Your browser doesn't support javascript.
Show: 20 | 50 | 100
Results 1 - 20 de 533
Filter
1.
J Complement Integr Med ; 19(1): 145-154, 2021 May 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1775488

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: Cardiovascular diseases have a multifaceted, it causes modern epidemic; Recognizing in the risk factor stage, is crucial, given the risk of progression to cardiovascular disease. Ibn Sina, described CVDs as a resultant of gradual derangement of Quwwat ghadhiya (Nutritive faculty); in which management with ghidha' (diet), tadabir (regimens), dawa' (drug) has been received. To evaluate the effect of Arjun Chal (Terminalia arjuna) in CVD risk factors. And to evaluate the drug safety. METHODS: This is a randomized controlled clinical trial. Total 120 patients were screened at OPD of NIUM hospital, Bangalore during 2018-19, only 48 patients fulfilled the inclusion criteria and signed written informed consent and their detailed medical history was recorded. Arjun Chal powder (5 gm BD) for eight weeks administered in test group (n=24), Amlodipine (5 mg) and Atorvastatin (10 mg) once a day for same duration administered in control group (n=24). Efficacy of the drug assessed by the Lipid profile, BP and BMI; lipid profile were performed at baseline and at 8 weeks, while BP and BMI performed at baseline, 15, 30, 45, and 60th day intervals. Study was completed by 40 patients. The results of both the therapies were then compared and statistically analyzed. RESULTS: Totally, both groups reduces assessment parameters i.e. statistically highly significant (p<0.001). Test group showed greater reduction in terms of all assessment parmeters. But, the difference between both the groups was statistically non-significant p>0.05. CONCLUSIONS: Both test and control drugs were effective, but Arjun Chal had a slight edge over amlodipne and atorvastatin, and was found to be safe and well tolerated. It has a cardio protective potential and hence effective to delay/prevent CVD in patient with cardiovascular risk factor.Keywords: Unani System of Medicine; T. arjuna; Arjun Chal; Efficacy; Safety; Cardiovascular risk factor.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Cardiovascular Diseases , Cardiovascular Diseases/drug therapy , Cardiovascular Diseases/prevention & control , Heart Disease Risk Factors , Humans , India , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2
2.
Pak J Med Sci ; 36(COVID19-S4): S115-S117, 2020 May.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1726827

ABSTRACT

The Novel corona virus is bringing multiple challenges for health care professionals. Skin is the biggest organ and the first line of defense against different infections and external factors. Being the front line warriors, health care professionals are susceptible to various skin conditions due to prolonged use of personal protective equipment. These adverse skin conditions are redness, irritation, itching, contact dermatitis, and aggravation of underlying skin conditions like seborrheic dermatitis and acne vulgaris. In the current global situation, the potential incidence of such adverse dermatological effects does not in any manner cause the HCPs to deviate from the strict specific precautionary hygiene rules. These skin problems are manageable with the few precautionary measures. This article explores the different skin conditions that result from personal hygiene measures and usage of protective gear and will suggest some practical advice about how to manage and protect from these different adverse skin conditions.

3.
Nutrients ; 12(6)2020 May 27.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1725878

ABSTRACT

The coronavirus-disease 2019 (COVID-19) was announced as a global pandemic by the World Health Organization. Challenges arise concerning how to optimally support the immune system in the general population, especially under self-confinement. An optimal immune response depends on an adequate diet and nutrition in order to keep infection at bay. For example, sufficient protein intake is crucial for optimal antibody production. Low micronutrient status, such as of vitamin A or zinc, has been associated with increased infection risk. Frequently, poor nutrient status is associated with inflammation and oxidative stress, which in turn can impact the immune system. Dietary constituents with especially high anti-inflammatory and antioxidant capacity include vitamin C, vitamin E, and phytochemicals such as carotenoids and polyphenols. Several of these can interact with transcription factors such as NF-kB and Nrf-2, related to anti-inflammatory and antioxidant effects, respectively. Vitamin D in particular may perturb viral cellular infection via interacting with cell entry receptors (angiotensin converting enzyme 2), ACE2. Dietary fiber, fermented by the gut microbiota into short-chain fatty acids, has also been shown to produce anti-inflammatory effects. In this review, we highlight the importance of an optimal status of relevant nutrients to effectively reduce inflammation and oxidative stress, thereby strengthening the immune system during the COVID-19 crisis.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections , Diet , Immune System/immunology , Inflammation/immunology , Nutrients/immunology , Oxidative Stress/immunology , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral , Antioxidants , Betacoronavirus , COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections/immunology , Humans , Inflammation/prevention & control , Nutritional Status/immunology , Pneumonia, Viral/immunology , SARS-CoV-2
4.
Mult Scler ; 28(1): 132-138, 2022 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1597064

