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2.
Brain Behav Immun ; 87: 115-119, 2020 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1719345

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: Acute stroke remains a medical emergency even during the COVID-19 pandemic. Most patients with COVID-19 infection present with constitutional and respiratory symptoms; while others present with atypical gastrointestinal, cardiovascular, or neurological manifestations. Here we present a series of four patients with COVID-19 that presented with acute stroke. METHODS: We searched the hospital databases for patients that presented with acute stroke and concomitant features of suspected COVID-19 infection. All patients who had radiographic evidence of stroke and PCR-confirmed COVID-19 infection were included in the study. Patients admitted to the hospital with PCR- confirmed COVID-19 disease whose hospital course was complicated with acute stroke while inpatient were excluded from the study. Retrospective patient data were obtained from electronic medical records. Informed consent was obtained. RESULTS: We identified four patients who presented with radiographic confirmation of acute stroke and PCR-confirmed SARS-CoV-2 infection. We elucidate the clinical characteristics, imaging findings, and the clinical course. CONCLUSIONS: Timely assessment and hyperacute treatment is the key to minimize mortality and morbidity of patients with acute stroke. Stroke teams should be wary of the fact that COVID-19 patients can present with cerebrovascular accidents and should dawn appropriate personal protective equipment in every suspected patient. Further studies are urgently needed to improve current understandings of neurological pathology in the setting of COVID-19 infection.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/complications , Pneumonia, Viral/complications , Stroke/metabolism , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Betacoronavirus , COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections/diagnostic imaging , Coronavirus Infections/metabolism , Female , Hospitalization , Humans , Male , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnostic imaging , Pneumonia, Viral/metabolism , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Stroke/complications
3.
Eur J Neurol ; 28(10): 3279-3288, 2021 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1604929

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: The aim of this nationwide study was to assess the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on stroke hospitalization rates, patient characteristics and 30-day case fatality rates. METHODS: All hospitalizations for stroke from January to June of each year from 2017 to 2020 were selected using International Classification of Diseases, 10th revision, codes I60 to I64 in the national hospital discharge database. Patient characteristics and management were described according to three time periods: pre-lockdown, lockdown, and post-lockdown. Weekly incidence rate ratios (IRRs) were computed to compare time trends in the rates of patients hospitalized for stroke as well as in-hospital and 30-day case fatality rates between the years 2017-2019 and 2020. RESULTS: In 2020, between weeks 1 and 24, 55,308 patients were hospitalized for stroke in France. IRRs decreased by up to 30% for all age groups, sex, and stroke types during the lockdown compared to the period 2017-2019. Patients hospitalized during the second and third weeks of the lockdown had higher in-hospital case fatality rates compared to 2017-2019. In-hospital case fatality rates increased by almost 60% in patients aged under 65 years. Out-of-hospital 30-day case fatality rates increased between weeks 11 and 15 among patients who returned home after their hospitalization. Important changes in care management were found, including fewer stroke patients admitted to resuscitation units, more admitted to stroke care units, and a shorter mean length of hospitalization. CONCLUSIONS: During the first weeks of the lockdown, rates of patients hospitalized for stroke fell by 30% and there were substantial increases of both in-hospital and out-of-hospital 30-day case fatality rates.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Stroke , Aged , Communicable Disease Control , France/epidemiology , Hospitalization , Humans , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , Stroke/epidemiology , Stroke/therapy
4.
J Thromb Thrombolysis ; 52(4): 1047-1055, 2021 Nov.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1525568

