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1.
Head Neck ; 42(7): 1392-1396, 2020 Jul.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1384168

ABSTRACT

The severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS)-CoV-2 pandemic continues to produce a large number of patients with chronic respiratory failure and ventilator dependence. As such, surgeons will be called upon to perform tracheotomy for a subset of these chronically intubated patients. As seen during the SARS and the SARS-CoV-2 outbreaks, aerosol-generating procedures (AGP) have been associated with higher rates of infection of medical personnel and potential acceleration of viral dissemination throughout the medical center. Therefore, a thoughtful approach to tracheotomy (and other AGPs) is imperative and maintaining traditional management norms may be unsuitable or even potentially harmful. We sought to review the existing evidence informing best practices and then develop straightforward guidelines for tracheotomy during the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic. This communication is the product of those efforts and is based on national and international experience with the current SARS-CoV-2 pandemic and the SARS epidemic of 2002/2003.


Subject(s)
Clinical Decision-Making , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Hospital Mortality/trends , Pandemics/statistics & numerical data , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome/therapy , Tracheotomy/methods , COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections/prevention & control , Critical Care/methods , Elective Surgical Procedures/methods , Elective Surgical Procedures/statistics & numerical data , Emergencies , Female , Follow-Up Studies , Humans , Intensive Care Units/statistics & numerical data , Internationality , Intubation, Intratracheal , Male , Occupational Health , Pandemics/prevention & control , Patient Safety , Pneumonia, Viral/prevention & control , Respiration, Artificial/methods , Risk Assessment , SARS Virus/pathogenicity , Survival Rate , Time Factors , Treatment Outcome , United States/epidemiology , Ventilator Weaning/methods
2.
Respiration ; 100(10): 1027-1037, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1261221

ABSTRACT

The imbalance between the prevalence of patients with acute respiratory failure (ARF) and acute-on-chronic respiratory failure and the number of intensive care unit (ICU) beds requires new solutions. The increasing use of non-invasive respiratory tools to support patients at earlier stages of ARF and the increased expertise of non-ICU clinicians in other types of supportive care have led to the development of adult pulmonary intensive care units (PICUs) and pulmonary intermediate care units (PIMCUs). As in other European countries, Italian PICUs and PIMCUs provide an intermediate level of care as the setting designed for managing ARF patients without severe non-pulmonary dysfunction. The PICUs and PIMCUs may also act as step-down units for weaning patients from prolonged mechanical ventilation and for discharging patients still requiring ventilatory support at home. These units may play an important role in the on-going coronavirus disease 2019 pandemic. This position paper promoted by the Italian Thoracic Society (ITS-AIPO) describes the models, facilities, staff, equipment, and operating methods of PICUs and PIMCUs.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/therapy , Critical Care/organization & administration , Intensive Care Units/organization & administration , Intermediate Care Facilities/organization & administration , Respiratory Insufficiency/therapy , Respiratory Therapy , Adult , COVID-19/complications , Hospitalization , Humans , Italy , Patient Selection , Respiratory Insufficiency/etiology , Societies, Medical
3.
Eur Respir J ; 58(6)2021 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1238699

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Influenza epidemics were initially considered to be a suitable model for the COVID-19 epidemic, but there is a lack of data concerning patients with chronic respiratory diseases (CRDs), who were supposed to be at risk of severe forms of COVID-19. METHODS: This nationwide retrospective cohort study describes patients with prior lung disease hospitalised for COVID-19 (March-April 2020) or influenza (2018-2019 influenza outbreak). We compared the resulting pulmonary complications, need for intensive care and in-hospital mortality depending on respiratory history and virus. RESULTS: In the 89 530 COVID-19 cases, 16.03% had at least one CRD, which was significantly less frequently than in the 45 819 seasonal influenza patients. Patients suffering from chronic respiratory failure, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, asthma, cystic fibrosis and pulmonary hypertension were under-represented, contrary to those with lung cancer, sleep apnoea, emphysema and interstitial lung diseases. COVID-19 patients with CRDs developed significantly more ventilator-associated pneumonia and pulmonary embolism than influenza patients. They needed intensive care significantly more often and had a higher mortality rate (except for asthma) when compared with patients with COVID-19 but without CRDs or patients with influenza. CONCLUSIONS: Patients with prior respiratory diseases were globally less likely to be hospitalised for COVID-19 than for influenza, but were at higher risk of developing severe COVID-19 and had a higher mortality rate compared with influenza patients and patients without a history of respiratory illness.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Influenza, Human , Hospital Mortality , Humans , Influenza, Human/complications , Influenza, Human/epidemiology , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2
4.
BMJ Case Rep ; 14(4)2021 Apr 21.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1197246

ABSTRACT

A previously fit and well 72-year-old man was referred to the acute medical unit with acute shortness of breath and confusion. He had presented 6 months earlier to his General Practitioner with a 6-month history of weight loss and lethargy. Despite CT imaging and extensive blood tests, no cause was found. He was having ongoing outpatient investigations, including a respiratory review leading up to his admission; the deterioration in his condition also coincided with the implementation of the COVID-19 lockdown. On admission, he was found to be in acute-on-chronic type 2 respiratory failure; examination revealed scattered fasciculations. Further inpatient electromyography (EMG) and nerve conduction study (NCS) confirmed motor neuron disease (MND). This case highlighted the importance of considering neuromuscular causes for acute respiratory failure in acute presentations and demonstrated the challenges in the diagnosis of MND in those presenting atypically with non-specific symptoms and the limitations of remote consultations in complex cases.


Subject(s)
Motor Neuron Disease , Respiratory Insufficiency , Weight Loss , Aged , COVID-19 , Humans , Male , Motor Neuron Disease/complications , Motor Neuron Disease/diagnosis , Respiratory Insufficiency/etiology
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