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The spread of Coronavirus disease-19 (COVID-19) poses unique challenges in the management of people with multiple sclerosis (PwMS). OBJECTIVES: To collect data about the impact of COVID-19 emergency on access to care for PwMS and on MS treatment practices. METHODS: Between March and July 2020, the European Committee for Treatment and Research in Multiple Sclerosis (ECTRIMS) promoted an online survey covering patient access to care, management of relapses and visits, disease-modifying therapy (DMT) and experience with COVID-19. RESULTS: Three-hundred and sixty neurologists from 52 countries (68% from Europe) completed the survey. 98% reported COVID-19-related restrictions. Telemedicine was adopted to overcome the limited access to care and was newly activated (73%) or widely implemented (17%). 70% reported changes in DMT management. Interferons and glatiramer were considered safe. Dimethyl fumarate, teriflunomide and fingolimod were considered safe except for patients developing lymphopenia. No modifications were considered for natalizumab in 64%, cladribine in 24%, anti-CD20 in 22% and alemtuzumab in 17%; 18% (for alemtuzumab and cladribine) and 43% (for anti-CD20) considered postponing treatment. CONCLUSION: The ECTRIMS survey highlighted the challenges in keeping standards of care in clinical practice. Telemedicine clearly needs to be implemented. Gathering data on DMT safety will remain crucial to inform treatment decisions.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Multiple Sclerosis, Relapsing-Remitting , Multiple Sclerosis , Fingolimod Hydrochloride/therapeutic use , Humans , Immunosuppressive Agents , Multiple Sclerosis/drug therapy , SARS-CoV-2
5.
Anaesthesist ; 70(Suppl 1): 19-29, 2021 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1574765

ABSTRACT

Since December 2019 a novel coronavirus (severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2, SARS-CoV-2) has rapidly spread around the world resulting in an acute respiratory illness pandemic. The immense challenges for clinicians and hospitals as well as the strain on many healthcare systems has been unprecedented.The majority of patients present with mild symptoms of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19); however, 5-8% become critically ill and require intensive care treatment. Acute hypoxemic respiratory failure with severe dyspnea and an increased respiratory rate (>30/min) usually leads to intensive care unit (ICU) admission. At this point bilateral pulmonary infiltrates are typically seen. Patients often develop a severe acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS).So far, remdesivir and dexamethasone have shown clinical effectiveness in severe COVID-19 in hospitalized patients. The main goal of supportive treatment is to ascertain adequate oxygenation. Invasive mechanical ventilation and repeated prone positioning are key elements in treating severely hypoxemic COVID-19 patients.Strict adherence to basic infection control measures (including hand hygiene) and correct use of personal protection equipment (PPE) are essential in the care of patients. Procedures that lead to formation of aerosols should be carried out with utmost precaution and preparation.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Critical Illness , Humans , SARS-CoV-2
6.
Pain Rep ; 6(1): e931, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1537606

ABSTRACT

The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) global pandemic poses a major threat to human health and health care systems. Urgent prevention and control measures have obstructed patients' access to pain treatment, and many patients with pain have been unable to receive adequate and timely medical services. Many patients with COVID-19 report painful symptoms including headache, muscle pain, and chest pain during the initial phase of the disease. Persistent pain sequela in patients with COVID-19 has a physical or mental impact and may also affect the immune, endocrine, and other systems. However, the management and treatment of neurological symptoms such as pain are often neglected for patients hospitalized with COVID-19. Based on the China's early experience in the management of COVID-19 symptoms, the possible negative effects of pre-existing chronic pain in patients with COVID-19 and the challenges of COVID-19 prevention and control bring to the diagnosis and treatment of chronic pain are discussed. This review calls to attention the need to optimize pain management during and after COVID-19.