ABSTRACT

To estimate the impact on emergency attendance for stroke and acute myocardial infarction (AMI) during the pandemic of COVID-19 in Beijing, China. Based on 17,123 and 8693 emergency attendance for stroke and AMI, an interrupted time-series (ITS) study was conducted. Since 01/24/2020, the top two levels of regulations on major public health have been implemented in Beijing. This study covered from 03/01/2018 to 06/03/2020, including 19 weeks of lockdown period and 99 weeks before. A segmented Poisson regression model was used to estimate the immediate change and the monthly change in the secular trend of the emergency attendance rates. The emergency attendance rates of stroke and AMI cut in half at the beginning of the lockdown period, with 52.1% (95% CI 45.8% to 57.7%) and 63.1% (95% CI 56.1% to 63.1%) immediate decreases for stroke and AMI, respectively. Then during the lockdown period, 7.0% (95% CI 2.5%, 11.6%) and 16.1% (95% CI 9.5, 23.1) increases per month in the secular trends of emergency attendance rates were shown for stroke and AMI, respectively. Though the accelerated increasing rates, there were estimated 1335 and 747 patients with stroke and AMI without seeking emergency medical aid during the lockdown, respectively. The emergency attendance for stroke and AMI cut in half at the beginning of the pandemic then had gradual restoration thereafter. The results hint the need for more engagement and communications with all stakeholders to reduce the negative impact on CVD emergency medical services during the crisis.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Emergency Medical Services/statistics & numerical data , Myocardial Infarction , Stroke , Beijing , Humans , Interrupted Time Series Analysis , Myocardial Infarction/epidemiology , Myocardial Infarction/therapy , Pandemics , Stroke/epidemiology , Stroke/therapy
5.
J Neurointerv Surg ; 13(12): 1088-1094, 2021 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1526521

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The optimal anesthesia management for patients with stroke undergoing mechanical thrombectomy (MT) during the COVID-19 pandemic has become a matter of controversy. Some recent guidelines have favored general anesthesia (GA) in patients perceived as high risk for intraprocedural conversion from sedation to GA, including those with dominant hemispheric occlusions/aphasia or baseline National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale (NIHSS) score >15. We aim to identify the rate and predictors of conversion to GA during MT in a high-volume center where monitored anesthesia care (MAC) is the default modality. METHODS: A retrospective review of a prospectively maintained MT database from January 2013 to July 2020 was undertaken. Analyses were conducted to identify the predictors of intraprocedural conversion to GA. In addition, we analyzed the GA conversion rates in subgroups of interest. RESULTS: Among 1919 MT patients, 1681 (87.6%) started treatment under MAC (median age 65 years (IQR 55-76); baseline NIHSS 16 (IQR 11-21); 48.4% women). Of the 1677 eligible patients, 26 (1.6%) converted to GA including 1.4% (22/1615) with anterior and 6.5% (4/62) with posterior circulation strokes. The only predictor of GA conversion was posterior circulation stroke (OR 4.99, 95% CI 1.67 to 14.96, P=0.004). The conversion rates were numerically higher in right than in left hemispheric occlusions (1.6% vs 1.2%; OR 1.37, 95% CI 0.59 to 3.19, P=0.47) and in milder than in more severe strokes (NIHSS ≤15 vs >15: 2% vs 1.2%; OR 0.62, 95% CI 0.28 to 1.36, P=0.23). CONCLUSIONS: Our study showed that the overall rate of conversion from MAC to GA during MT was low (1.6%) and, while higher in posterior circulation strokes, it was not predicted by either hemispheric dominance or stroke severity. Caution should be given before changing clinical practice during moments of crisis.


Subject(s)
Brain Ischemia , COVID-19 , Stroke , Aged , Anesthesia, General/adverse effects , Brain Ischemia/surgery , Female , Humans , Male , Pandemics , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Stroke/surgery , Thrombectomy , Treatment Outcome , United States
6.
J Infect Dis ; 221(2): 183-190, 2020 01 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1452713

