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1.
Lancet Respir Med ; 9(5): 533-544, 2021 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1931217

ABSTRACT

Cough is one of the most common presenting symptoms of COVID-19, along with fever and loss of taste and smell. Cough can persist for weeks or months after SARS-CoV-2 infection, often accompanied by chronic fatigue, cognitive impairment, dyspnoea, or pain-a collection of long-term effects referred to as the post-COVID syndrome or long COVID. We hypothesise that the pathways of neurotropism, neuroinflammation, and neuroimmunomodulation through the vagal sensory nerves, which are implicated in SARS-CoV-2 infection, lead to a cough hypersensitivity state. The post-COVID syndrome might also result from neuroinflammatory events in the brain. We highlight gaps in understanding of the mechanisms of acute and chronic COVID-19-associated cough and post-COVID syndrome, consider potential ways to reduce the effect of COVID-19 by controlling cough, and suggest future directions for research and clinical practice. Although neuromodulators such as gabapentin or opioids might be considered for acute and chronic COVID-19 cough, we discuss the possible mechanisms of COVID-19-associated cough and the promise of new anti-inflammatories or neuromodulators that might successfully target both the cough of COVID-19 and the post-COVID syndrome.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/physiopathology , Cough/etiology , Inflammation/etiology , Nervous System Diseases/etiology , Neuroimmunomodulation , Cough/physiopathology , Humans , Inflammation/physiopathology , Nervous System Diseases/physiopathology , SARS-CoV-2 , Syndrome
2.
Lancet Respir Med ; 9(5): 533-544, 2021 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1537202

ABSTRACT

Cough is one of the most common presenting symptoms of COVID-19, along with fever and loss of taste and smell. Cough can persist for weeks or months after SARS-CoV-2 infection, often accompanied by chronic fatigue, cognitive impairment, dyspnoea, or pain-a collection of long-term effects referred to as the post-COVID syndrome or long COVID. We hypothesise that the pathways of neurotropism, neuroinflammation, and neuroimmunomodulation through the vagal sensory nerves, which are implicated in SARS-CoV-2 infection, lead to a cough hypersensitivity state. The post-COVID syndrome might also result from neuroinflammatory events in the brain. We highlight gaps in understanding of the mechanisms of acute and chronic COVID-19-associated cough and post-COVID syndrome, consider potential ways to reduce the effect of COVID-19 by controlling cough, and suggest future directions for research and clinical practice. Although neuromodulators such as gabapentin or opioids might be considered for acute and chronic COVID-19 cough, we discuss the possible mechanisms of COVID-19-associated cough and the promise of new anti-inflammatories or neuromodulators that might successfully target both the cough of COVID-19 and the post-COVID syndrome.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/physiopathology , Cough/etiology , Inflammation/etiology , Nervous System Diseases/etiology , Neuroimmunomodulation , Cough/physiopathology , Humans , Inflammation/physiopathology , Nervous System Diseases/physiopathology , SARS-CoV-2 , Syndrome
3.
Int J Biometeorol ; 65(12): 2241-2243, 2021 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1258217

ABSTRACT

With this letter to Editor, we aim at offering our viewpoint on the potential use of the spa resources to contribute to the treatment of persistent COVID-19 sequelae. In particular, our argumentations focus on the comprehensive management of fatigue persisting after the resolution of the acute infection. This sequela seems to be the most frequent disabling outcome, leading to a delay in social reintegration and return to working life.We suggest that spa facilities including multidisciplinary interventions and trained staffs could be an appropriate setting for providing rehabilitative protocols to treat chronic fatigue in post COVID-19 subjects. Spa treatments may improve the physical symptoms of chronic fatigue and modulate the immune imbalance, reducing persisting inflammation. Moreover, in the spa setting, specific respiratory rehabilitation and neuropsychological interventions could be provided. The rehabilitative protocol could also properly address comorbidities.In conclusion, respecting the hygiene and preventive measures, the spa setting could represent the appropriate environment to take care of post-COVID chronic fatigue, offering adequate and multidisciplinary rehabilitation protocols. Further, prospective trials on this topic are needed to fully evaluate the positive impact of a comprehensive rehabilitative treatment in the spa environment for subjects with post-COVID-19 fatigue.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Humans , Prospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2
4.
Medicina (Kaunas) ; 57(6)2021 May 28.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1256606

