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1.
Z Gesundh Wiss ; : 1-4, 2020 Apr 29.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1906135

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: China has been fighting the epidemic of pneumonia-like diseases first detected for over a month in the city of Wuhan in December 2019. The disease epidemic is caused by a novel coronavirus, called COVID-19, which has now infected more than 700,000 people worldwide. With a death toll approaching that of China's SARS-CoV outbreak in 2002 and 2003, 2019-nCoV has contributed to an international emergency in public health, placing all health organizations on high alert. Such large numbers of infected and deceased people require an urgent need for reliable, inexpensive, and cheap drugs to control and reduce the outbreak. OBJECTIVE: To systematically review and evaluate the pattern of COVID-19 and the treatment plans. METHODS: This systematic review was conducted according to the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) guidelines. The articles were searched from databases like PubMed, the Cochrane Library, ScienceDirect, and the Health Research and Development Information Network (HERDIN) combining MeSH and free-text terms. RESULTS: This analysis highlights the agent of COVID-19 and the possible transmission. The current research taking place to overcome this complex disease and the urgent need to develop improved therapeutics are also discussed. CONCLUSION: Herein, we present an epidemiological overview of the currently available information on the treatment claimed to have helped to bring the situation under control.

2.
J Matern Fetal Neonatal Med ; : 1-6, 2020 Aug 16.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1900911

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: This is the first comprehensive review to focus on currently available evidence regarding maternal, fetal and neonatal mortality cases associated with Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) infection, up to July 2020. METHODS: We systematically searched PubMed, Scopus, Google Scholar and Web of Science databases to identify any reported cases of maternal, fetal or neonatal mortality associated with COVID-19 infection. The references of relevant studies were also hand-searched. RESULTS: Of 2815 studies screened, 10 studies reporting 37 maternal and 12 perinatal mortality cases (7 fetal demise and 5 neonatal death) were finally eligible for inclusion to this review. All maternal deaths were seen in women with previous co-morbidities, of which the most common were obesity, diabetes, asthma and advanced maternal age. Acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) and severity of pneumonia were considered as the leading causes of all maternal mortalities, except for one case who died of thromboembolism during postpartum period. Fetal and neonatal mortalities were suggested to be a result of the severity of maternal infection or the prematurity, respectively. Interestingly, there was no evidence of vertical transmission or positive COVID-19 test result among expired neonates. CONCLUSION: Current available evidence suggested that maternal mortality mostly happened among women with previous co-morbidities and neonatal mortality seems to be a result of prematurity rather than infection. However, further reports are needed so that the magnitude of the maternal and perinatal mortality could be determined more precisely.

3.
Rev Panam Salud Publica ; 44: e87, 2020.
Article in Spanish | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1893618

ABSTRACT

The basic clinical characteristics of the first 100 fatal cases from COVID-19 in Colombia were analyzed based on reports from the National Institute of Health (INS) since the beginning of the pandemic. Since the INS records do not include clinical variables of comorbidity in the total number of cases reported as positive, but only in patients with fatal outcome, comorbidities, age and sex available in the daily INS reports were reviewed. Their frequency was identified and mortality risk behavior for the analyzed variables was established and compared with the behavior described in the international literature. Of the 100 cases, 63 were male, the mean age was 65.75 ± 18.11 years, and in 22 of them no comorbidity had been reported. The most frequently reported comorbidities were arterial hypertension (35%), diabetes mellitus (21%), cardiovascular and cerebrovascular disease (19%), chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (16%), obesity (12%), smoking (9%) and thyroid disease (8%). Patients over 60 years of age presented a higher risk of mortality (OR 10.31, IC95% 6.67-15.94, p < 0.0001). Ten percent of the deceased patients were under 60 years of age and did not present comorbidity.

