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1.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 18(7)2021 03 25.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1378230

ABSTRACT

People who identify as trans and gender non-binary experience many challenges in their lives and more interest is being paid to their overall health and wellbeing. However, little is known about their experiences and perceptions regarding their distinct psychosocial needs. The aim of this systematic review is to critically evaluate and synthesize the existing research evidence relating to the unique psychological and social experiences of trans people and identify aspects that may help or hinder access to appropriate psychosocial interventions and supports. The PRISMA procedure was utilized. A search of relevant databases from January 2010 to January 2021 was undertaken. Studies were identified that involved trans people, and addressed issues related to their psychosocial needs. The search yielded 954 papers in total. Following the application of rigorous inclusion and exclusion criteria a total of 18 papers were considered suitable for the systematic review. Quality was assessed using the MMAT instrument. Following analysis, four themes were identified: (i) stigma, discrimination and marginalization (ii) trans affirmative experiences (iii) formal and informal supports, and (iv) healthcare access. The policy, education and practice development implications are highlighted and discussed. Future research opportunities have been identified that will add significantly to the body of evidence that may further the development of appropriate health interventions and supports to this population.


Subject(s)
Gender Identity , Psychosocial Support Systems , Humans , Perception , Qualitative Research , Social Stigma
2.
JMIR Diabetes ; 6(3): e25820, 2021 Jul 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1311338

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: With increasing type 2 diabetes prevalence, there is a need for effective programs that support diabetes management and improve type 2 diabetes outcomes. Mobile health (mHealth) interventions have shown promising results. With advances in wearable sensors and improved integration, mHealth programs could become more accessible and personalized. OBJECTIVE: The study aimed to evaluate the feasibility, acceptability, and effectiveness of a personalized mHealth-anchored intervention program in improving glycemic control and enhancing care experience in diabetes management. The program was coincidentally implemented during the national-level lockdown for COVID-19 in Singapore, allowing for a timely study of the use of mHealth for chronic disease management. METHODS: Patients with type 2 diabetes or prediabetes were enrolled from the Singapore Armed Forces and offered a 3-month intervention program in addition to the usual care they received. The program was standardized to include (1) in-person initial consultation with a clinical dietitian; (2) in-person review with a diabetes specialist doctor; (3) 1 continuous glucose monitoring device; (4) access to the mobile app for dietary intake and physical activity tracking, and communication via messaging with the dietitian and doctor; and (5) context-sensitive digital health coaching over the mobile app. Medical support was rendered to the patients on an as-needed basis when they required advice on adjustment of medications. Measurements of weight, height, and glycated hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) were conducted at 2 in-person visits at the start and end of the program. At the end of the program, patients were asked to complete a short acceptability feedback survey to understand the motivation for joining the program, their satisfaction, and suggestions for improvement. RESULTS: Over a 4-week recruitment period, 130 individuals were screened, the enrollment target of 30 patients was met, and 21 patients completed the program and were included in the final analyses; 9 patients were lost to follow-up (full data were not available for the final analyses). There were no differences in the baseline characteristics between patients who were included and excluded from the final analyses (age category: P=.23; gender: P=.21; ethnicity: P>.99; diabetes status category: P=.52, medication adjustment category: P=.65; HbA1c category: P=.69; BMI: P>.99). The 21 patients who completed the study rated a mean of 9.0 out of 10 on the Likert scale for both satisfaction questions. For the Yes-No question on benefit of the program, all of the patients selected "Yes." Mean HbA1c decreased from 7.6% to 7.0% (P=.004). There were no severe hypoglycemia events (glucose level <3.0 mmol/L) reported. Mean weight decreased from 76.8 kg to 73.9 kg (P<.001), a mean decrease of 3.5% from baseline weight. Mean BMI decreased from 27.8 kg/m2 to 26.7 kg/m2 (P<.001). CONCLUSIONS: The personalized mHealth program was feasible, acceptable, and produced significant reductions in HbA1c (P=.004) and body weight (P<.001) in individuals with type 2 diabetes. Such mHealth programs could overcome challenges posed to chronic disease management by COVID-19, including disruptions to in-person health care access.