ABSTRACT

Background and objectives: Myalgic Encephalomyelitis/Chronic Fatigue Syndrome (ME/CFS) is a complex multi-system disease with a significant impact on the quality of life of patients and their families, yet the majority of ME/CFS patients go unrecognised or undiagnosed. For two decades, the medical education establishment in the UK has been challenged to remedy these failings, but little has changed. Meanwhile, there has been an exponential increase in biomedical research and an international paradigm shift in the literature, which defines ME/CFS as a multisystem disease, replacing the psychogenic narrative. This study was designed to explore the current UK medical school education on ME/CFS and to identify challenges and opportunities relating to future ME/CFS medical education. Materials and methods: A questionnaire, developed under the guidance of the Medical Schools Council, was sent to all 34 UK medical schools to collect data for the academic year 2018-2019. Results: Responses were provided by 22 out of a total of 34 medical schools (65%); of these 13/22 (59%) taught ME/CFS, and teaching was led by lecturers from ten medical specialties. Teaching delivery was usually by lecture; discussion, case studies and e-learning were also used. Questions on ME/CFS were included by seven schools in their examinations and three schools reported likely clinical exposure to ME/CFS patients. Two-thirds of respondents were interested in receiving further teaching aids in ME/CFS. None of the schools shared details of their teaching syllabus, so it was not possible to ascertain what the students were being taught. Conclusions: This exploratory study reveals inadequacies in medical school teaching on ME/CFS. Many medical schools (64% of respondents) acknowledge the need to update ME/CFS education by expressing an appetite for further educational materials. The General Medical Council (GMC) and Medical Schools Council (MSC) are called upon to use their considerable influence to bring about the appropriate changes to medical school curricula so future doctors can recognise, diagnose and treat ME/CFS. The GMC is urged to consider creating a registered specialty encompassing ME/CFS, post-viral fatigue and long Covid.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Education, Medical , Fatigue Syndrome, Chronic , Fatigue Syndrome, Chronic/diagnosis , Fatigue Syndrome, Chronic/therapy , Humans , Quality of Life , SARS-CoV-2 , Schools, Medical
5.
J Am Geriatr Soc ; 69(9): 2419-2429, 2021 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1247237

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Frailty leaves older adults vulnerable to adverse health outcomes. Frailty assessment is recommended by multiple COVID-19 guidelines to inform care and resource allocation. We aimed to identify, describe, and synthesize studies reporting the association of frailty with outcomes (informed by the Institute for Healthcare Improvement's Triple Aim [health, resource use, and experience]) in individuals with COVID-19. DESIGN: Systematic review and meta-analysis. SETTING: Studies reporting associations between frailty and outcomes in the setting of COVID-19 diagnosis. PARTICIPANTS: Adults with COVID-19. MEASUREMENTS: Following review of titles, abstracts and full text, we included 52 studies that contained 118,373 participants with COVID-19. Risk of bias was assessed using the Quality in Prognostic studies tool. Our primary outcome was mortality, secondary outcomes included delirium, intensive care unit admission, need for ventilation and discharge location. Where appropriate, random-effects meta-analysis was used to pool adjusted and unadjusted effect measures by frailty instrument. RESULTS: The Clinical Frailty Scale (CFS) was the most used frailty instrument. Mortality was reported in 37 studies. After confounder adjustment, frailty identified using the CFS was significantly associated with mortality in COVID-19 positive patients (odds ratio 1.79, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.49-2.14; hazard ratio 1.87, 95% CI 1.33-2.61). On an unadjusted basis, frailty identified using the CFS was significantly associated with increased odds of delirium and reduced odds of intensive care unit admission. Results were generally consistent using other frailty instruments. Patient-reported, cost and experience outcomes were rarely reported. CONCLUSION: Frailty is associated with a substantial increase in mortality risk in COVID-19 patients, even after adjustment. Delirium risk is also increased. Frailty assessment may help to guide prognosis and individualized care planning, but data relating frailty status to patient-reported outcomes are urgently needed to provide a more comprehensive overview of outcomes relevant to older adults.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/mortality , Frail Elderly/statistics & numerical data , Frailty/mortality , SARS-CoV-2 , Severity of Illness Index , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , COVID-19/virology , Female , Frailty/virology , Humans , Intensive Care Units/statistics & numerical data , Male , Odds Ratio , Patient Admission/statistics & numerical data , Prognosis
6.
Biofactors ; 47(2): 232-241, 2021 Mar.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1178977