7.
J Clin Microbiol ; 59(6)2021 05 19.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1511414

ABSTRACT

The threat posed by novel pandemics in the future remains active. Equipping our routine laboratory with clinical metagenomics to detect unknown threats early on offers a considerable advantage and may be feasible and scalable with the ability to identify complicated infectious diseases in routine care. Though several technical and regulatory challenges still exist, clinical metagenomics may improve individual patient outcomes and provide earlier warning signs to improve pandemic preparedness.


Subject(s)
Communicable Diseases , Influenza, Human , Communicable Diseases/diagnosis , Communicable Diseases/epidemiology , Humans , Influenza, Human/diagnosis , Influenza, Human/epidemiology , Metagenomics , Pandemics
8.
Br J Clin Pharmacol ; 87(9): 3408-3424, 2021 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1494605

ABSTRACT

SARS-CoV-2 is the novel coronavirus behind the COVID-19 pandemic. Since its emergence, the global scientific community has mobilized to study this virus, and an overwhelming effort to identify COVID-19 treatments is currently ongoing for a variety of therapeutics and prophylactics. To better understand these efforts, we compiled a list of all COVID-19 vaccines undergoing preclinical and clinical testing using the WHO and ClinicalTrials.gov database, with details surrounding trial design and location. The most advanced vaccines are discussed in more detail, with a focus on their technology, advantages and disadvantages, as well as any available recent clinical findings. We also cover some of the primary challenges, safety concerns and public responses to COVID-19 vaccine trials, and consider what this can mean for the future. By compiling this information, we aim to facilitate a more thorough understanding of the extensive COVID-19 clinical testing vaccine landscape as it unfolds, and better highlight some of the complexities and challenges being faced by the joint effort of the scientific community in finding a prophylactic against COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines , COVID-19 , Clinical Trials as Topic , Humans , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2
9.
J Med Ethics ; 46(8): 495-498, 2020 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1467727

ABSTRACT

Key ethical challenges for healthcare workers arising from the COVID-19 pandemic are identified: isolation and social distancing, duty of care and fair access to treatment. The paper argues for a relational approach to ethics which includes solidarity, relational autonomy, duty, equity, trust and reciprocity as core values. The needs of the poor and socially disadvantaged are highlighted. Relational autonomy and solidarity are explored in relation to isolation and social distancing. Reciprocity is discussed with reference to healthcare workers' duty of care and its limits. Priority setting and access to treatment raise ethical issues of utility and equity. Difficult ethical dilemmas around triage, do not resuscitate decisions, and withholding and withdrawing treatment are discussed in the light of recently published guidelines. The paper concludes with the hope for a wider discussion of relational ethics and a glimpse of a future after the pandemic has subsided.


Subject(s)
Decision Making/ethics , Ethics, Clinical , Health Care Rationing/ethics , Health Equity/ethics , Health Personnel/ethics , Pandemics/ethics , Betacoronavirus , COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Disaster Planning , Humans , Moral Obligations , Pneumonia, Viral/virology , Poverty , Practice Guidelines as Topic , Professional-Patient Relations , Resuscitation Orders , SARS-CoV-2 , Social Values , Triage/ethics , Vulnerable Populations , Withholding Treatment/ethics
10.
J Speech Lang Hear Res ; 64(3): 1008-1022, 2021 03 17.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1454832

ABSTRACT

Aim The aim of this scoping review is to identify the eye tracking paradigms and eye movement measures used to investigate auditory and reading comprehension deficits in persons with aphasia (PWA). Method MEDLINE via PubMed, Cochrane, CINAHL, Embase, PsycINFO, OTseeker, Scopus, Google Scholar, Grey Literature Database, and ProQuest Search (Dissertations & Theses) were searched for relevant studies. The Covidence software was used to manage the initial and full-text screening process for the search. Results and Discussion From a total of 1,803 studies, 68 studies were included for full-text screening. In addition, 418 records from gray literature were also screened. After full-text screening, 16 studies were included for this review-12 studies for auditory comprehension in PWA and four studies for reading comprehension in PWA. The review highlights the use of common eye tracking paradigms used to study language comprehension in PWA. We also discusse eye movement measures and how they help in assessing auditory and reading comprehension. Methodological challenges of using eye tracking are discussed. Conclusion The studies summarized in this scoping review provide evidence that the eye tracking methods are beneficial for studying auditory and reading comprehension in PWA.