4.
MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep ; 69(46): 1725-1729, 2020 11 20.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1876240

ABSTRACT

New York City (NYC) was an epicenter of the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) outbreak in the United States during spring 2020 (1). During March-May 2020, approximately 203,000 laboratory-confirmed COVID-19 cases were reported to the NYC Department of Health and Mental Hygiene (DOHMH). To obtain more complete data, DOHMH used supplementary information sources and relied on direct data importation and matching of patient identifiers for data on hospitalization status, the occurrence of death, race/ethnicity, and presence of underlying medical conditions. The highest rates of cases, hospitalizations, and deaths were concentrated in communities of color, high-poverty areas, and among persons aged ≥75 years or with underlying conditions. The crude fatality rate was 9.2% overall and 32.1% among hospitalized patients. Using these data to prevent additional infections among NYC residents during subsequent waves of the pandemic, particularly among those at highest risk for hospitalization and death, is critical. Mitigating COVID-19 transmission among vulnerable groups at high risk for hospitalization and death is an urgent priority. Similar to NYC, other jurisdictions might find the use of supplementary information sources valuable in their efforts to prevent COVID-19 infections.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Disease Outbreaks , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Betacoronavirus/isolation & purification , COVID-19 , COVID-19 Testing , Child , Child, Preschool , Clinical Laboratory Techniques , Coronavirus Infections/diagnosis , Coronavirus Infections/mortality , Coronavirus Infections/therapy , Female , Hospitalization/statistics & numerical data , Humans , Infant , Infant, Newborn , Male , Middle Aged , New York City/epidemiology , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnosis , Pneumonia, Viral/mortality , Pneumonia, Viral/therapy , SARS-CoV-2 , Young Adult
5.
J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr ; 85(2): 123-126, 2020 10 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1806747

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: COVID-19 disease has spread globally and was declared a pandemic on March 11, 2020, by the World Health Organization. On March 10, the State of Michigan confirmed its first 2 cases of COVID-19, and the number of confirmed cases has reached 47,182 as of May 11, 2020, with 4555 deaths. SETTING: Currently, little is known if patients living with HIV (PLWH) are at a higher risk of severe COVID-19 or if their antiretrovirals are protective. This study presents epidemiologic and clinical features of COVID-19 infected PLWH in Detroit, Michigan. METHODS: This is a case series that included 14 PLWH with laboratory-confirmed COVID-19 infection who were evaluated at Henry Ford Hospital in Detroit, Michigan, between March 20, 2020, and April 30, 2020. RESULTS: Fourteen PLWH were diagnosed with COVID-19. Twelve patients were men and 2 were women; 13 patients were virally suppressed. Eight patients were hospitalized, and 6 patients were told to self-quarantine at home after their diagnoses. Three patients who were admitted expired during their hospital stay. No patient required bilevel positive airway pressure or nebulizer use in the emergency department, and none developed acute respiratory distress syndrome, pulmonary embolism, deep venous thrombosis, or a cytokine storm while on therapy for COVID-19. CONCLUSION: Although the clinical spectrum of COVID-19 among PLWH cannot be fully ascertained by this report, it adds to the data that suggest that HIV-positive patients with SARS-CoV-2 infection are not at a greater risk of severe disease or death as compared to HIV-negative patients.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/complications , HIV Infections/complications , Pneumonia, Viral/complications , African Americans , COVID-19 , Comorbidity , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/ethnology , Female , HIV Infections/epidemiology , HIV Infections/ethnology , Humans , Male , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Pneumonia, Viral/ethnology
6.
Transplant Direct ; 6(7): e572, 2020 Jul.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1794966

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The early effects of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) on transplantation are dramatic: >75% of kidney and liver programs are either suspended or operating under major restrictions. To resume transplantation, it is important to understand the prevalence of COVID-19 among transplant recipients, donors, and healthcare workers (HCWs) and its associated mortality. METHODS: To investigate this, we studied severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 diagnostic test results among patients with end-stage renal disease or kidney transplants from the Johns Hopkins Health System (n = 235), and screening test results from deceased donors from the Southwest Transplant Alliance Organ Procurement Organization (n = 27), and donors, candidates, and HCWs from the National Kidney Registry and Viracor-Eurofins (n = 253) between February 23 and April 15, 2020. RESULTS: We found low rates of COVID-19 among donors and HCWs (0%-1%) who were screened, higher rates of diagnostic tests among patients with end-stage renal disease or kidney transplant (17%-20%), and considerable mortality (7%-13%) among those who tested positive. CONCLUSIONS: These findings suggest the threat of COVID-19 for the transplant population is significant and ongoing data collection and reporting is critical to inform transplant practices during and after the pandemic.

