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1.
J Stroke Cerebrovasc Dis ; 30(8): 105857, 2021 Aug.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1213403

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To characterize differences in disposition arrangement among rehab-eligible stroke patients at a Comprehensive Stroke Center before and during the COVID-19 pandemic. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We retrospectively analyzed a prospective registry for demographics, hospital course, and discharge dispositions of rehab-eligible acute stroke survivors admitted 6 months prior to (10/2019-03/2020) and during (04/2020-09/2020) the COVID-19 pandemic. The primary outcome was discharge to an inpatient rehabilitation facility (IRF) as opposed to other facilities using descriptive statistics, and IRF versus home using unadjusted and adjusted backward stepwise logistic regression. RESULTS: Of the 507 rehab-eligible stroke survivors, there was no difference in age, premorbid disability, or stroke severity between study periods (p>0.05). There was a 9% absolute decrease in discharges to an IRF during the pandemic (32.1% vs. 41.1%, p=0.04), which translated to 38% lower odds of being discharged to IRF versus home in unadjusted regression (OR 0.62, 95%CI 0.42-0.92, p=0.016). The lower odds of discharge to IRF persisted in the multivariable model (aOR 0.16, 95%CI 0.09-0.31, p<0.001) despite a significant increase in discharge disability (median discharge mRS 4 [IQR 2-4] vs. 2 [IQR 1-3], p<0.001) during the pandemic. CONCLUSIONS: Admission for stroke during the COVID-19 pandemic was associated with a significantly lower probability of being discharged to an IRF. This effect persisted despite adjustment for predictors of IRF disposition, including functional disability at discharge. Potential reasons for this disparity are explored.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Patient Discharge/trends , Patient Transfer/trends , Practice Patterns, Physicians'/trends , Stroke Rehabilitation/trends , Stroke/therapy , Aged , Disability Evaluation , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , New Jersey , Recovery of Function , Registries , Retrospective Studies , Stroke/diagnosis , Stroke/physiopathology , Time Factors
2.
JMIR Mhealth Uhealth ; 8(7): e17216, 2020 07 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1177909

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Recent advancements in wearable sensor technology have shown the feasibility of remote physical therapy at home. In particular, the current COVID-19 pandemic has revealed the need and opportunity of internet-based wearable technology in future health care systems. Previous research has shown the feasibility of human activity recognition technologies for monitoring rehabilitation activities in home environments; however, few comprehensive studies ranging from development to clinical evaluation exist. OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to (1) develop a home-based rehabilitation (HBR) system that can recognize and record the type and frequency of rehabilitation exercises conducted by the user using a smartwatch and smartphone app equipped with a machine learning (ML) algorithm and (2) evaluate the efficacy of the home-based rehabilitation system through a prospective comparative study with chronic stroke survivors. METHODS: The HBR system involves an off-the-shelf smartwatch, a smartphone, and custom-developed apps. A convolutional neural network was used to train the ML algorithm for detecting home exercises. To determine the most accurate way for detecting the type of home exercise, we compared accuracy results with the data sets of personal or total data and accelerometer, gyroscope, or accelerometer combined with gyroscope data. From March 2018 to February 2019, we conducted a clinical study with two groups of stroke survivors. In total, 17 and 6 participants were enrolled for statistical analysis in the HBR group and control group, respectively. To measure clinical outcomes, we performed the Wolf Motor Function Test (WMFT), Fugl-Meyer Assessment of Upper Extremity, grip power test, Beck Depression Inventory, and range of motion (ROM) assessment of the shoulder joint at 0, 6, and 12 months, and at a follow-up assessment 6 weeks after retrieving the HBR system. RESULTS: The ML model created with personal data involving accelerometer combined with gyroscope data (5590/5601, 99.80%) was the most accurate compared with accelerometer (5496/5601, 98.13%) or gyroscope data (5381/5601, 96.07%). In the comparative study, the drop-out rates in the control and HBR groups were 40% (4/10) and 22% (5/22) at 12 weeks and 100% (10/10) and 45% (10/22) at 18 weeks, respectively. The HBR group (n=17) showed a significant improvement in the mean WMFT score (P=.02) and ROM of flexion (P=.004) and internal rotation (P=.001). The control group (n=6) showed a significant change only in shoulder internal rotation (P=.03). CONCLUSIONS: This study found that a home care system using a commercial smartwatch and ML model can facilitate participation in home training and improve the functional score of the WMFT and shoulder ROM of flexion and internal rotation in the treatment of patients with chronic stroke. This strategy can possibly be a cost-effective tool for the home care treatment of stroke survivors in the future. TRIAL REGISTRATION: Clinical Research Information Service KCT0004818; https://tinyurl.com/y92w978t.