3.
Turk Thorac J ; 22(2): 142-148, 2021 Mar.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1285488

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: Millions of people suffer from sleep disturbances. In addition, the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic created several new challenges-particularly for frontline healthcare workers (HCWs). This study assessed the sleep quality (SQ) among HCWs. MATERIAL AND METHODS: A cross-sectional study was conducted using an English-language online survey. The participants were invited via a web link sent using social network platforms. It included sociodemographic- and profession-related characteristics. COVID-19-associated risks were assessed (e.g., being on the front line, doing swabs, satisfaction about protective equipment, and management protocols). Assessment of SQ was done using the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI) and various medical errors were recorded. RESULTS: A total of 217 HCWs completed the survey with mean (±standard deviation) age of 35.8 (±7.3) years; 56.2% were male, 18.43% had comorbidities, and 61.75% experienced sleep difficulties before the COVID-19 crisis. This work reports a 78.8% prevalence of poor SQ, with the mean (standard deviation) global PSQI score of 9.36 (±4.4). HCWs with poor sleep experienced more positive comorbid profile (23.64% versus 6.52%, p=0.01). Working on the front lines of COVID-19 was associated with poor sleep (69.59% versus 47.83%, p=0.006). Among the participants, 77.42% performed medical errors, particularly not checking for drug allergies (17.97%), dispensing medication with incomplete instructions (20.74%), providing incorrect doses or overdosing (14.75%), incorrectly explaining the use of medication (9.22%), and prescribing a drug to the wrong patient (10.14%). CONCLUSION: This nationwide survey reported high prevalence of poor SQ among HCWs during the COVID-19 pandemic. Being an HCW on the front lines of COVID-19 and doing swabs with a positive comorbidity was associated with poor sleep.

4.
Subst Use Misuse ; 56(10): 1476-1482, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1270720

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: COVID-19 has resulted in extraordinary adversities. Mandates such as distancing and variations to treatment services were implemented to slow transmission of the virus, but created new challenges for persons with Substance Use Disorder (SUD). To better understand this phenomenon, we surveyed healthcare professionals on how they believe COVID-19 has impacted persons with SUD and what needs to occur to effectively treat this vulnerable population. Methods: Attending physicians, residents, nurses, medical and nursing students, and other healthcare professionals were asked to respond to three open-ended questions related to the impact of COVID-19 on persons with SUD. Two independent coders reviewed the comments utilizing constant comparative analysis to develop themes. Results: Common themes of concern were found from the respective participants (n = 205) including: lack of access to treatment, feelings of isolation, negative impacts on mental health, and the possibility of relapse. Healthcare strategies to effectively treat and help persons with SUD included increasing access to treatment including telehealth, development of peer support groups, availability of mental health resources, development of enhanced communication channels between providers and patients, and systematic changes. Conclusion: During the COVID-19 pandemic, overdose deaths have dramatically increased. As the short-term and long-term effects of the pandemic become more apparent, swift and comprehensive responses and policies must be enacted. This study provides insight from healthcare providers on the effects of the pandemic for persons with SUD. Many preexisting issues remain unresolved (e.g. stigma and healthcare disparities), and now the pandemic has presented new obstacles as noted by the providers. The findings from this study provide implications for important discussion regarding the development of strategies for substance use treatment and harm reduction.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Substance-Related Disorders , Delivery of Health Care , Health Personnel , Humans , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , Substance-Related Disorders/epidemiology , Substance-Related Disorders/therapy
5.
JMIR Res Protoc ; 10(6): e25271, 2021 Jun 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1268221