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Severe influenza illness is presumed more common in adults with chronic medical conditions (CMCs), but evidence is sparse and often combined into broad CMC categories. METHODS: Residents (aged 18-80 years) of Central and South Auckland hospitalized for World Health Organization-defined severe acute respiratory illness (SARI) (2012-2015) underwent influenza virus polymerase chain reaction testing. The CMC statuses for Auckland residents were modeled using hospitalization International Classification of Diseases, Tenth Revision codes, pharmaceutical claims, and laboratory results. Population-level influenza rates in adults with congestive heart failure (CHF), coronary artery disease (CAD), cerebrovascular accidents (CVA), chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), asthma, diabetes mellitus (DM), and end-stage renal disease (ESRD) were calculated by Poisson regression stratified by age and adjusted for ethnicity. RESULTS: Among 891 276 adults, 2435 influenza-associated SARI hospitalizations occurred. Rates were significantly higher in those with CMCs compared with those without the respective CMC, except for older adults with DM or those aged <65 years with CVA. The largest effects occurred with CHF (incidence rate ratio [IRR] range, 4.84-13.4 across age strata), ESRD (IRR range, 3.30-9.02), CAD (IRR range, 2.77-10.7), and COPD (IRR range, 5.89-8.78) and tapered with age. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings support the increased risk of severe, laboratory-confirmed influenza disease among adults with specific CMCs compared with those without these conditions.


Subject(s)
Chronic Disease/epidemiology , Influenza, Human/epidemiology , Adolescent , Adult , Age Distribution , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Case-Control Studies , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , Hospitalization/statistics & numerical data , Humans , Incidence , Influenza, Human/virology , Male , Middle Aged , New Zealand/epidemiology , Prospective Studies , Risk Assessment , Young Adult
7.
Cureus ; 13(4): e14651, 2021 Apr 23.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1456514

ABSTRACT

Background There are no clear consensus guidelines on the indications and types of anticoagulation therapies in patients with bio-prosthetic valves either with concomitant atrial fibrillation (AF) or sinus rhythm. In our meta-analysis, we assessed the safety and efficacy of DOACs as compared to the standard treatment with warfarin in patients with AF and bioprosthetic valves. Methods We included randomized controlled trials (RCTs), cohort studies in the English language, and studies reporting patients with valvular heart disease that included bioprosthetic valvular disease. A systematic literature review using Embase, PubMed, and Web of Science was performed using the terms "Direct Acting Oral Anticoagulant," "Oral Anticoagulants," "Non-Vitamin K Antagonist Oral Anticoagulant," "Atrial Fibrillation," "Bioprosthetic Valve" for literature published prior to January 2021. Extraction of data from included studies was carried out independently by three reviewers from Covidence. We assessed the methodical rigor of the included studies using the modified Downs and Black checklist. Results Four RCTs and one observational study (n=1776) were included in our study. A random-effect model using RevMan (version 5.4; The Nordic Cochrane Centre, The Cochrane Collaboration, Copenhagen) was used for data analysis. The pooled data showed that there was a non-significant reduction in the incidence of stroke and systemic embolism in the patients taking DOACs as compared to warfarin (HR 0.69; 95% CI, 0.29, 1.67; I2 = 50%). The incidence of major bleeding was lower in the DOACs group; the difference was statistically significant (HR 0.42; 95% CI, 0.26, 0.67; I2 = 7%). The difference was not statistically significant for all-cause mortality in both groups (HR 1.24; 95% CI, 0.91, 1.67; I2 = 0%). Conclusion Our results showed that there was no difference in the outcomes of stroke and systemic embolism between DOACs and warfarin but there were statistically significantly lower major bleeding events. We conclude that larger clinical trials are needed to assess the true safety and efficacy of DOACs in patients with AF and bioprosthetic valves.

8.
BMJ Case Rep ; 14(4)2021 Apr 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1388472

ABSTRACT

Neurological complications of SARS-CoV-2 continue to be recognised. In children, neurological phenomenon has been reported generally in the acute infectious period. It is possible that SARS-CoV-2 could trigger an immune-mediated post-infectious phenomenon. Here, we present a unique case of post-infectious marantic cardiac lesion causing cerebrovascular accident in a patient with Down syndrome.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , Down Syndrome , Nervous System Diseases/virology , Stroke/virology , Child , Down Syndrome/complications , Down Syndrome/virology , Humans , Inflammation/complications , Inflammation/virology
9.
Liver Int ; 41(1): 76-80, 2021 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1388351