Subject(s)
Home Care Services , Internet , Stroke Rehabilitation/methods , Stroke/physiopathology , Telerehabilitation , Upper Extremity/physiopathology , Wearable Electronic Devices , Aged , Chronic Disease , Exercise Therapy/statistics & numerical data , Humans , Machine Learning , Middle Aged , Mobile Applications , Models, Theoretical , Prospective Studies , Survivors , Treatment Outcome
3.
J Med Case Rep ; 15(1): 148, 2021 Mar 22.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1147316

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: A significant portion of critically ill patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) are at high risk of developing intensive care unit (ICU)-acquired swallowing dysfunction (neurogenic dysphagia) as a consequence of requiring prolonged mechanical ventilation. Pharyngeal electrical stimulation (PES) is a simple and safe treatment for neurogenic dysphagia. It has been shown that PES can restore safe swallowing in orally intubated or tracheotomized ICU patients with neurogenic dysphagia following severe stroke. We report the case of a patient with severe neurogenic post-extubation dysphagia (PED) due to prolonged intubation and severe general muscle weakness related to COVID-19, which was successfully treated using PES. CASE PRESENTATION: A 71-year-old Caucasian female patient with confirmed severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection developed neurogenic dysphagia following prolonged intubation in the ICU. To avoid aerosol-generating procedures, her swallowing function was evaluated non-instrumentally as recommended by recently published international guidelines in response to the COVID-19 pandemic. Her swallowing function was markedly impaired and PES therapy was recommended. PES led to a rapid improvement of the PED, as evaluated by bedside swallowing assessments using the Gugging Swallowing Screen (GUSS) and Dysphagia Severity Rating Scale (DSRS), and diet screening using the Functional Oral Intake Scale (FOIS). The improved swallowing, as reflected by these measures, allowed this patient to transfer from the ICU to a non-intensive medical department 5 days after completing PES treatment. CONCLUSIONS: PES treatment contributed to the restoration of a safe swallowing function in this critically ill patient with COVID-19 and ICU-acquired swallowing dysfunction. Early clinical bedside swallowing assessment and dysphagia intervention in COVID-19 patients is crucial to optimize their full recovery. PES may contribute to a safe and earlier ICU discharge of patients with ICU-acquired swallowing dysfunction. Earlier ICU discharge and reduced rates of re-intubation following PES can help alleviate some of the pressure on ICU bed capacity, which is critical in times of a health emergency such as the ongoing COVID-19 pandemic.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/therapy , Deglutition Disorders/therapy , Electric Stimulation Therapy/methods , Intubation, Intratracheal/adverse effects , Pharynx , Recovery of Function , Aged , Deglutition Disorders/etiology , Deglutition Disorders/physiopathology , Female , Humans , Respiration, Artificial , SARS-CoV-2 , Severity of Illness Index , Treatment Outcome
4.
Front Hum Neurosci ; 15: 645714, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1133937