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The COVID-19 pandemic has raised unprecedented challenges in the management of patients with cancer and has increased the demands for digital health tools that, for example, could facilitate remote monitoring of patients. Based on this, the Gruppo Italiano Malattie Ematologiche dell'Adulto (GIMEMA) has recently developed a digital health tool dedicated to patients with hematologic malignancies: the GIMEMA-ALLIANCE platform. OBJECTIVE: The main objectives of this web-based platform are to generate relevant data to better understand quality of life, symptoms, and medication adherence during the COVID-19 pandemic and postpandemic era; to develop a prospective real-life registry on outcomes of patients with hematologic cancer, with or without a diagnosis of COVID-19; and to facilitate patient-centered care in routine practice. METHODS: The platform consists of physician- and patient-secure portals and enables electronic patient-reported outcome (ePRO) assessments with real-time graphical presentation to physicians of individual patient symptoms and quality-of-life outcomes. Automated alerts are sent to treating hematologists based on the following predetermined criteria: presence of clinically important problems and symptoms, problems with adherence to therapy, and risk of COVID-19 diagnosis. The platform also allows physicians to set up video consultations. Clinical information regarding disease and treatment as well as clinical and survival outcomes are also prospectively collected. RESULTS: Recruitment of participants started in December 2020. As of April 2021, a total of 116 patients have been enrolled in this study. Use of this platform may help to improve patient-physician communication and help hematologists in the early recognition of clinically important problems and symptoms of their patients. More than 20 community and university-based hospitals have currently agreed to participate. In addition to patient-reported outcome data, the prospective collection of disease- and treatment-related information, as well as data on possible COVID-19 diagnosis and COVID-19 vaccination, will allow the development of a large database to also identify subgroups of patients at risk of poor outcomes. CONCLUSIONS: Data generated via this platform will help to answer clinically relevant questions for patients with hematologic malignancies during the COVID-19 pandemic and postpandemic era. The use of the GIMEMA-ALLIANCE platform in routine practice may also contribute to enhancing patient-centered care. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov NCT04581187; https://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT04581187. INTERNATIONAL REGISTERED REPORT IDENTIFIER (IRRID): PRR1-10.2196/25271.

6.
Muscle Nerve ; 64(3): 321-327, 2021 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1261772

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION/AIMS: In this study, we examined the social and health impacts of the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic and social guidelines on people with muscular dystrophies. METHODS: A prospective de-identified electronic survey was distributed to adults with self-reported facioscapulohumeral muscular dystrophy (FSHD), myotonic dystrophy (DM), and limb-girdle muscular dystrophy (LGMD) enrolled in national registries or with patient advocacy groups. The COVID-19 Impact Survey was developed by muscular dystrophy experts in association with patient collaborators and advocacy groups. The Perceived Stress Scale was used to measure perceived stress. RESULTS: Respondents (n = 774: 56% FSHD; 35% DM, and 9% LGMD) were mostly women and middle-aged (range 19-87 y). Rates of COVID-19 infections were low (<1%), compliance with local social distancing guidelines and policies high (98%). Major challenges reported during the pandemic included: obtaining treatment (40%), managing stress (37%), social distancing (36%), and obtaining essentials (34%). The majority reported a slight worsening in their disease state. Respondents reported moderate stress levels (stress score = 15.4; range = 0-35), with higher stress levels reported by women and those under age 30 y. Three-quarters of participants who participated in telemedicine visits were satisfied with the encounters; however, most reported a preference for in-person visits. DISCUSSION: People with muscular dystrophy reported moderate stress and challenges during the COVID-19 pandemic. Interventions such as exercise and stress-coping strategies, including strategies specific to women or individuals <30 y, may be important. Further investigation is needed into the role of telemedicine in the care of individuals with muscular dystrophy.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/psychology , Muscular Dystrophies/psychology , Physical Distancing , Self Report , Social Interaction , Surveys and Questionnaires , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , COVID-19/epidemiology , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Muscular Dystrophies/epidemiology , Prospective Studies , Young Adult
7.
JMIR Ment Health ; 8(5): e25708, 2021 May 27.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1256249