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Rate of SARS-CoV-2 infection and impact of liver fibrosis stage upon infection rates in persons with hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection are unknown. METHODS: We retrospectively analysed the Electronically Retrieved Cohort of HCV Infected Veterans (ERCHIVES), a well-established database of HCV-infected Veterans in care. We excluded those with missing FIB-4 score and those with HIV or hepatitis B virus co-infection. We determined the number of persons tested, proportion who tested positive for SARS-CoV-2 and the infection rate by age and liver fibrosis stage. RESULTS: Among 172,235 persons with HCV, 14,305 (8.3%) were tested for SARS-CoV-2 infection and 892 (6.2%) tested positive. Those with SARS-CoV-2 infection were older, more likely to be Black (55.2% vs 37.8%), obese (body mass index >30 kg/m2 36.2% vs 29.7%) and have diabetes or stroke (P < .0001 for all comparisons). Mean FIB-4 scores and proportion of persons with cirrhosis (based on a FIB-4 > 3.25) were similar in both groups. Incidence rate/1,000 tested persons was much higher among Blacks (88.4; 95% CI 81.1, 96.2) vs Whites (37.5; 95% CI 33.1, 42.4) but similar among those with cirrhosis (FIB-4 > 3.25). The rates were also similar among those who were untreated for HCV vs those treated with or without attaining a sustained virologic response. CONCLUSIONS: Testing rates among persons with HCV are very low. Persons with infection are more likely to be Black, have a higher body mass index and diabetes or stroke. The degree of liver fibrosis does not appear to have an impact on infection rate.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Hepatitis C/complications , SARS-CoV-2 , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Body Mass Index , COVID-19/ethnology , Female , Humans , Incidence , Male , Middle Aged , Retrospective Studies , Young Adult
10.
Stroke ; 52(6): 2125-2133, 2021 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1352602

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has potentially caused indirect harm to patients with other conditions via reduced access to health care services. We aimed to describe the impact of the initial wave of the pandemic on admissions, care quality, and outcomes in patients with acute stroke in the United Kingdom. METHODS: Registry-based cohort study of patients with acute stroke admitted to hospital in England, Wales, and Northern Ireland between October 1, 2019, and April 30, 2020, and equivalent periods in the 3 prior years. RESULTS: One hundred fourteen hospitals provided data for a study cohort of 184 017 patients. During the lockdown period (March 23 to April 30), there was a 12% reduction (6923 versus 7902) in the number of admissions compared with the same period in the 3 previous years. Admissions fell more for ischemic than hemorrhagic stroke, for older patients, and for patients with less severe strokes. Quality of care was preserved for all measures and in some domains improved during lockdown (direct access to stroke unit care, 1-hour brain imaging, and swallow screening). Although there was no change in the proportion of patients discharged with good outcome (modified Rankin Scale score, ≤2; 48% versus 48%), 7-day inpatient case fatality increased from 6.9% to 9.4% (P<0.001) and was 22.0% in patients with confirmed or suspected COVID-19 (adjusted rate ratio, 1.41 [1.11-1.80]). CONCLUSIONS: Assuming that the true incidence of acute stroke did not change markedly during the pandemic, hospital avoidance may have created a cohort of untreated stroke patients at risk of poorer outcomes or recurrent events. Unanticipated improvements in stroke care quality should be used as an opportunity for quality improvement and to learn about how to develop resilient health care systems.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Quality of Health Care/standards , Stroke/epidemiology , Stroke/therapy , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Cohort Studies , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics/prevention & control , Prospective Studies , Quality of Health Care/trends , Registries , United Kingdom/epidemiology
11.
Cerebrovasc Dis ; 50(2): 185-199, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1348201