ABSTRACT

The ipsilesional arm of stroke patients often has functionally limiting deficits in motor control and dexterity that depend on the side of the brain that is lesioned and that increase with the severity of paretic arm impairment. However, remediation of the ipsilesional arm has yet to be integrated into the usual standard of care for upper limb rehabilitation in stroke, largely due to a lack of translational research examining the effects of ipsilesional-arm intervention. We now ask whether ipsilesional-arm training, tailored to the hemisphere-specific nature of ipsilesional-arm motor deficits in participants with moderate to severe contralesional paresis, improves ipsilesional arm performance and generalizes to improve functional independence. We assessed the effects of this intervention on ipsilesional arm unilateral performance [Jebsen-Taylor Hand Function Test (JHFT)], ipsilesional grip strength, contralesional arm impairment level [Fugl-Meyer Assessment (FM)], and functional independence [Functional independence measure (FIM)] (N = 13). Intervention occurred over a 3 week period for 1.5 h/session, three times each week. All sessions included virtual reality tasks that targeted the specific motor control deficits associated with either left or right hemisphere damage, followed by graded dexterity training in real-world tasks. We also exposed participants to 3 weeks of sham training to control for the non-specific effects of therapy visits and interactions. We conducted five test-sessions: two pre-tests and three post-tests. Our results indicate substantial improvements in the less-impaired arm performance, without detriment to the paretic arm that transferred to improved functional independence in all three posttests, indicating durability of training effects for at least 3 weeks. We provide evidence for establishing the basis of a rehabilitation approach that includes evaluation and remediation of the ipsilesional arm in moderately to severely impaired stroke survivors. This study was originally a crossover design; however, we were unable to complete the second arm of the study due to the COVID-19 pandemic. We report the results from the first arm of the planned design as a longitudinal study.

5.
Phys Ther ; 101(6)2021 06 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1091223

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: The COVID-19 pandemic has seen a rapid shift to telehealth-delivered physical therapy services. Common impairments after stroke create unique challenges when providing rehabilitation via telehealth, particularly when it involves activities undertaken in weight-bearing or standing positions, including walking training. Our scoping review maps the evidence regarding safety, efficacy, and feasibility of remotely supervised telehealth interventions involving activities undertaken in weight-bearing or standing positions for people after stroke. METHODS: Searches of relevant databases for primary research studies were conducted using keywords relating to exercise and telehealth. Studies of stroke survivors undertaking interventions involving activities in weight-bearing or standing positions, supervised in real-time via telehealth were included. Two reviewers independently appraised all studies. Data were charted by one reviewer, checked by another, and results synthesized narratively. RESULTS: Seven studies (2 randomized trials, 1 mixed-methods, and 4 pre-post studies) were included, involving 179 participants. Some studies included stroke survivors with cognitive impairment, and 2 (29%) studies included only participants who walked independently. Adherence (reported in 3 studies) and satisfaction (reported in 4 studies) were good, and no serious adverse events (data from 4 studies) related to interventions were reported. Strategies to overcome technological barriers were used to optimize intervention safety and feasibility, along with physiological monitoring, caregiver assistance, and in-person exercise prescription. However, there is limited high-quality evidence of efficacy. CONCLUSIONS: We identified strategies used in research to date that can support current practice. However, urgent research is needed to ensure that stroke survivors are receiving evidence-based, effective services. IMPACT: The COVID-19 pandemic has necessitated a rapid shift to telerehabilitation services for people with stroke, but there is little evidence to guide best practice. Our review provides practical guidance and strategies to overcome barriers and optimize safety and adherence for telehealth interventions involving activities in weight-bearing or standing positions.


Subject(s)
Exercise Therapy/methods , Standing Position , Stroke Rehabilitation/methods , Telerehabilitation/methods , Walking , Weight-Bearing , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Humans , Pandemics , Patient Safety , SARS-CoV-2
6.
Stroke ; 52(4): 1407-1414, 2021 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1085243