7.
Exp Clin Transplant ; 20(3): 285-292, 2022 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1771685

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: With the declaration of the COVID-19 pandemic and the increased COVID-19 risk shown in transplant recipients, the prevalence, clinical course, and outcomes of COVID-19 infections among liver transplant recipients were assessed. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A questionnaire was designed and used to survey medical services for liver transplant recipients seen at our center in terms of COVID-19 infection. RESULTS: Twenty-five patients infected with COVID-19 were identified from 265 liver transplant recipients. Most patients were male and had COVID-19 despite quarantine at home. All patients received modified immunosuppressive drugs during infection with COVID-19 with minor changes in routine immunosuppressive therapy. Among the identified patients, 21 recovered and 4 patients died. One of the dead patients, in addition to having a liver transplant, had brain cancer with metastasis to the lungs. CONCLUSIONS: In liver transplant recipients infected with COVID-19, immunosuppressive drugs seemed to cause only mild to moderate illnesses or even helped them recover from the disease. However, more evidence is needed to prove this hypothesis. It is also recommended that transplant recipients should be warned about personal hygiene and be monitored closely by organ transplant centers.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Kidney Transplantation , Liver Transplantation , Humans , Immunosuppressive Agents/adverse effects , Iran/epidemiology , Kidney Transplantation/adverse effects , Liver Transplantation/adverse effects , Male , Pandemics , Registries , SARS-CoV-2 , Transplant Recipients , Treatment Outcome
8.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 17(12)2020 06 21.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1725658

ABSTRACT

This study aims to underline the clinical characteristics of patients who died after testing positive for SARS-CoV-2 infection in one region of Italian and to evaluate the influence of underlying health conditions on the fatal outcome. A matched case-control study was designed by analyzing the data regarding positive subjects observed up to April 21, 2020. The case fatality rate was 7.9%, with a higher proportion of deaths in men than women. The specific standardized mortality ratio was 0.15-0.13 for males and 0.2 for females, showing that mortality is much lower than expected. Cardiovascular diseases, chronic lung diseases and diabetes mellitus showed a significant association with the outcome. Although the case fatality rate in Sardinia in regard to age and gender patterns seems to be similar to that for Italy as a whole, its quantitative value was far lower than the national one and possible explanations might include the genetic characteristics of the Sardinian population or the immediate closure of its borders as soon as the epidemic started. Our results highlighted that lethality is strongly dependent on the presence of multiple concomitant serious diseases. It is important to have epidemiological strategies for effective guidance on public health actions in order to improve chances of survival.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/mortality , Pneumonia, Viral/mortality , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Betacoronavirus/isolation & purification , COVID-19 , Case-Control Studies , Coronavirus Infections/complications , Female , Humans , Italy/epidemiology , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/complications , SARS-CoV-2
9.
Transplantation ; 105(7): 1405-1422, 2021 07 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1706459

ABSTRACT

The emergence of the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) virus responsible for the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has raised concerns for programs overseeing donation and transplantation of cells, tissues, and organs (CTO) that this virus might be transmissible by transfusion or transplantation. Transplant recipients are considered particularly vulnerable to pathogens because of immunosuppression, and SARS-CoV-2 is likely to generate complications if contracted. Several signs and symptoms observed in COVID-19 positive patients reflect damage to multiple organs and tissues, raising the possibility of extrapulmonary SARS-CoV-2 infections and risk of transmission. At the beginning of the pandemic, a consensus has emerged not to consider COVID-19 positive patients as potential living or deceased donors, resulting in a global decrease in transplantation procedures. Medical decision-making at the time of organ allocation must consider safely alongside the survival advantages offered by transplantation. To address the risk of transmission by transplantation, this review summarizes the published cases of transplantation of cells or organs from donors infected with SARS-CoV-2 until January 2021 and assesses the current state of knowledge for the detection of this virus in different biologic specimens, cells, tissues, and organs. Evidence collected to date raises the possibility of SARS-CoV-2 infection and replication in some CTO, which makes it impossible to exclude transmission through transplantation. However, most studies focused on evaluating transmission under laboratory conditions with inconsistent findings, rendering the comparison of results difficult. Improved standardization of donors and CTO screening practices, along with a systematic follow-up of transplant recipients could facilitate the assessment of SARS-CoV-2 transmission risk by transplantation.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/transmission , Donor Selection/methods , Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation/adverse effects , Organ Transplantation/adverse effects , Postoperative Complications/etiology , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19/virology , Humans , Postoperative Complications/diagnosis , Postoperative Complications/prevention & control , Risk
10.
Eur J Public Health ; 31(3): 630-634, 2021 07 13.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1665968