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Electronic mental (e-mental) health offers an opportunity to overcome many challenges such as cost, accessibility, and the stigma associated with mental health, and most people with lived experiences of mental problems are in favor of using applications and websites to manage their mental health problems. However, the use of these new technologies remains weak in the area of mental health and psychiatry. OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to characterize the social representations associated with e-mental health by all actors to implement new technologies in the best possible way in the health system. METHODS: A free-association task method was used. The data were subjected to a lexicometric analysis to qualify and quantify words by analyzing their statistical distribution, using the ALCESTE method with the IRaMuTeQ software. RESULTS: In order of frequency, the terms most frequently used to describe e-mental health in the whole corpus are: "care" (n=21), "internet" (n=21), "computing" (n=15), "health" (n=14), "information" (n=13), "patient" (n=12), and "tool" (n=12). The corpus of text is divided into 2 themes, with technological and computing terms on one side and medical and public health terms on the other. The largest family is focused on "care," "advances," "research," "life," "quality," and "well-being," which was significantly associated with users. The nursing group used very medical terms such as "treatment," "diagnosis," "psychiatry"," and "patient" to define e-mental health. CONCLUSIONS: This study shows that there is a gap between the representations of users on e-mental health as a tool for improving their quality of life and those of health professionals (except nurses) that are more focused on the technological potential of these digital care tools. Developers, designers, clinicians, and users must be aware of the social representation of e-mental health conditions uses and intention of use. This understanding of everyone's stakes will make it possible to redirect the development of tools to adapt them as much as possible to the needs and expectations of the actors of the mental health system.

8.
Pediatr Blood Cancer ; 68(7): e29049, 2021 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1217408

ABSTRACT

Thrombosis within the microvasculature and medium to large vessels is a serious and common complication among critically ill individuals with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). While children are markedly less likely to develop severe disease than adults, they remain at risk for thrombosis during acute infection and with the post-acute inflammatory illness termed multisystem inflammatory syndrome in children. Significant knowledge deficits in understanding COVID-19-associated coagulopathy and thrombotic risk pose clinical challenges for pediatric providers who must incorporate expert opinion and personal experience to manage individual patients. We discuss clinical scenarios to provide framework for characterizing thrombosis risk and thromboprophylaxis in children with COVID-19.


Subject(s)
Anticoagulants/administration & dosage , COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2/metabolism , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome , Thrombosis , Adolescent , COVID-19/blood , COVID-19/drug therapy , Child , Female , Humans , Male , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome/blood , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome/drug therapy , Thrombosis/blood , Thrombosis/drug therapy
9.
OMICS ; 25(5): 269-278, 2021 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1202572

ABSTRACT

With coronavirus disease 19 (COVID-19), we have witnessed a shift from public health to planetary health and a growing recognition of the importance of systems science in developing effective solutions against pandemics in the 21st century. COVID-19 and the history of frequent infectious outbreaks in the last two decades suggest that COVID-19 is likely a dry run for future ecological crises. Now is the right time to plan ahead and deploy the armamentarium of systems science scholarship for planetary health. The science of epigenomics, which investigates both genetic and nongenetic traits regarding heritable phenotypic alterations, and new approaches to understanding genome regulation in humans and pathogens offer veritable prospects to boost the global scientific capacities to innovate therapeutics and diagnostics against novel and existing infectious agents. Several reversible epigenetic alterations, such as chromatin remodeling and histone methylation, control and influence gene expression. COVID-19 lethality is linked, in part, to the cytokine storm, age, and status of the immune system in a given person. Additionally, due to reduced human mobility and daily activities, effects of the pandemic on the environment have been both positive and negative. For example, reduction in environmental pollution and lesser extraction from nature have potential positive corollaries on water and air quality. Negative effects include pollution as plastics and other materials were disposed in unconventional places and spaces in the course of the pandemic. I discuss the opportunities and challenges associated with the science of epigenomics, specifically with an eye to inform and prevent future ecological crises and pandemics that are looming on the horizon in the 21st century. In particular, this article underscores that epigenetics of both viruses and the host may influence virus infectivity and severity of attendant disease.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/genetics , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , COVID-19/drug therapy , COVID-19/virology , Ecology , Environmental Health , Epigenesis, Genetic , Epigenomics , Gene Expression Regulation , Global Health , Host Microbial Interactions/genetics , Humans , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity
10.
BMJ Open ; 11(4): e049210, 2021 04 22.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1199792