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Posterior circulation stroke is characterized by poor prognosis because its optimal thrombolysis "time window" is always missed. After mechanical thrombectomy (MT), the recanalization rate of posterior circulation obstruction is significantly increased, but prognosis remains poor. To best manage patients, prognostic factors are needed to inform MT triaging after posterior circulation stroke. METHODS: A systematic literature search was done for the period through April 2020. Studies included those with posterior circulation stroke cases that underwent MT. The primary outcome measure in this study was the modified Rankin Scale on day 90. RESULTS: No outcome differences were found in gender, atrial fibrillation, smoking, and coronary artery disease (OR = 1.07, 95% CI: 0.90-1.28; OR = 1.02, 95% CI: 0.82-1.26; OR = 1.26, 95% CI: 0.94-1.68; and OR = 0.84, 95% CI: 0.58-1.22, respectively). Hypertension, diabetes mellitus, and previous stroke correlated with poorer prognosis (OR = 0.61, 95% CI: 0.48-0.77; OR = 0.60, 95% CI: 0.50-0.73; and OR = 0.74, 95% CI: 0.55-0.99, respectively). However, hyperlipidemia correlated with better prognosis (OR = 1.28, 95% CI: 1.04-1.58). CONCLUSION: Our analysis indicates that hypertension, diabetes mellitus, or previous stroke correlate with poorer outcomes. Intriguingly, hyperlipidemia correlates with better prognosis. These factors may help inform triage decisions when considering MT for posterior circulation stroke patients. However, large, multicenter, randomized controlled trials are needed to validate these observations.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Ischemic Stroke/therapy , Outcome and Process Assessment, Health Care/trends , Patient Admission/trends , Practice Patterns, Physicians'/trends , Thrombectomy/trends , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Female , Hospital Mortality/trends , Humans , Ischemic Stroke/diagnosis , Ischemic Stroke/mortality , Male , Middle Aged , Quality Indicators, Health Care/trends , Recovery of Function , Referral and Consultation/trends , Retrospective Studies , Risk Assessment , Risk Factors , Thrombectomy/adverse effects , Thrombectomy/mortality , Time Factors , Time-to-Treatment/trends , Treatment Outcome
12.
A A Pract ; 15(5): e01458, 2021 May 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1329124

ABSTRACT

A significant number of patients with coronavirus disease 2019 develop strokes with large vessel obstructions that may require endovascular treatment for revascularization. Our series focuses on periprocedural issues and the anesthetic management of these patients. We analyzed medical records of 5 patients with positive reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction tests for severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 during their hospitalization who underwent endovascular treatment at our hospital between March and mid-June 2020. We found that our patients were different from the typical patients with ischemic stroke in that they had signs of hypercoagulability, hypoxia, and a lack of hypertension at presentation.


Subject(s)
Anesthetics , Brain Ischemia , COVID-19 , Endovascular Procedures , Stroke , Humans , SARS-CoV-2
13.
Stroke Vasc Neurol ; 5(4): 331-336, 2020 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1318206

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: COVID-19, caused by SARS-CoV-2, is a global pandemic that has been an immense burden on healthcare systems all over the world. These patients may be at higher risk for acute ischaemic stroke (AIS). We present our experience with AIS in patients with COVID-19. METHODS: We reviewed all patients admitted to our hospital during a 6-week period with a positive nasopharyngeal swab test for SARS-CoV-2. Among these patients, we identified AIS. We reviewed the demographics, clinical, laboratory, imaging characteristics, treatments received and outcomes of AIS in patients with COVID-19. RESULTS: We identified 683 patients admitted with COVID-19 during the study period, of which 20 patients had AIS. Large-vessel occlusion (LVO) was noted in 11 patients (55%). Intravenous alteplase was administered in four patients (20%) and mechanical thrombectomy was performed in five patients (25%). Respiratory symptoms preceded the onset of AIS in most of the patients (70%) by 1 to 21 days. Mortality in patients with AIS was 50% compared with 26% of all COVID-19 admissions. Most of these patients died due to non-neurological causes (70%). Three patients with AIS had clinical and imaging findings consistent with COVID-19, but were negative for multiple nasopharyngeal swab tests. INTERPRETATION: LVO was more common in patients with AIS and COVID-19. They had more severe disease and higher mortality rates. Most of the patients had respiratory symptoms preceding AIS by days to weeks. This could explain certain patients with clinical picture of COVID-19 but negative nasopharyngeal swab tests.


