inadequate (58% vs 92%). CONCLUSION: Our data provides a comprehensive snapshot of the impact on acute stroke care observed worldwide during the pandemic. Overall, respondents reported decreased stroke admissions as well as decreased cases of MT with no clear preponderance in intubation policy during MT. DATA ACCESS STATEMENT: The corresponding author will consider requests for sharing survey data. The study was exempt from institutional review board approval as it did not involve patient level data.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Global Health/trends , Healthcare Disparities/trends , Practice Patterns, Physicians'/trends , Stroke/therapy , Thrombectomy/trends , Cross-Sectional Studies , Health Care Surveys , Hospitals, High-Volume/trends , Hospitals, Low-Volume/trends , Humans , Infection Control/trends , Intubation, Intratracheal/trends , Patient Admission/trends , Stroke/diagnosis , Time Factors
19.
Atherosclerosis ; 328: 136-143, 2021 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1171201

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND AND AIMS: The potential impact of coronary atherosclerosis, as detected by coronary artery calcium, on clinical outcomes in COVID-19 patients remains unsettled. We aimed to evaluate the prognostic impact of clinical and subclinical coronary artery disease (CAD), as assessed by coronary artery calcium score (CAC), in a large, unselected population of hospitalized COVID-19 patients undergoing non-gated chest computed tomography (CT) for clinical practice. METHODS: SARS-CoV 2 positive patients from the multicenter (16 Italian hospitals), retrospective observational SCORE COVID-19 (calcium score for COVID-19 Risk Evaluation) registry were stratified in three groups: (a) "clinical CAD" (prior revascularization history), (b) "subclinical CAD" (CAC >0), (c) "No CAD" (CAC = 0). Primary endpoint was in-hospital mortality and the secondary endpoint was a composite of myocardial infarction and cerebrovascular accident (MI/CVA). RESULTS: Amongst 1625 patients (male 67.2%, median age 69 [interquartile range 58-77] years), 31%, 57.8% and 11.1% had no, subclinical and clinical CAD, respectively. Increasing rates of in-hospital mortality (11.3% vs. 27.3% vs. 39.8%, p < 0.001) and MI/CVA events (2.3% vs. 3.8% vs. 11.9%, p < 0.001) were observed for patients with no CAD vs. subclinical CAD vs clinical CAD, respectively. The association with in-hospital mortality was independent of in-study outcome predictors (age, peripheral artery disease, active cancer, hemoglobin, C-reactive protein, LDH, aerated lung volume): subclinical CAD vs. No CAD: adjusted hazard ratio (adj-HR) 2.86 (95% confidence interval [CI] 1.14-7.17, p=0.025); clinical CAD vs. No CAD: adj-HR 3.74 (95% CI 1.21-11.60, p=0.022). Among patients with subclinical CAD, increasing CAC burden was associated with higher rates of in-hospital mortality (20.5% vs. 27.9% vs. 38.7% for patients with CAC score thresholds≤100, 101-400 and > 400, respectively, p < 0.001). The adj-HR per 50 points increase in CAC score 1.007 (95%CI 1.001-1.013, p=0.016). Cardiovascular risk factors were not independent predictors of in-hospital mortality when CAD presence and extent were taken into account. CONCLUSIONS: The presence and extent of CAD are associated with in-hospital mortality and MI/CVA among hospitalized patients with COVID-19 disease and they appear to be a better prognostic gauge as compared to a clinical cardiovascular risk assessment.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Coronary Artery Disease , Aged , Calcium , Coronary Angiography , Coronary Artery Disease/diagnostic imaging , Coronary Vessels/diagnostic imaging , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2
20.
Ann Vasc Surg ; 75: 109-119, 2021 Aug.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1163380

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Cardiovascular involvement in SARS-CoV-2 infection has emerged as one of viral major clinical features during actual pandemic; limb arterial ischemic events, venous thrombosis, acute myocardial infection and stroke have occurred in patients. Acute aortic conditions have also been described, followed by interesting observations on cases, hypothesis, raised since the emergence of the pandemics. METHODS: a review of cases in literature of aortic pathology in patients with clinically suspected/microbiologically confirmed COVID-19 infection has been carried out to analyze anagraphic data, clinical presentation, treatment options and outcome. RESULTS: Seventeen cases have been included. Mean age of patients was 58.6 ± 15.2 years, with a male to female ratio of 12:15 (70.5% vs. 29.5%). Comorbidities were reported in 11 cases (64.7%), but in 5 cases (29.4%) no previous pathology was signaled in history. Hypertension was the most frequently reported comorbidity, in 8 cases, (47%), followed by renal pathology (17.6%), coronary artery disease (17.6%), previous aortic surgery (11.7%) and arrhythmia (11.7%); but also cerebrovascular disease, diabetes, autoimmune conditions, previous neoplasia and arrhythmia were reported once each. Fever and thoracic pain were the most frequently reported findings at presentation (8 cases, 47% each), followed by respiratory symptoms (6, 35.2%), low lymphocyte count (17.6%), features related to aneurysm rupture, ischemic stroke, abdominal pain and acute renal insufficiency. Reported aortic pathology included: type A aortic dissection (11 cases; 64.7%); new pathology of previous aortic graft (2 cases, 11.7%); 2 aortitis, 1 associated with type A aortic dissection; 1 thoraco-abdominal aortic aneurysm, 1 ruptured aortic aneurysm and 1 aortic embolizing thrombosis. Open surgery was carried out in 10 cases (58.8%), endovascular treatment in 3 (17.6%). Three patients (17.6%) died before surgery. Exitus was reported in 4 cases, with a total mortality of 23.5%. CONCLUSIONS: Acute aortic events have occurred during pandemic in patients with clinically suspected/microbiologically confirmed COVID-19 infection. Confounding clinical features at presentation, the importance of anamnestic details (as previous vascular graft implant), the observed surgical and postoperatory challenges may suggest the need to consider the implications of the possible link between acute aortic events and SARS-CoV-2 infection, in order to promptly correctly diagnose the patient and respond to specific needs.


Subject(s)
Aorta/pathology , Aortic Diseases/pathology , COVID-19 , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Aorta/surgery , Aortic Diseases/mortality , Aortic Diseases/therapy , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/mortality , COVID-19/therapy , Comorbidity , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Prognosis , Risk Assessment , Risk Factors , Time Factors
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