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: To explore the experiences of service users, carers and staff seeking or providing secondary mental health services during the COVID-19 pandemic. DESIGN: Qualitative interview study, codesigned with mental health service users and carers. METHODS: We conducted semistructured, telephone or online interviews with a purposively constructed sample; a lived experience researcher conducted and analysed interviews with service users. Analysis was based on the constant comparison method. SETTING: National Health Service (NHS) secondary mental health services in England between June and August 2020. PARTICIPANTS: Of 65 participants, 20 had either accessed or needed to access English secondary mental healthcare during the pandemic; 10 were carers of people with mental health difficulties; 35 were members of staff working in NHS secondary mental health services during the pandemic. RESULTS: Experiences of remote care were mixed. Some service users valued the convenience of remote methods in the context of maintaining contact with familiar clinicians. Most participants commented that a lack of non-verbal cues and the loss of a therapeutic 'safe space' challenged therapeutic relationship building, assessments and identification of deteriorating mental well-being. Some carers felt excluded from remote meetings and concerned that assessments were incomplete without their input. Like service users, remote methods posed challenges for clinicians who reported uncertainty about technical options and a lack of training. All groups expressed concern about intersectionality exacerbating inequalities and the exclusion of some service user groups if alternatives to remote care are lost. CONCLUSIONS: Though remote mental healthcare is likely to become increasingly widespread in secondary mental health services, our findings highlight the continued importance of a tailored, personal approach to decision making in this area. Further research should focus on which types of consultations best suit face-to-face interaction, and for whom and why, and which can be provided remotely and by which medium.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pandemics , Caregivers , England/epidemiology , Humans , Mental Health , SARS-CoV-2 , State Medicine
11.
Implement Sci Commun ; 2(1): 38, 2021 Apr 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1175353

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The COVID-19 pandemic has negatively impacted individuals with eating disorders; resulting in increased symptoms, as well as feelings of isolation and anxiety. To conform with social distancing requirements, outpatient eating disorder treatment in Canada is being delivered virtually, but a lack of direction surrounding this change creates challenges for practitioners, patients, and families. As a result, there is an urgent need to not only adapt evidence-based care, including family-based treatment (FBT), to virtual formats, but to study its implementation in eating disorder programs. We propose to study the initial adaptation and adoption of virtual family-based treatment (vFBT) with the ultimate goal of improving access to services for youth with eating disorders. METHODS: We will use a multi-site case study with a mixed method pre/post design to examine the impact of our implementation approach across four pediatric eating disorder programs. We will develop implementation teams at each site (consisting of therapists, medical practitioners, and program administrators), provide a remote training workshop on vFBT, and offer ongoing consultation during the initial implementation phase. Therapists will submit videorecordings of their first four vFBT sessions. We propose to study our implementation approach by examining (1) whether the key components of standard FBT are maintained in virtual delivery measured by therapist self-report, (2) fidelity to our vFBT model measured by expert fidelity rating of submitted videorecordings of the first four sessions of vFBT, (3) team and patient/family experiences with vFBT assessed with qualitative interviews, and (4) patient outcomes measured by weight and binge/purge frequency reported by therapists. DISCUSSION: To our knowledge, this is the first study to evaluate an implementation strategy for virtually delivered FBT for eating disorders. Challenges to date include confirming site participation and obtaining ethics approval at all locations. This research is imperative to inform the delivery of vFBT in the COVID-19 context. It also has implications for delivery in a post-pandemic era where virtual services may be preferable to patients and families living in remote locations, where access to specialized services is extremely limited. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov NCT04678843 , registered on December 21, 2020.