Subject(s)
Aphasia , Comprehension , Eye Movements , Eye-Tracking Technology , Humans
11.
Minerva Gastroenterol (Torino) ; 2021 Jun 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1456633

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), including Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis, is a chronic inflammatory condition with significant morbidity which requires lifelong follow-up with healthcare providers. Clinic visits, hospitalizations, surgical interventions, and medications impart notable physical, social, and financial challenges for patients. Furthermore, they place considerable strain on provider time and healthcare resources. Telemedicine has been gaining popularity for the cost and time savings achieved through remote patient monitoring. However, despite its widely reported success and acceptance, notable concerns have also emerged in its capacity to manage patients with varying degrees of disease activity, comorbid disabilities, and limitations to the access to technological services. EVIDENCE ACQUISITION: We will search PubMed, Scopus, Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature (CINAHL), and Google Scholar databases using key terms to extract articles assessing telemedicine in IBD management. Articles published between January 2000 and May 2021 will be included. Two rounds of literature review using a three-step method will be performed. Risk of Bias assessment will be performed using Covidence, and quality assessment of selected articles will be done using the Critical Appraisal Skills Programme (CASP) checklist. EVIDENCE SYNTHESIS: The results of the systematic review will consider the reported context in which telemedicine was used, its efficacy and acceptance among patients and practitioners. CONCLUSIONS: Our study analyze the patient's satisfaction with telemedicine together with the feasibility of implementing and conducting this new approach. The implementation of this technology present important challenges for physicians and clinics, especially for the management of IBD.

12.
Zhongguo Xue Xi Chong Bing Fang Zhi Za Zhi ; 32(1): 7-9, 2020 Feb 27.
Article in Chinese | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1456574

ABSTRACT

Since the end of 2019, the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has been extensively epidemic in China, which not only seriously threatens the safety and health of Chinese people, but also challenges the management of other infectious diseases. Currently, there are still approximately three thousand malaria cases imported into China every year. If the diagnosis and treatment of malaria cases as well as the investigation and response of the epidemic foci are not carried out timely, it may endanger patients'lives and cause the possible of secondary transmission, which threatens the achievements of malaria elimination in China. Due to the extensive spread and high transmission ability of the COVID-19, there is a possibility of virus infections among malaria cases during the medical care-seeking behaviors and among healthcare professionals during clinical diagnosis and treatment, sample collection and testing and epidemiological surveys. This paper analyzes the challenges of the COVID-19 for Chinese malaria elimination programme, and proposes the countermeasures in response to the COVID-19 outbreak, so as to provide the reference for healthcare professionals.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Disease Outbreaks , Malaria , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Betacoronavirus , COVID-19 , China , Coronavirus Infections/prevention & control , Humans , Malaria/epidemiology , Malaria/prevention & control , Malaria/transmission , National Health Programs , Pneumonia, Viral/prevention & control , SARS-CoV-2
13.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 1891, 2021 03 25.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1387333

ABSTRACT

Monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) and remdesivir, a small-molecule antiviral, are promising monotherapies for many viruses, including members of the genera Marburgvirus and Ebolavirus (family Filoviridae), and more recently, SARS-CoV-2. One of the major challenges of acute viral infections is the treatment of advanced disease. Thus, extending the window of therapeutic intervention is critical. Here, we explore the benefit of combination therapy with a mAb and remdesivir in a non-human primate model of Marburg virus (MARV) disease. While rhesus monkeys are protected against lethal infection when treatment with either a human mAb (MR186-YTE; 100%), or remdesivir (80%), is initiated 5 days post-inoculation (dpi) with MARV, no animals survive when either treatment is initiated alone beginning 6 dpi. However, by combining MR186-YTE with remdesivir beginning 6 dpi, significant protection (80%) is achieved, thereby extending the therapeutic window. These results suggest value in exploring combination therapy in patients presenting with advanced filovirus disease.


