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Eur J Pediatr ; 180(7): 2099-2106, 2021 Jul.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1092067


Fever without source (FWS) in infants is a frequent cause of consultation at the emergency department, and the emergence of SARS-CoV-2 could affect the approach to those infants. The aim of this study is to define the clinical characteristics and rates of bacterial coinfections of infants < 90 days with FWS as the first manifestation of SARS-CoV-2 infection. This is a cross-sectional study of infants under 90 days of age with FWS and positive SARS-CoV2 PCR in nasopharyngeal swab/aspirate, attended at the emergency departments of 49 Spanish hospitals (EPICO-AEP cohort) from March 1 to June 26, 2020. Three hundred and thirty-three children with COVID-19 were included in EPICO-AEP. A total of 67/336 (20%) were infants less than 90 days old, and 27/67(40%) presented with FWS. Blood cultures were performed in 24/27(89%) and were negative in all but one (4%) who presented a Streptococcus mitis bacteremia. Urine culture was performed in 26/27(97%) children and was negative in all, except in two (7%) patients. Lumbar puncture was performed in 6/27(22%) cases, with no growth of bacteria. Two children had bacterial coinfections: 1 had UTI and bacteremia, and 1 had UTI. C-reactive was protein over 20 mg/L in two children (one with bacterial coinfection), and procalcitonin was normal in all. One child was admitted to the pediatric intensive care unit because of apnea episodes. No patients died.Conclusion: FWS was frequent in infants under 90 days of age with SARS-CoV-2 infection. Standardized markers to rule out bacterial infections remain useful in this population, and the outcome is generally good. What is Known: • Fever without source (FWS) in infants is a common cause of consultation at the emergency department, and young infants have a higher risk of serious bacterial infections (SBI). • The emergence of the new coronavirus SARS-CoV-2 could affect the approach to young infants with FWS in the emergency department. management of those children is a challenge because information about bacterial coinfection and prognosis is scarce. What is New: • SARS-CoV-2 infection should be ruled out in young infants (< 90 days of age) with FWS in areas with community transmission. • Bacterial coinfection rarely coexists in those infants. • Inflammatory markers were not increased in children without bacterial coinfection. • Outcome is good in most patients.

COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Child , Cross-Sectional Studies , Fever/epidemiology , Fever/etiology , Humans , Infant , RNA, Viral
Acta Paediatr ; 110(6): 1863-1868, 2021 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1066614


AIM: To, in children, investigate the associations between serum furin, obesity, overweight, body fat and circulating markers reflecting adipose tissue or systemic inflammation. METHODS: We analysed furin, leptin, adipocyte fatty acid-binding protein, triglycerides, interleukin (IL)-6, IL-8 and C-reactive protein in serum from 166 children in the Pediatric Osteoporosis Prevention (POP) study collected at mean age (SD) 9.9 (0.6) years. Children were classified as low-to-normal weight, overweight or obese. Total body fat mass (kg), trunk fat mass (kg) and total body lean mass (kg) were measured by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. Body fat percentage (%) was calculated. RESULTS: We found that circulating furin levels were higher in children with obesity and overweight compared with children with low-to-normal weight (p < 0.001 and p = 0.006, respectively). Also, there were positive correlations between circulating furin, total body fat mass, trunk fat mass, body fat percentage, triglycerides, adipokines and pro-inflammatory markers. CONCLUSION: This study indicates associations between furin, adiposity and a pro-inflammatory milieu in children. We suggest that future studies investigate the role of furin in fat tissue inflammation and associated increased risk of cardiometabolic diseases in children. Studies should also investigate whether higher furin levels could be a link between obesity and severe coronavirus disease 2019 in children.

COVID-19 , Furin , Absorptiometry, Photon , Adiposity , Body Mass Index , Child , Humans , Obesity , Overweight , SARS-CoV-2