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: People from South Asian and black minority ethnic groups are disproportionately affected by the COVID-19 pandemic. It is unknown whether deprivation mediates this excess ethnic risk. METHODS: We used UK Biobank with linked COVID-19 outcomes occurring between 16th March 2020 and 24th August 2020. A four-way decomposition mediation analysis was used to model the extent to which the excess risk of testing positive, severe disease and mortality for COVID-19 in South Asian and black individuals, relative to white individuals, would be eliminated if levels of high material deprivation were reduced within the population. RESULTS: We included 15 044 (53.0% women) South Asian and black and 392 786 (55.2% women) white individuals. There were 151 (1.0%) positive tests, 91 (0.6%) severe cases and 31 (0.2%) deaths due to COVID-19 in South Asian and black individuals compared with 1471 (0.4%), 895 (0.2%) and 313 (0.1%), respectively, in white individuals. Compared with white individuals, the relative risk of testing positive for COVID-19, developing severe disease and COVID-19 mortality in South Asian and black individuals were 2.73 (95% CI: 2.26, 3.19), 2.96 (2.31, 3.61) and 4.04 (2.54, 5.55), respectively. A hypothetical intervention moving the 25% most deprived in the population out of deprivation was modelled to eliminate between 40 and 50% of the excess risk of all COVID-19 outcomes in South Asian and black populations, whereas moving the 50% most deprived out of deprivation would eliminate over 80% of the excess risk of COVID-19 outcomes. CONCLUSIONS: The excess risk of COVID-19 outcomes in South Asian and black communities could be substantially reduced with population level policies targeting material deprivation.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Female , Humans , Male , Minority Groups , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2
11.
J Pain Symptom Manage ; 60(4): e2-e13, 2020 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1638060

ABSTRACT

CONTEXT: Preparation for an impending death through end-of-life (EOL) discussions and human presence when a person is dying is important for both patients and families. OBJECTIVES: The aim was to study whether EOL discussions were offered and to what degree patients were alone at time of death when dying from coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), comparing deaths in nursing homes and hospitals. METHODS: The national Swedish Register of Palliative Care was used. All expected deaths from COVID-19 in nursing homes and hospitals were compared with, and contrasted to, deaths in a reference population (deaths in 2019). RESULTS: A total of 1346 expected COVID-19 deaths in nursing homes (n = 908) and hospitals (n = 438) were analyzed. Those who died were of a more advanced age in nursing homes (mean 86.4 years) and of a lower age in hospitals (mean 80.7 years) (P < 0.0001). Fewer EOL discussions with patients were held compared with deaths in 2019 (74% vs. 79%, P < 0.001), and dying with someone present was much more uncommon (59% vs. 83%, P < 0.0001). In comparisons between nursing homes and hospital deaths, more patients dying in nursing homes were women (56% vs. 37%, P < 0.0001), and significantly fewer had a retained ability to express their will during the last week of life (54% vs. 89%, P < 0.0001). Relatives were present at time of death in only 13% and 24% of the cases in nursing homes and hospitals, respectively (P < 0.001). The corresponding figures for staff were 52% and 38% (P < 0.0001). CONCLUSION: Dying from COVID-19 negatively affects the possibility of holding an EOL discussion and the chances of dying with someone present. This has considerable social and existential consequences for both patients and families.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus , Coronavirus Infections/psychology , Loneliness , Palliative Care , Pneumonia, Viral/psychology , Quality of Health Care , Terminal Care , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , COVID-19 , Child , Child, Preschool , Communication , Coronavirus Infections/mortality , Coronavirus Infections/therapy , Female , Hospitalization , Humans , Infant , Male , Middle Aged , Nursing Homes , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/mortality , Pneumonia, Viral/therapy , Registries , SARS-CoV-2 , Social Support , Sweden/epidemiology , Young Adult
12.
N Engl J Med ; 385(1): 11-22, 2021 07 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1585668