Subject(s)
Adenosine Monophosphate/analogs & derivatives , Alanine/analogs & derivatives , Antibodies, Monoclonal/therapeutic use , Antibodies, Viral/therapeutic use , Marburg Virus Disease/drug therapy , Marburgvirus/drug effects , Adenosine Monophosphate/therapeutic use , Alanine/therapeutic use , Animals , Disease Models, Animal , Drug Therapy, Combination , Macaca mulatta , Marburg Virus Disease/prevention & control , Viral Load/drug effects
14.
Rev Panam Salud Publica ; 44: e69, 2020.
Article in Spanish | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1389964

ABSTRACT

The current SARS-CoV-2 pandemic presents specific challenges for health professionals in the healthcare setting. In this emergency context, the communication of bad news is especially relevant because of the particular way it must be done: the need to maintain social distance or mobility restrictions imposed on the general population means that this task must often be carried out remotely, mostly by telephone calls. This confronts professionals with a number of particular obstacles: a) most of them have little or no training in this kind of communication skills, b) effective communication of bad news largely depends on body language, which is absent in this type of exchange, and c) since this type of remote dialogue is not recommended - except in particular circumstances such as the current ones - there is little literature available to guide the professionals who must carry out this task. This manuscript offers recommendations for remote communication of bad news by telephone, applicable to situations in which this task cannot be carried out in person. A proposal structured around four "moments" is presented to guide the remote transmission of bad news in order to improve the care of patients, families and caregivers during this exchange and to reduce the negative impact from it on health professionals.


A actual pandemia do SARS-CoV-2 apresenta desafios específicos para os profissionais de saúde na área da saúde. Neste contexto de emergência, a comunicação de más notícias é particularmente relevante devido à forma específica como deve ser feita: a necessidade de manter a distância social ou as restrições de mobilidade impostas à população em geral implica que esta tarefa seja frequentemente realizada à distância, sobretudo através de chamadas telefónicas. Isto confronta os profissionais com uma série de obstáculos particulares: a) a maioria deles tem pouca ou nenhuma formação neste tipo de competências de comunicação, b) a comunicação eficaz de más notícias depende, em grande medida, da linguagem corporal utilizada, que está ausente neste tipo de intercâmbio, e c) como este tipo de diálogo à distância não é recomendado - excepto em circunstâncias particulares como a actual - há pouca literatura disponível para orientar aqueles que devem realizar esta tarefa. Este manuscrito oferece recomendações sobre a comunicação à distância de más notícias por telefone para situações em que esta tarefa não pode ser realizada pessoalmente. É apresentada uma proposta estruturada em torno de quatro "momentos" para orientar a transmissão de más notícias à distância, a fim de melhorar os cuidados prestados aos doentes, às famílias e aos prestadores de cuidados durante este intercâmbio e também para reduzir o impacto negativo que este intercâmbio tem sobre os profissionais de saúde.

16.
Med Clin (Engl Ed) ; 155(4): 162-164, 2020 Aug 28.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1386206
17.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 18(7)2021 04 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1378284

ABSTRACT

To reduce the spread of the virus, authorities have imposed restrictive measures, such as limiting movement of individuals, shutting down non-essential stores, imposing a general or local quarantine, along with physical distancing and isolation of vulnerable people. Remote working has become the 'new normal' for many organizations, engendering further challenges for employees, who have started experiencing anxiety, technostress caused by digitalization and lack of social interaction, frustration, occupational burden, counterproductive work behavior, exhaustion, burnout, depersonalization, and increased turnover intention. All these factors, corroborated by prolonged restrictions, have contributed to a decrease in employee satisfaction, diminishing performance and generating a counterproductive behavior. Based on Social Exchange Theory, this research plans to investigate the influence of internal marketing on job satisfaction, task performance, and counterproductive work behavior in the context of the COVID-19 pandemic in an emerging market, namely Romania. Based on a quantitative research study among 850 employees, we show that internal marketing strongly and significantly impacts job satisfaction, while insignificantly impacting task performance and counterproductive work behavior. Job satisfaction actuates task performance in a significant and positive manner, contributing to a reduction in counterproductive work behaviors. This paper highlights the effects of internal marketing orientation on job satisfaction, and the effects of job satisfaction on job performance and counterproductive work behaviors.