ABSTRACT

COVID-19 leads to severe respiratory problems, but also to long-COVID syndrome associated primarily with cognitive dysfunction and fatigue. Long-COVID syndrome symptoms, especially brain fog, are similar to those experienced by patients undertaking or following chemotherapy for cancer (chemofog or chemobrain), as well in patients with myalgic encephalomyelitis/chronic fatigue syndrome (ME/CFS) or mast cell activation syndrome (MCAS). The pathogenesis of brain fog in these illnesses is presently unknown but may involve neuroinflammation via mast cells stimulated by pathogenic and stress stimuli to release mediators that activate microglia and lead to inflammation in the hypothalamus. These processes could be mitigated by phytosomal formulation (in olive pomace oil) of the natural flavonoid luteolin.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/drug therapy , Cognitive Dysfunction/drug therapy , Fatigue/drug therapy , Luteolin/therapeutic use , Brain/drug effects , Brain/physiopathology , Brain/virology , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/physiopathology , COVID-19/virology , Cognitive Dysfunction/complications , Cognitive Dysfunction/physiopathology , Cognitive Dysfunction/virology , Cytokines/genetics , Fatigue/complications , Fatigue/physiopathology , Fatigue/virology , Humans , Mast Cells/drug effects , Mast Cells/virology , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity
7.
Arch Pharm (Weinheim) ; 354(4): e2000378, 2021 Apr.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1162498

ABSTRACT

Many diseases as well as acute conditions can lead to fatigue, which can be either temporary or chronic in nature. Acute fatigue develops frequently after physical exercise or after alcohol hangover, whereas microbial infections such as influenza or COVID-19 and chronic diseases like Parkinson's disease or multiple sclerosis are often associated with chronic fatigue. Oxidative stress and a resulting disturbance of mitochondrial function are likely to be common denominators for many forms of fatigue, and antioxidant treatments have been shown to be effective in alleviating the symptoms of fatigue. In this study, we review the role of reactive oxygen and nitrogen species in fatigue and the antioxidant effects of the intake of molecular hydrogen. We propose that molecular hydrogen is well suited for the treatment of temporary and chronic forms of oxidative stress-associated fatigue.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Fatigue , Hydrogen , Oxidative Stress , Antioxidants/metabolism , Antioxidants/pharmacology , COVID-19/metabolism , COVID-19/physiopathology , Fatigue/etiology , Fatigue/metabolism , Fatigue/therapy , Humans , Hydrogen/metabolism , Hydrogen/pharmacology , Nitrogen , Oxidative Stress/drug effects , Oxidative Stress/physiology , Quantitative Structure-Activity Relationship , Reactive Oxygen Species , SARS-CoV-2
8.
Healthcare (Basel) ; 8(4)2020 Dec 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1024560

ABSTRACT

An increasing number of young and previously fit and healthy people who did not require hospitalisation continue to have symptoms months after mild cases of COVID-19. Rehabilitation clinics are already offering cognitive behavioural therapy (CBT) as an effective treatment for long COVID and post-COVID-19 fatigue syndrome based on the claims that it is effective for myalgic encephalomyelitis/chronic fatigue syndrome (ME/CFS)-the most common post-infectious syndrome-as no study into the efficacy of CBT for post-COVID-19 fatigue syndrome has been published. Re-analyses of these studies, however, showed that CBT did not lead to objective improvements in heterogeneous groups of ME/CFS patients, nor did it restore the ability to work. The group of patients with long COVID and post-COVID-19 fatigue syndrome, on the other hand, is homogeneous. We therefore analysed the Dutch Qure study, as it studied the efficacy of CBT in a homogeneous group of patients who developed Q-fever fatigue syndrome-which affects up to 30% of patients-after the largest reported outbreak of Q-fever, to see if CBT might potentially be an effective treatment for long-haulers after COVID-19 infection. Our reanalysis found that the Qure study suffered from many serious methodological problems, which included relying on one subjective primary outcome in a study without a control group for the non-blinded CBT treatment group, using a post hoc definition of improvement, waiting 2 years before publishing their objective actometer results and ignoring the null effect of said results. Moreover, only 10% of participants achieved a clinically meaningful subjective improvement in fatigue as a result of CBT according to the study's own figures. Consequently, CBT has no subjective clinically meaningful effect in nine out of every ten patients that are treated with it. Additionally, the subjective improvement in fatigue was not matched by an improvement in disability, even though the disability was fatigue related according to the researchers. On top of this, CBT did not lead to an objective improvement in physical performance. Therefore, it cannot be said that CBT is an effective treatment for Q-fever fatigue syndrome either. It seems therefore unlikely that CBT will reduce disability or lead to objective improvement in long COVID or in post-COVID-19 fatigue syndrome.

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