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Evidence is urgently needed to support treatment decisions for children with multisystem inflammatory syndrome (MIS-C) associated with severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2. METHODS: We performed an international observational cohort study of clinical and outcome data regarding suspected MIS-C that had been uploaded by physicians onto a Web-based database. We used inverse-probability weighting and generalized linear models to evaluate intravenous immune globulin (IVIG) as a reference, as compared with IVIG plus glucocorticoids and glucocorticoids alone. There were two primary outcomes: the first was a composite of inotropic support or mechanical ventilation by day 2 or later or death; the second was a reduction in disease severity on an ordinal scale by day 2. Secondary outcomes included treatment escalation and the time until a reduction in organ failure and inflammation. RESULTS: Data were available regarding the course of treatment for 614 children from 32 countries from June 2020 through February 2021; 490 met the World Health Organization criteria for MIS-C. Of the 614 children with suspected MIS-C, 246 received primary treatment with IVIG alone, 208 with IVIG plus glucocorticoids, and 99 with glucocorticoids alone; 22 children received other treatment combinations, including biologic agents, and 39 received no immunomodulatory therapy. Receipt of inotropic or ventilatory support or death occurred in 56 patients who received IVIG plus glucocorticoids (adjusted odds ratio for the comparison with IVIG alone, 0.77; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.33 to 1.82) and in 17 patients who received glucocorticoids alone (adjusted odds ratio, 0.54; 95% CI, 0.22 to 1.33). The adjusted odds ratios for a reduction in disease severity were similar in the two groups, as compared with IVIG alone (0.90 for IVIG plus glucocorticoids and 0.93 for glucocorticoids alone). The time until a reduction in disease severity was similar in the three groups. CONCLUSIONS: We found no evidence that recovery from MIS-C differed after primary treatment with IVIG alone, IVIG plus glucocorticoids, or glucocorticoids alone, although significant differences may emerge as more data accrue. (Funded by the European Union's Horizon 2020 Program and others; BATS ISRCTN number, ISRCTN69546370.).


Subject(s)
COVID-19/drug therapy , Glucocorticoids/therapeutic use , Immunoglobulins, Intravenous/therapeutic use , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome/drug therapy , Adolescent , Antibodies, Viral , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/mortality , COVID-19/therapy , Child , Child, Preschool , Cohort Studies , Confidence Intervals , Drug Therapy, Combination , Female , Hospitalization , Humans , Immunomodulation , Male , Propensity Score , Regression Analysis , Respiration, Artificial , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome/immunology , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome/mortality , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome/therapy , Treatment Outcome
13.
Int J Infect Dis ; 113 Suppl 1: S40-S42, 2021 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1574760

ABSTRACT

The World Health Organization (WHO) estimates that around 10 million people develop tuberculosis (TB) every year, with 1.5 million deaths attributed to TB in 2019 (World Health Organization, 2020). The majority of the disease burden occurs in low-income countries, where access to diagnostics and tailored treatment remains problematic. The current COVID-19 pandemic further threatens to impact global TB control by diverting resources, reducing notifications and hence significantly increasing deaths attributable to TB (World Health Organization, 2020). Whole genome sequencing (WGS) is becoming increasingly accessible, and has particular value in the diagnosis and management of TB disease (Cabibbe et al., 2018; Meehan et al., 2019). Not only does it have the potential to give more rapid and complete information on drug-resistance, but the high discriminatory power it offers allows detection of clusters and transmission pathways, as well as likely contamination events, mixed infections and to differentiate between re-infection and relapse with much greater confidence than previous typing methods.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Mycobacterium tuberculosis , Humans , Mycobacterium tuberculosis/genetics , Pandemics , Public Health , SARS-CoV-2 , Whole Genome Sequencing
14.
Int J Infect Dis ; 113 Suppl 1: S7-S12, 2021 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1573985