12.
Int J Inf Manage ; 54: 102143, 2020 Oct.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1152381

ABSTRACT

The outbreak of the COVID-19 pandemic has created significant challenges for people worldwide. To combat the virus, one of the most dramatic measures was the lockdown of 4 billion people in what is believed to be the largest quasi-quarantine in human history. As a response to the call to study information behavior during a global health crisis, we adopted a resource orchestration perspective to investigate six Chinese families who survived the lockdown. We explored how elderly, young and middle-aged individuals and children resourced information and how they adapted their information behavior to emerging online technologies. Two information resource orchestration practices (information resourcing activities and information behavior adaptation activities) and three mechanisms (online emergence and convergence in community resilience, the overcoming of information flow impediments, and the application of absorptive capacity) were identified in the study.

13.
Int J Health Plann Manage ; 36(4): 1014-1029, 2021 Jul.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1148814

ABSTRACT

With a fragile healthcare system, Bangladesh, much like other countries in South East Asia, struggled during the early days of COVID-19 pandemic. In following months several encouraging initiatives were undertaken including nationwide lockdown, maintaining social distancing and setting up COVID-19 dedicated laboratories and hospitals. Despite fear of an escalation in COVID-19 transmission during the winter months like their European counterparts, fortunately infection rates subsided and Bangladesh came out largely unharmed. But the next phase of COVID-19 pandemic management that includes viral transmission suppression and conduction of nationwide immunization program require several urgent steps from government of Bangladesh (GoB) and relevant stakeholders. This qualitative research piece discussed about issues including an urgent need to enhance critical care facilities around the country, especially in peripheral districts; ramping up COVID-19 testing at existing laboratories in view of diagnosing each case, and ensuring vaccines for the vulnerable populations in the country. Furthermore, the researchers shed light on other issues including a need to reinforce a struggling healthcare workforce, encouraging people to take vaccine, proper maintenance of social distancing regulations, routine epidemiological surveillance, management of environment and biomedical waste and undertaking a holistic approach to combat the pandemic and its environmental and financial consequences.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines/therapeutic use , COVID-19/prevention & control , Immunization Programs/organization & administration , Bangladesh/epidemiology , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/transmission , COVID-19 Vaccines/adverse effects , Critical Care/methods , Critical Care/organization & administration , Forecasting , Health Personnel/psychology , Humans , Immunization Programs/methods , Immunization Programs/trends , Physical Distancing , Population Surveillance , Rural Population , SARS-CoV-2
14.
Ir J Med Sci ; 191(2): 577-588, 2022 Apr.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1147617