Subject(s)
Burnout, Professional , COVID-19 , Burnout, Professional/epidemiology , Humans , Job Satisfaction , Marketing , Pandemics , Romania , SARS-CoV-2 , Task Performance and Analysis
18.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 18(7)2021 03 25.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1378230

ABSTRACT

People who identify as trans and gender non-binary experience many challenges in their lives and more interest is being paid to their overall health and wellbeing. However, little is known about their experiences and perceptions regarding their distinct psychosocial needs. The aim of this systematic review is to critically evaluate and synthesize the existing research evidence relating to the unique psychological and social experiences of trans people and identify aspects that may help or hinder access to appropriate psychosocial interventions and supports. The PRISMA procedure was utilized. A search of relevant databases from January 2010 to January 2021 was undertaken. Studies were identified that involved trans people, and addressed issues related to their psychosocial needs. The search yielded 954 papers in total. Following the application of rigorous inclusion and exclusion criteria a total of 18 papers were considered suitable for the systematic review. Quality was assessed using the MMAT instrument. Following analysis, four themes were identified: (i) stigma, discrimination and marginalization (ii) trans affirmative experiences (iii) formal and informal supports, and (iv) healthcare access. The policy, education and practice development implications are highlighted and discussed. Future research opportunities have been identified that will add significantly to the body of evidence that may further the development of appropriate health interventions and supports to this population.


Subject(s)
Gender Identity , Psychosocial Support Systems , Humans , Perception , Qualitative Research , Social Stigma
19.
Microb Biotechnol ; 13(6): 1689-1701, 2020 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1343797

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 pandemic is not only a challenge for public health and hospitals, but affects many aspects of our societies. This Lilliput minireview deals with problems that the pandemic causes for the food industry, addressing the presence and persistence of SARS-CoV-2 in the food environment, methods of virus inactivation and the protection of the food worker and the consumer. So far food has not been implicated in the transmission of the infection, but social disruptions caused by the pandemic could cause problems with food security.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus , Coronavirus Infections/transmission , Food Industry , Food Supply , Pneumonia, Viral/transmission , Animals , Betacoronavirus/isolation & purification , COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections/prevention & control , Disease Models, Animal , Feces/virology , Humans , Occupational Exposure/prevention & control , Pandemics/prevention & control , Pneumonia, Viral/prevention & control , SARS-CoV-2 , Sewage/virology , Water Microbiology
20.
Environ Syst Decis ; 40(2): 244-251, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1326838

ABSTRACT

This paper postulates the impact of coronavirus on Sub-Saharan African (SSA) economies and resilience to the pandemic. Relief measures instituted by World Bank Group (WBG) and International Monetary Fund (IMF) to help in the prevention, detection and treatment of coronavirus amidst SSA non-monetary measures and business support interventions are highlighted. The underlying economic challenges likely to impede WBG and IMF relief measures in SSA such as health infrastructure and resource deficiency, unsustainable high debt levels and drought effects due to climate change are analysed. Ranking the inadequate doctor-to-population ratio from 2015 to 2017, SSA ratio stood at less than 1 per 1000 population recommended World Health Organisation standard. On the credit front, other creditors such as China have contributed to prevailing economic challenges as China Official Development Assistance (ODA) to SSA debt ratio is depicted at 55% in 2016 from a low ratio of 17% in 2009. The economic challenges are further buttressed by estimated monthly tourism sector loss of US$8.8 billion per month for SSA countries during the pandemic. SSA self-employed informal sector that accounts for 76% (International Labour Organisation 2018) is equally affected amid lockdowns, business losses, closures and job losses. Economic growth is forecasted to drop to 1.8%, from a previous estimate of 3.2% according to United Nations Economic Commission (2020) due to a trade fall with developed and emerging markets. Recovery is aligned to good resilience in inherent cyber risk, oil intensity and urbanisation rate and policies to enhance production and the agriculture sector.

SELECTION OF CITATIONS
SEARCH DETAIL