ABSTRACT

The October 2020 Global TB report reviews TB control strategies and United Nations (UN) targets set in the political declaration at the September 2018 UN General Assembly high-level meeting on TB held in New York. Progress in TB care and prevention has been very slow. In 2019, TB remained the most common cause of death from a single infectious pathogen. Globally, an estimated 10.0 million people developed TB disease in 2019, and there were an estimated 1.2 million TB deaths among HIV-negative people and an additional 208, 000 deaths among people living with HIV. Adults accounted for 88% and children for 12% of people with TB. The WHO regions of South-East Asia (44%), Africa (25%), and the Western Pacific (18%) had the most people with TB. Eight countries accounted for two thirds of the global total: India (26%), Indonesia (8.5%), China (8.4%), the Philippines (6.0%), Pakistan (5.7%), Nigeria (4.4%), Bangladesh (3.6%) and South Africa (3.6%). Only 30% of the 3.5 million five-year target for children treated for TB was met. Major advances have been development of new all oral regimens for MDRTB and new regimens for preventive therapy. In 2020, the COVID-19 pandemic dislodged TB from the top infectious disease cause of mortality globally. Notably, global TB control efforts were not on track even before the advent of the COVID-19 pandemic. Many challenges remain to improve sub-optimal TB treatment and prevention services. Tuberculosis screening and diagnostic test services need to be ramped up. The major drivers of TB remain undernutrition, poverty, diabetes, tobacco smoking, and household air pollution and these need be addressed to achieve the WHO 2035 TB care and prevention targets. National programs need to include interventions for post-tuberculosis holistic wellbeing. From first detection of COVID-19 global coordination and political will with huge financial investments have led to the development of effective vaccines against SARS-CoV2 infection. The world now needs to similarly focus on development of new vaccines for TB utilizing new technological methods.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Tuberculosis, Miliary , Adult , Child , Humans , Nigeria , Pandemics , RNA, Viral , SARS-CoV-2
15.
Clin Infect Dis ; 73(11): e4141-e4151, 2021 12 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1561160

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Coronavirus disease (COVID-19) can cause severe illness and death. Predictors of poor outcome collected on hospital admission may inform clinical and public health decisions. METHODS: We conducted a retrospective observational cohort investigation of 297 adults admitted to 8 academic and community hospitals in Georgia, United States, during March 2020. Using standardized medical record abstraction, we collected data on predictors including admission demographics, underlying medical conditions, outpatient antihypertensive medications, recorded symptoms, vital signs, radiographic findings, and laboratory values. We used random forest models to calculate adjusted odds ratios (aORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for predictors of invasive mechanical ventilation (IMV) and death. RESULTS: Compared with age <45 years, ages 65-74 years and ≥75 years were predictors of IMV (aORs, 3.12 [95% CI, 1.47-6.60] and 2.79 [95% CI, 1.23-6.33], respectively) and the strongest predictors for death (aORs, 12.92 [95% CI, 3.26-51.25] and 18.06 [95% CI, 4.43-73.63], respectively). Comorbidities associated with death (aORs, 2.4-3.8; P < .05) included end-stage renal disease, coronary artery disease, and neurologic disorders, but not pulmonary disease, immunocompromise, or hypertension. Prehospital use vs nonuse of angiotensin receptor blockers (aOR, 2.02 [95% CI, 1.03-3.96]) and dihydropyridine calcium channel blockers (aOR, 1.91 [95% CI, 1.03-3.55]) were associated with death. CONCLUSIONS: After adjustment for patient and clinical characteristics, older age was the strongest predictor of death, exceeding comorbidities, abnormal vital signs, and laboratory test abnormalities. That coronary artery disease, but not chronic lung disease, was associated with death among hospitalized patients warrants further investigation, as do associations between certain antihypertensive medications and death.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Aged , Hospitalization , Humans , Middle Aged , Respiration, Artificial , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2 , United States
16.
Clin Infect Dis ; 73(11): e4166-e4174, 2021 12 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1560158