Subject(s)
Brain Ischemia , COVID-19 , Stroke , Humans , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , Stroke/diagnosis , Thrombectomy
14.
Stroke Vasc Neurol ; 5(4): 403-405, 2020 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1318203

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Patients with stroke-like symptoms may be underutilising emergency medical services and avoiding hospitalisation during the COVID-19 pandemic. We investigated a decline in admissions for stroke and transient ischaemic attack (TIA) and emergency department (ED) stroke alert activations. METHODS: We retrospectively compiled total weekly hospital admissions for stroke and TIA between 31 December 2018 and 21 April 2019 versus 30 December 2019 and 19 April 2020 at five US tertiary academic comprehensive stroke centres in cities with early COVID-19 outbreaks in Boston, New York City, Providence and Seattle. We collected available data on ED stroke alerts, stroke severity using the National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale (NIHSS) and time from symptom onset to hospital arrival. RESULTS: Compared with 31 December 2018 to 21 April 2019, a decline in stroke/TIA admissions and ED stroke alerts occurred during 30 December 2019 to 19 April 2020 (p trend <0.001 for each). The declines coincided with state stay-at-home recommendations in late March. The greatest decline in hospital admissions was observed between 23 March and 19 April 2020, with a 31% decline compared with the corresponding weeks in 2019. Three of the five centres with 2019 and 2020 stroke alert data had a 46% decline in ED stroke alerts in late March and April 2020, compared with 2019. Median baseline NIHSS during these 4 weeks was 10 in 2020 and 7 in 2019. There was no difference in time from symptom onset to hospital arrival. CONCLUSION: At these five large academic US hospitals, admissions for stroke and TIA declined during the COVID-19 pandemic. There was a trend for fewer ED stroke alerts at three of the five centres with available 2019 and 2020 data. Acute stroke therapies are time-sensitive, so decreased healthcare access or utilisation may lead to more disabling or fatal strokes, or more severe non-neurological complications related to stroke. Our findings underscore the indirect effects of this pandemic. Public health officials, hospital systems and healthcare providers must continue to encourage patients with stroke to seek acute care during this crisis.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Hospitalization/statistics & numerical data , Pandemics , Stroke/epidemiology , Emergency Medical Services/statistics & numerical data , Female , Humans , Ischemic Attack, Transient/epidemiology , Male , Middle Aged , Retrospective Studies , Time-to-Treatment , United States/epidemiology
15.
Drugs Aging ; 38(6): 469-479, 2021 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1279506

ABSTRACT

Over the last 50 years, the Indian population aged 50 years and above (older adults) has quadrupled and is expected to comprise 404 million people in 2036, representing 27% of the country's projected population. Consequently, the contribution of chronic disease to older adults' total burden of diseases in India is likely to escalate. Disease burden is notably amplified by immunosenescence, a deterioration of the immune system that develops with age, leading to increasing susceptibility to infectious diseases and other comorbidities. Older adults with infectious diseases have a higher incidence and likelihood of life-threatening comorbidities such as coronary artery disease, arrhythmia, stroke, myocardial infarction, hypertension, dyslipidemia, and diabetes mellitus. Therefore, immunization of older adults through vaccination might greatly reduce the burden imposed by vaccine preventable infectious diseases in this population. Here, we review evidence relevant to the disease burden among adults aged ≥ 50 years in India, and existing vaccination recommendations. Furthermore, we suggest a set of routine vaccinations for healthy older adults in India. There is a clear mandate to recognize the contributions of older adults to society and embrace strategies promoting healthy aging, which is described by the World Health Organization as the process of developing and maintaining functional ability and well-being in older age. Increasing vaccination awareness and coverage among older adults is an important step in that direction for India.