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) outbreak has led to disruptions in health care service delivery worldwide, inevitably affecting stroke survivors requiring ongoing rehabilitation and chronic illness management. To date, no published research has been found on stroke caregiving during the COVID-19 pandemic. This study aimed to explore Hong Kong stroke caregivers' caregiving experiences in the midst of this difficult time. METHODS: Individual semistructured interviews were conducted with 25 Chinese adult primary stroke caregivers from May to June 2020 via telephone. Interviews were transcribed verbatim and analyzed using an interpretive description approach and constant comparison strategy. RESULTS: Five themes of the stroke caregiving experience during the COVID-19 pandemic emerged: care service adversities, additional caregiving workload and strain, threatened relationship between caregiver and stroke survivors, threats to caregivers' physical and psychological well-being, and needs for continuing caregiving roles. Our findings suggested that caregivers have worsened physical and psychological well-being because of increases in care burden with simultaneously reduced formal and informal support. The relationship between caregiver and stroke survivor was subsequently affected, placing some survivors at heightened risk of abuse. CONCLUSIONS: Our study provides valuable findings about stroke caregiving experiences and needs during the pandemic. Delivery of psychological support, telemedicine, and household hygiene resources would be useful to mitigate caregivers' psychological distress during the COVID-19 pandemic.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/psychology , Caregivers/psychology , Pandemics , Qualitative Research , Stroke Rehabilitation/psychology , Stroke/psychology , Adult , Aged , COVID-19/epidemiology , Caregivers/trends , China/epidemiology , Female , Hong Kong/epidemiology , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Social Support , Stroke/epidemiology , Stroke/therapy , Stroke Rehabilitation/trends , Survivors/psychology
7.
Stroke ; 51(9): e254-e258, 2020 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-992145

ABSTRACT

Recent case-series of small size implied a pathophysiological association between coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) and severe large-vessel acute ischemic stroke. Given that severe strokes are typically associated with poor prognosis and can be very efficiently treated with recanalization techniques, confirmation of this putative association is urgently warranted in a large representative patient cohort to alert stroke clinicians, and inform pre- and in-hospital acute stroke patient pathways. We pooled all consecutive patients hospitalized with laboratory-confirmed COVID-19 and acute ischemic stroke in 28 sites from 16 countries. To assess whether stroke severity and outcomes (assessed at discharge or at the latest assessment for those patients still hospitalized) in patients with acute ischemic stroke are different between patients with COVID-19 and non-COVID-19, we performed 1:1 propensity score matching analyses of our COVID-19 patients with non-COVID-19 patients registered in the Acute Stroke Registry and Analysis of Lausanne Registry between 2003 and 2019. Between January 27, 2020, and May 19, 2020, 174 patients (median age 71.2 years; 37.9% females) with COVID-19 and acute ischemic stroke were hospitalized (median of 12 patients per site). The median National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale was 10 (interquartile range [IQR], 4-18). In the 1:1 matched sample of 336 patients with COVID-19 and non-COVID-19, the median National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale was higher in patients with COVID-19 (10 [IQR, 4-18] versus 6 [IQR, 3-14]), P=0.03; (odds ratio, 1.69 [95% CI, 1.08-2.65] for higher National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale score). There were 48 (27.6%) deaths, of which 22 were attributed to COVID-19 and 26 to stroke. Among 96 survivors with available information about disability status, 49 (51%) had severe disability at discharge. In the propensity score-matched population (n=330), patients with COVID-19 had higher risk for severe disability (median mRS 4 [IQR, 2-6] versus 2 [IQR, 1-4], P<0.001) and death (odds ratio, 4.3 [95% CI, 2.22-8.30]) compared with patients without COVID-19. Our findings suggest that COVID-19 associated ischemic strokes are more severe with worse functional outcome and higher mortality than non-COVID-19 ischemic strokes.