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Worldwide, many people have been affected by COVID-19, a novel respiratory illness, caused by a new type of coronavirus SARS-CoV2. The COVID-19 outbreak is considered a pandemic and has created a number of challenges for the general population, patients, and healthcare professionals. Lockdowns have been implemented to slow down the spread of the virus with the expectation that these restrictions will limit the number of cases, and hence the number of hospitalizations and ICU admissions. However, these restrictions, and in particular lockdowns, impact on the life of everyone living in Ireland. AIM: To record how the COVID-19 pandemic and subsequent restrictive measures impacted on people's activities, work, schooling, and childcare. METHODS: The Corona Citizens' Science Project was set up as a population-wide survey. A questionnaire was designed, and the survey was first launched on the 8th of April 2020. An overview of results was released in the press days later. Data was collected in four waves: April 8, April 22, May 6, and June 17, 2020. Each wave had core questions allowing to compare each wave, and wave-specific questions, to understand current impact of changing measures. RESULTS: Over four waves, 152,259 responses were collected. The mean age of respondents was 47 with about 10% over the age of 65. Around 75% were female and 85% had a higher degree. Nearly 70% of the respondents were in employment, and around 13% were retired. Up to 20% of the respondents were essential workers, and 10% of respondents indicated they were in receipt of the COVID-19 pandemic unemployment payment. Around 10% of the people who responded were living alone. The number of people talked to the previous day was on average 2.3 in the first survey; during the lockdown, this went up over time, and in the last survey, the mean was 3.9. The percentage of respondents who did not talk to anyone the previous day decreased from 40 to 22% over the waves. In the first wave, about 6% of respondents reported having had flu-like symptoms in the last 14 days, which declined to 3.3%, 2.5%, and 2.0% in waves 2, 3, and 4 respectively. Similarly, over the four waves, the respondents who indicated that someone they lived with had flu-like symptoms declined from 17 to 12%, 9%, and 11%. Throughout the four waves, nearly one third of people reported one or more underlying conditions. CONCLUSIONS: As a result of the COVID-19 pandemic, a number of restrictive measures, in particular lockdown, were implemented in Ireland to protect populations and healthcare systems. To record some of the major impacts on society, we launched a Corona Citizens Science Project, with the aim to support decision-making. This report provides detail of its findings.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , COVID-19/epidemiology , Communicable Disease Control , Female , Humans , Pandemics , RNA, Viral , SARS-CoV-2 , Surveys and Questionnaires
15.
J Pain Res ; 14: 623-629, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1133773

ABSTRACT

To date, COVID-19 has spread to more than 108 million people globally, with a death toll surpassing 2 1/2 million. With the United States Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approval of two highly effective COVID-19 vaccines from Pfizer-BioNtech and Moderna, we now have a novel approach to contain COVID-19 related morbidity and mortality. Chronic pain care has faced unprecedented challenges for patients and providers in this ever-changing climate. With the approval of COVID-19 vaccines, we now face questions relating to the potential effects of pain treatments utilizing steroids on vaccine efficacy. In this analysis, we address these issues and provide guidance for steroid therapies based on available data and expert recommendations.

16.
Front Psychiatry ; 12: 596872, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1120712

ABSTRACT

Background: The Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has led to overwhelming levels of distress as it spread rapidly from Wuhan, Hubei province to other regions in China. To contain the transmission of COVID-19, China has executed strict lockdown and quarantine policies, particularly in provinces with the highest severity (i.e., Hubei). Although the challenges faced by individuals across provinces may share some similarities, it remains unknown as to whether and how the severity of COVID-19 is related to elevation in depression. Methods: The present study compared depression among individuals who lived in mildly, moderately, and severely impacted provinces in China following the lockdown (N = 1,200) to norm data obtained from a representative sample within the same provinces in 2016 (N = 950), and examined demographic correlates of depression in 2020. Results: Residents in 2020, particularly those living in more heavily impacted provinces, reported increased levels of depression than the 2016 sample. Subsequent analyses of sub-dimensions of depression replicated the findings for depressed mood but not for positive affect, as the latter only declined among residents in the most severely impacted area. Increased depressed mood was associated with female, younger age, fewer years of education, and being furloughed from work, whereas reduced positive affect was associated with younger age and fewer years of education only. Conclusions: This study underscored the impact of COVID-19 on depression and suggested individual characteristics that may warrant attention.

17.
F1000Res ; 102021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1110756

ABSTRACT

This editorial summarises the organisation, activities, and scientific content of the 6th European Student Council Symposium (ESCS) organised by the International Society for Computational Biology Student Council (ISCB-SC). The event was held on September 6, 2020, as a satellite event preceding the ISCB's  19th European Conference in Computational Biology. Both events were first planned to be held in-person in Sitges, Spain, but moved virtually as a strategy to face the SARS-CoV2 sanitary crisis. This completely unforeseen situation has posed several challenges that have been successfully addressed thanks to the robust ISCB Student Council community structure and the strong commitment of the organisers. Despite all the obstacles and challenges, we have found that virtuality has several advantages that can continue to be kept to improve in-person meetings in the future and make conferences more inclusive allowing a larger audience to participate.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , RNA, Viral , Computational Biology , Humans , SARS-CoV-2 , Students
18.
Eur J Case Rep Intern Med ; 8(1): 002204, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1083855