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: We compared the efficacy of the antiviral agent, remdesivir, versus standard-of-care treatment in adults with severe coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) using data from a phase 3 remdesivir trial and a retrospective cohort of patients with severe COVID-19 treated with standard of care. METHODS: GS-US-540-5773 is an ongoing phase 3, randomized, open-label trial comparing two courses of remdesivir (remdesivir-cohort). GS-US-540-5807 is an ongoing real-world, retrospective cohort study of clinical outcomes in patients receiving standard-of-care treatment (non-remdesivir-cohort). Inclusion criteria were similar between studies: patients had confirmed severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection, were hospitalized, had oxygen saturation ≤94% on room air or required supplemental oxygen, and had pulmonary infiltrates. Stabilized inverse probability of treatment weighted multivariable logistic regression was used to estimate the treatment effect of remdesivir versus standard of care. The primary endpoint was the proportion of patients with recovery on day 14, dichotomized from a 7-point clinical status ordinal scale. A key secondary endpoint was mortality. RESULTS: After the inverse probability of treatment weighting procedure, 312 and 818 patients were counted in the remdesivir- and non-remdesivir-cohorts, respectively. At day 14, 74.4% of patients in the remdesivir-cohort had recovered versus 59.0% in the non-remdesivir-cohort (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] 2.03: 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.34-3.08, P < .001). At day 14, 7.6% of patients in the remdesivir-cohort had died versus 12.5% in the non-remdesivir-cohort (aOR 0.38, 95% CI: .22-.68, P = .001). CONCLUSIONS: In this comparative analysis, by day 14, remdesivir was associated with significantly greater recovery and 62% reduced odds of death versus standard-of-care treatment in patients with severe COVID-19. CLINICAL TRIALS REGISTRATION: NCT04292899 and EUPAS34303.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Adenosine Monophosphate/analogs & derivatives , Adult , Alanine/analogs & derivatives , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , COVID-19/drug therapy , Cohort Studies , Humans , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Standard of Care , Treatment Outcome
17.
Clin Infect Dis ; 73(11): e4047-e4057, 2021 12 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1560034

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Emerging evidence suggests ethnic minorities are disproportionately affected by coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). Detailed clinical analyses of multicultural hospitalized patient cohorts remain largely undescribed. METHODS: We performed regression, survival, and cumulative competing risk analyses to evaluate factors associated with mortality in patients admitted for COVID-19 in 3 large London hospitals between 25 February and 5 April, censored as of 1 May 2020. RESULTS: Of 614 patients (median age, 69 [interquartile range, 25] years) and 62% male), 381 (62%) were discharged alive, 178 (29%) died, and 55 (9%) remained hospitalized at censoring. Severe hypoxemia (adjusted odds ratio [aOR], 4.25 [95% confidence interval {CI}, 2.36-7.64]), leukocytosis (aOR, 2.35 [95% CI, 1.35-4.11]), thrombocytopenia (aOR [1.01, 95% CI, 1.00-1.01], increase per 109 decrease), severe renal impairment (aOR, 5.14 [95% CI, 2.65-9.97]), and low albumin (aOR, 1.06 [95% CI, 1.02-1.09], increase per gram decrease) were associated with death. Forty percent (n = 244) were from black, Asian, and other minority ethnic (BAME) groups, 38% (n = 235) were white, and ethnicity was unknown for 22% (n = 135). BAME patients were younger and had fewer comorbidities. Although the unadjusted odds of death did not differ by ethnicity, when adjusting for age, sex, and comorbidities, black patients were at higher odds of death compared to whites (aOR, 1.69 [95% CI, 1.00-2.86]). This association was stronger when further adjusting for admission severity (aOR, 1.85 [95% CI, 1.06-3.24]). CONCLUSIONS: BAME patients were overrepresented in our cohort; when accounting for demographic and clinical profile of admission, black patients were at increased odds of death. Further research is needed into biologic drivers of differences in COVID-19 outcomes by ethnicity.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Aged , Cohort Studies , Female , Humans , London/epidemiology , Male , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , State Medicine
18.
Med J Armed Forces India ; 77: S437-S442, 2021 Jul.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1525882