Subject(s)
Healthy Aging , Activities of Daily Living , Aged , Humans , Immunization Programs , India/epidemiology , Vaccination
16.
BMJ Open ; 11(6): e048926, 2021 06 18.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1276965

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: People with chronic conditions are known to be vulnerable to the COVID-19 pandemic. This study aims to describe patients' lived experiences, challenges faced by people with chronic conditions, their coping strategies, and the social and economic impacts of the COVID-19 pandemic. DESIGN, SETTING AND PARTICIPANTS: We conducted a qualitative study using a syndemic framework to understand the patients' experiences of chronic disease care, challenges faced during the lockdown, their coping strategies and mitigators during the COVID-19 pandemic in the context of socioecological and biological factors. A diverse sample of 41 participants with chronic conditions (hypertension, diabetes, stroke and cardiovascular diseases) from four sites (Delhi, Haryana, Vizag and Chennai) in India participated in semistructured interviews. All interviews were audio recorded, transcribed, translated, anonymised and coded using MAXQDA software. We used the framework method to qualitatively analyse the COVID-19 pandemic impacts on health, social and economic well-being. RESULTS: Participant experiences during the COVID-19 pandemic were categorised into four themes: challenges faced during the lockdown, experiences of the participants diagnosed with COVID-19, preventive measures taken and lessons learnt during the COVID-19 pandemic. A subgroup of participants faced difficulties in accessing healthcare while a few reported using teleconsultations. Most participants reported adverse economic impact of the pandemic which led to higher reporting of anxiety and stress. Participants who tested COVID-19 positive reported experiencing discrimination and stigma from neighbours. All participants reported taking essential preventive measures. CONCLUSION: People with chronic conditions experienced a confluence (reciprocal effect) of COVID-19 pandemic and chronic diseases in the context of difficulty in accessing healthcare, sedentary lifestyle and increased stress and anxiety. Patients' lived experiences during the pandemic provide important insights to inform effective transition to a mixed realm of online consultations and 'distanced' physical clinic visits.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pandemics , Chronic Disease , Communicable Disease Control , Humans , India/epidemiology , Patient Outcome Assessment , Perception , Qualitative Research , SARS-CoV-2
17.
Eur Heart J Suppl ; 22(Suppl Pt t): P25-P28, 2020 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1272962

ABSTRACT

In the context of COVID-19 infection, 0.5-2% of affected patients will suffer a stroke. The strokes are usually severe with an unfavourable prognosis. Most patients suffer from occlusion of the large brain-supplying arteries caused by the COVID-19 induced coagulation disorders. In the context of COVID-19 infection, there has been a dramatic temporary decrease in the number of stroke patients treated in stroke units.

18.
Hemodial Int ; 25(4): E44-E47, 2021 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1270838

ABSTRACT

Neurological manifestations of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) often have tragic repercussions. Although many reports of neurological complications of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 infection exist, none of them are of patients on hemodialysis, who have a fivefold greater risk of stroke than the general population. In this report, we emphasize the importance of being vigilant for mild stroke in high risk populations-such as patients on hemodialysis-with COVID-19, since these conditions have overlapping symptoms.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Cognitive Dysfunction , Nervous System Diseases , Cognitive Dysfunction/etiology , Humans , Renal Dialysis/adverse effects , SARS-CoV-2
19.
BMJ Open ; 11(5): e043488, 2021 05 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1259007