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 pandemic has posed new challenges for the scientific community. The behaviour of the virus and outcomes in people living with HIV have not yet been properly studied. We report the case of a 34-year-old man with newly diagnosed HIV infection stage 4 and asymptomatic SARS-CoV-2 infection. Although immunocompromised patients are classified as being at high risk of developing severe COVID-19, HIV-related immunosuppression may have a protective role. LEARNING POINTS: It is important to remember that not every respiratory infection during this pandemic is due to SARS-CoV-2.We need more studies to elucidate the behaviour of COVID-19 in people living with HIV.There is still doubt about the best time for antiretroviral therapy (ART) initiation in this context.

19.
Addict Sci Clin Pract ; 16(1): 4, 2021 01 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1060377

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 pandemic has resulted in unparalleled societal disruption with wide ranging effects on individual liberties, the economy, and physical and mental health. While no social strata or population has been spared, the pandemic has posed unique and poorly characterized challenges for individuals with opioid use disorder (OUD). Given the pandemic's broad effects, it is helpful to organize the risks posed to specific populations using theoretical models. These models can guide scientific inquiry, interventions, and public policy. Models also provide a visual image of the interplay of individual-, network-, community-, structural-, and pandemic-level factors that can lead to increased risks of infection and associated morbidity and mortality for individuals and populations. Such models are not unidirectional, in that actions of individuals, networks, communities and structural changes can also affect overall disease incidence and prevalence. In this commentary, we describe how the social ecological model (SEM) may be applied to describe the theoretical effects of the COVID-19 pandemic on individuals with opioid use disorder (OUD). This model can provide a necessary framework to systematically guide time-sensitive research and implementation of individual-, community-, and policy-level interventions to mitigate the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on individuals with OUD.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/psychology , Models, Psychological , Opioid-Related Disorders/psychology , Pandemics , Social Environment , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/rehabilitation , Comorbidity , Humans , Opioid-Related Disorders/epidemiology , Opioid-Related Disorders/rehabilitation , Prevalence , Public Policy , Research , Risk
20.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 18(3)2021 01 31.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1055064

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is an emerging infectious disease. Bilateral pneumonia, acute respiratory failure, systemic inflammation, endothelial dysfunction and coagulation activation are key features of severe COVID-19. Fibrinogen and D-dimer levels are typically increased. The risk for venous thromboembolism is markedly increased, especially in patients in the intensive care unit despite prophylactic dose anticoagulation. Pulmonary microvascular thrombosis has also been described and the risk for arterial thrombotic diseases also appears to be increased while bleeding is less common than thrombosis, but it can occur. Evaluation for venous thromboembolism may be challenging because symptoms of pulmonary embolism overlap with COVID-19, and imaging studies may not be feasible in all cases. The threshold for evaluation or diagnosis of thromboembolism should be low given the high frequency of these events. Management and treatment are new challenges due to the paucity of high-quality evidence regarding efficacy and safety of different approaches to prevent or treat thromboembolic complications of the disease. All inpatients should receive thromboprophylaxis unless contraindicated. Some institutional protocols provide more aggressive anticoagulation with intermediate or even therapeutic dose anticoagulation for COVID-19 patients admitted to ICU. Therapeutic dose anticoagulation is always appropriate to treat deep venous thrombosis or pulmonary embolism, unless contraindicated. This article reviews evaluation and management of coagulation abnormalities in individuals with COVID-19.


Subject(s)
Blood Coagulation Disorders , COVID-19 , Risk Management , Venous Thromboembolism , Anticoagulants/therapeutic use , Blood Coagulation Disorders/complications , Blood Coagulation Disorders/drug therapy , COVID-19/complications , Humans , Venous Thromboembolism/complications , Venous Thromboembolism/drug therapy
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