Subject(s)
Brain Ischemia/complications , Coronavirus Infections/complications , Pneumonia, Viral/complications , Stroke/complications , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Brain Ischemia/diagnostic imaging , Brain Ischemia/therapy , COVID-19 , Cohort Studies , Coronavirus Infections/diagnostic imaging , Coronavirus Infections/therapy , Disability Evaluation , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnostic imaging , Pneumonia, Viral/therapy , Propensity Score , Recovery of Function , Registries , Stroke/diagnostic imaging , Stroke/therapy , Survival Analysis , Time-to-Treatment , Tomography, X-Ray Computed , Treatment Outcome
8.
JMIR Res Protoc ; 9(11): e21799, 2020 Nov 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-918972

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The majority of stroke survivors return to their homes and need assistance from family caregivers to perform activities of daily living. These increased demands coupled with the lack of preparedness for their new roles lead to a high risk for caregivers developing depressive symptoms and other negative outcomes. Follow-up home support and problem-solving interventions with caregivers are crucial for maintaining stroke survivors in their homes. Problem-solving interventions are effective but are underused in practice because they require large amounts of staff time to implement and are difficult for caregivers logistically. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study is to test a problem-solving intervention for stroke caregivers that can be delivered over the telephone during the patient's transitional care period (time when the stroke survivor is discharged to home) followed by 8 asynchronous online sessions. METHODS: The design is a two-arm parallel randomized clinical trial with repeated measures. We will enroll 240 caregivers from eight Veterans Affairs (VA) medical centers. Participants randomized into the intervention arm receive a modified problem-solving intervention that uses telephone and web-based support and training with interactive modules, fact sheets, and tools on the previously developed and nationally available Resources and Education for Stroke Caregivers' Understanding and Empowerment Caregiver website. In the usual care group, no changes are made in the information, discharge planning, or care the patients who have had a stroke normally receive, and caregivers have access to existing VA resources (eg, caregiver support line, self-help materials). The primary outcome is a change in caregiver depressive symptoms at 11 and 19 weeks after baseline data collection. Secondary outcomes include changes in stroke caregivers' burden, knowledge, positive aspects of caregiving, self-efficacy, perceived stress, health-related quality of life, and satisfaction with care and changes in stroke survivors' functional abilities and health care use. The team will also determine the budgetary impact, facilitators, barriers, and best practices for implementing the intervention. Throughout all phases of the study, we will collaborate with members of an advisory panel. RESULTS: Study enrollment began in June 2015 and is ongoing. The first results are expected to be submitted for publication in 2021. CONCLUSIONS: This is the first known study to test a transitional care and messaging center intervention combined with technology to decrease caregiver depressive symptoms and to improve the recovery of stroke survivors. If successful, findings will support an evidence-based model that can be transported into clinical practice to improve the quality of caregiving post stroke. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01600131; https://www.clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT01600131. INTERNATIONAL REGISTERED REPORT IDENTIFIER (IRRID): DERR1-10.2196/21799.

9.
J Neurol Phys Ther ; 45(1): 14-20, 2021 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-885706

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Stroke is the leading cause of disability in the United States. Two-thirds of stroke survivors will require caregiver assistance. Evidence suggests the mental health of caregivers is closely related to patients' health outcomes. The timing of this study intersected with the beginning of the coronavirus disease-2019 (COVID-19) pandemic that required strict social distancing and hospital visitor policy changes. This study aims to answer the primary research question: What is the level and nature of stress experienced by caregivers of persons with newly-acquired stroke in the inpatient rehabilitation setting and how has the COVID-19 pandemic impacted the caregiver experience? METHODS: Recruitment occurred from a single inpatient rehabilitation facility. Participants were administered the Perceived Stress Scale and then completed qualitative semistructured interviews. The investigators used a phenomenological, iterative approach to collect and analyze qualitative data. The data were independently coded and categorized before consolidated into primary themes and subthemes. RESULTS: Eleven informal caregivers' perspectives generated 13 subthemes across 4 primary thematic categories: COVID-19 impact, concerns of the caregiver, coping strategies, and important aspects of the caregiver experience. COVID-19 social distancing necessitated new visitor policies, which presented additional challenges for caregivers. DISCUSSION AND CONCLUSIONS: Caregiver attendance at therapy sessions and frequent, direct communication between staff and caregivers improved caregiver readiness for family member discharge following inpatient rehabilitation. This study shared perspectives from a distinctive time during the COVID-19 pandemic. If visitation for multiple therapy sessions is prohibited, we recommend taking alternative measures to keep the caregiver involved in the plan of care.Video Abstract available for more insights from the authors (see the Video, Supplemental Digital Content 1, available at: http://links.lww.com/JNPT/A326).