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Stroke is a common cause of epilepsy that may be mediated via glutamate dysregulation. There is currently no evidence to support the use of antiseizure medications as primary prevention against poststroke epilepsy. Perampanel has a unique antiglutamatergic mechanism of action and may have antiepileptogenic properties. This study aims to evaluate the efficacy and safety of perampanel as an antiepileptogenic treatment in patients at high risk of poststroke epilepsy. METHODS AND ANALYSIS: Up to 328 patients with cortical ischaemic stroke or lobar haemorrhage will be enrolled, and receive their first treatment within 7 days of stroke onset. Patients will be randomised (1:1) to receive perampanel (titrated to 6 mg daily over 4 weeks) or matching placebo, stratified by stroke subtype (ischaemic or haemorrhagic). Treatment will be continued for 12 weeks after titration. 7T MRI will be performed at baseline for quantification of cerebral glutamate by magnetic resonance spectroscopy and glutamate chemical exchange saturation transfer imaging. Blood will be collected for measurement of plasma glutamate levels. Participants will be followed up for 52 weeks after randomisation.The primary study outcome will be the proportion of participants in each group free of late (more than 7 days after stroke onset) poststroke seizures by the end of the 12-month study period, analysed by Fisher's exact test. Secondary outcomes will include time to first seizure, time to treatment withdrawal and 3-month modified Rankin Scale score. Quality of life, cognitive function, mood and adverse events will be assessed by standardised questionnaires. Exploratory outcomes will include correlation between cerebral and plasma glutamate concentration and stroke and seizure outcomes. ETHICS AND DISSEMINATION: This study was approved by the Alfred Health Human Research Ethics Committee (HREC No 44366, Reference 287/18). TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBER: ACTRN12618001984280; Pre-results.


Subject(s)
Brain Ischemia , COVID-19 , Stroke , Clinical Trials, Phase II as Topic , Double-Blind Method , Humans , Nitriles , Pyridones , Quality of Life , Randomized Controlled Trials as Topic , SARS-CoV-2 , Stroke/complications , Stroke/drug therapy , Treatment Outcome
20.
J Stroke Cerebrovasc Dis ; 30(8): 105919, 2021 Aug.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1253283

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The characteristics and pathophysiological mechanisms involved in acute ischemic stroke in patients with COVID-19 infection have not been fully clarified. We prospectively studied the phenotypic and etiological features of acute stroke occurring in COVID-19 infection. PATIENTS & METHODS: Within nine months starting from April-2020, the presence of COVID-19 infection was determined by thoracic CT and SARS-CoV-2 PCR in all acute stroke cases managed in a single tertiary center. Consecutive and prospective data on vascular risk factors/comorbidities, in-hospital quality metrics, discharge outcomes, etiological subclassification and blood markers of thrombosis / inflammation were compared in 44 COVID-19 positive cases (37 acute ischemic stroke, 5 TIA, 2 intracerebral hematoma) and 509 COVID-19 negative patients (355 ischemic, 105 TIA, 44 hematoma and 5 stroke mimic). RESULTS: COVID-19 positive patients had more severe strokes, delayed hospital admission, longer hospital stay, higher mortality rates, but had similar vascular risk factors/comorbidities frequency, thrombolysis/thrombectomy utilization rates, metrics, and stroke etiological subtype. They had significantly higher CRP, fibrinogen, ferritin, leukocyte count and lower lymphocyte count. No difference was detected in aPTT, INR, D-dimer, platelet, hemoglobin, homocysteine levels and ANA, anti-dsDNA antibody and ENA panel positivity rates. Anti-phospholipid antibodies have been studied in 70% of COVID-19 positive and all cryptogenic patients, but were never found positive. Tests for coagulation factor levels and hereditary thrombophilia did not show major thrombophilia in any of the stroke patients with COVID-19. CONCLUSION: We documented that there is no significant difference in etiological spectrum in acute stroke patients with COVID-19 infection. In addition, cryptogenic stroke and antiphospholipid antibody positivity rates did not increase.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , Hemorrhagic Stroke/etiology , Ischemic Attack, Transient/etiology , Ischemic Stroke/etiology , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Biomarkers/blood , Blood Coagulation , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/therapy , COVID-19/virology , Case-Control Studies , Female , Hemorrhagic Stroke/diagnosis , Hemorrhagic Stroke/therapy , Humans , Inflammation Mediators/blood , Ischemic Attack, Transient/diagnosis , Ischemic Attack, Transient/therapy , Ischemic Stroke/diagnosis , Ischemic Stroke/therapy , Male , Middle Aged , Prognosis , Prospective Studies , Risk Assessment , Risk Factors
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