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: In late 2019, the world saw a viral outbreak of unprecedented scale that sent a significant fraction of humankind into either quarantine or lockdown. Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is a respiratory tract infection caused by the Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), which was first recognized in Wuhan, China, in December 2019. METHODS: We created and administered a 17-item questionnaire for health care professionals (HCPs) to assess their level of knowledge towards this ongoing and evolving pandemic. It was disseminated through Web- and mobile-based social networks. The questions were sourced and created from various standard national and international guidelines available at the time of writing. RESULTS: A total of 827 medical personnel participated in the study. Among them, 65.5% scored between 60% and 79%, indicating a moderate level of knowledge. There was no statistically significant difference in the scores of doctors, nursing officers and dental surgeons (p = 0.200). Participants had good knowledge regarding clinical symptoms, mode of transmission and preventive measures. But the study identified some gaps in knowledge in the implementation of management protocols, handling of dead bodies and biomedical waste management of COVID-19 cases. CONCLUSION: With this understanding, regular training, drills and knowledge dissemination along with skill development through learning correct practices focusing on HCP at all levels are the current needs.

19.
Ann Hepatol ; 25: 100350, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1525673

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION AND OBJECTIVES: Viral infections have been described to increase the risk of decompensation in patients with cirrhosis. We aimed to determine the effect of SARS-CoV-2 infection on outcome of hospitalized patients with cirrhosis and to compare the performance of different prognostic models for predicting mortality. PATIENTS: We performed a prospective cohort study including 2211 hospitalized patients with confirmed SARS-CoV-2 infection from April 15, 2020 through October 1, 2020 in 38 Hospitals from 11 Latin American countries. We registered clinical and laboratory parameters of patients with and without cirrhosis. All patients were followed until discharge or death. We evaluated the prognostic performance of different scoring systems to predict mortality in patients with cirrhosis using ROC curves. RESULTS: Overall, 4.6% (CI 3.7-5.6) subjects had cirrhosis (n = 96). Baseline Child-Turcotte-Pugh (CTP) class was assessed: CTP-A (23%), CTP-B (45%) and CTP-C (32%); median MELD-Na score was 19 (IQR 14-25). Mortality was 47% in patients with cirrhosis and 16% in patients without cirrhosis (P < .0001). Cirrhosis was independently associated with death [OR 3.1 (CI 1.9-4.8); P < .0001], adjusted by age, gender, and body mass index >30. The areas under the ROC curves for performance evaluation in predicting 28-days mortality for Chronic Liver Failure Consortium (CLIF-C), North American Consortium for the Study of End-Stage Liver Disease (NACSELD), CTP score and MELD-Na were 0.85, 0.75, 0.69, 0.67; respectively (P < .0001). CONCLUSIONS: SARS-CoV-2 infection is associated with elevated mortality in patients with cirrhosis. CLIF-C had better performance in predicting mortality than NACSELD, CTP and MELD-Na in patients with cirrhosis and SARS-CoV-2 infection. Clinicaltrials.gov:NCT04358380.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Hospitalization , Liver Cirrhosis/epidemiology , Body Mass Index , Comorbidity , Female , Follow-Up Studies , Humans , Liver Cirrhosis/diagnosis , Male , Middle Aged , Prospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , South America/epidemiology , Survival Rate/trends
20.
Physica D ; 413: 132693, 2020 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1514251

ABSTRACT

The presence of a large number of infected individuals with few or no symptoms is an important epidemiological difficulty and the main mathematical feature of COVID-19. The A-SIR model, i.e. a SIR (Susceptible-Infected-Removed) model with a compartment for infected individuals with no symptoms or few symptoms was proposed by Gaeta (2020). In this paper we investigate a slightly generalized version of the same model and propose a scheme for fitting the parameters of the model to real data using the time series only of the deceased individuals. The scheme is applied to the concrete cases of Lombardy, Italy and São Paulo state, Brazil, showing different aspects of the epidemic. In both cases we see strong evidence that the adoption of social distancing measures contributed to a slower increase in the number of deceased individuals when compared to the baseline of no reduction in the infection rate. Both for Lombardy and São Paulo we show that we may have good fits to the data up to the present, but with very large differences in the future behavior. The reasons behind such disparate outcomes are the uncertainty on the value of a key parameter, the probability that an infected individual is fully symptomatic, and on the intensity of the social distancing measures adopted. This conclusion enforces the necessity of trying to determine the real number of infected individuals in a population, symptomatic or asymptomatic.

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