Subject(s)
Adaptation, Psychological , COVID-19 , Caregivers/psychology , Family/psychology , Hospitals, Rehabilitation , Stress, Psychological/psychology , Stroke Rehabilitation , Stroke/therapy , Adult , Aged , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Qualitative Research , Stroke/nursing
10.
BMJ ; 368: m1299, 2020 Mar 30.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-824610
11.
J Neurol ; 268(7): 2307-2313, 2021 Jul.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-777815

ABSTRACT

From March to May 2020, the Italian health care system, as many others, was almost entirely devoted to the fight against the COVID-19 pandemic. In this context, a number of questions arose, from the increased stroke risk due to COVID-19 infection to the quality of stroke patient care. The overwhelming need of COVID-19 patient management made mandatory a complete re-organization of the stroke pathways: many health professionals were reallocated and a number of stroke units was turned into COVID-19 wards. As a result, acute stroke care suffered from a shortage of services and delays in time-dependent treatments and diagnostic work-up. In-patient and out-patient care and rehabilitation facilities for stroke survivors were also reduced or slowed down, to direct resources to COVID-19 patients care and to reduce contagion risks. Overall, this is likely to result in a significant future increased burden of complications and disabilities that will impact the health care systems in the coming months. Thus, while still fighting against COVID-19 disease, authorities need to promptly implement robust action plans, including an increase of workforce, without forgetting the assurance of a high level of stroke care. The medical community and the health care administrators should always keep in mind that stroke was before, and will be after the pandemic, a, sometimes, life-threatening condition, and almost always a disease with a severe impact on the quality of life.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Stroke , Humans , Italy/epidemiology , Pandemics , Quality of Life , SARS-CoV-2 , Stroke/epidemiology , Stroke/therapy
12.
Stroke ; 51(7): 2219-2223, 2020 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-428108

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Information on stroke survivors infected with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is limited. The aim of this study was to describe specific clinical characteristics and outcomes of patients with COVID-19 with a history of stroke. METHODS: All the confirmed cases of COVID-19 at Tongji Hospital from January 27 to March 5, 2020, were included in our cohort study. Clinical data were analyzed and compared between patients with and without a history of stroke. RESULTS: Of the included 1875 patients with COVID-19, 50 patients had a history of stroke. The COVID-19 patients with medical history of stroke were older with more comorbidities, had higher neutrophil count, and lower lymphocyte and platelet counts than those without history of stroke. The levels of D-dimers, cardiac troponin I, NT pro-brain natriuretic peptide, and interleukin-6 were also markedly higher in patients with history of stroke. Stroke survivors who underwent COVID-19 developed more acute respiratory distress syndrome and received more noninvasive mechanical ventilation. Data from propensity-matched analysis indicated a higher proportion of patients with COVD-19 with a history of stroke were admitted to the intensive care unit requiring mechanical ventilation and were more likely to be held in the unit or die, compared with non-stroke history COVID-19 patients. CONCLUSIONS: Patients with COVID-19 with a history of stroke had more severe clinical symptoms and poorer outcomes compared with those without a history of stroke.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus , Coronavirus Infections , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral , Stroke/epidemiology , Aged , Blood Cell Count , COVID-19 , China/epidemiology , Comorbidity , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Female , Hospital Mortality , Hospitals, University/statistics & numerical data , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Procedures and Techniques Utilization , Propensity Score , Recurrence , Respiration, Artificial/statistics & numerical data , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/etiology , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/therapy , SARS-CoV-2 , Stroke/blood , Stroke/therapy , Treatment Outcome
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