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1.
Fam Med Community Health ; 9(2)2021 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1195851

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: To review the pathophysiology of COVID-19 disease, potential aspirin targets on this pathogenesis and the potential role of aspirin in patients with COVID-19. DESIGN: Narrative review. SETTING: The online databases PubMed, OVID Medline and Cochrane Library were searched using relevant headlines from 1 January 2016 to 1 January 2021. International guidelines from relevant societies, journals and forums were also assessed for relevance. PARTICIPANTS: Not applicable. RESULTS: A review of the selected literature revealed that clinical deterioration in COVID-19 is attributed to the interplay between endothelial dysfunction, coagulopathy and dysregulated inflammation. Aspirin has anti-inflammatory effects, antiplatelet aggregation, anticoagulant properties as well as pleiotropic effects on endothelial function. During the COVID-19 pandemic, low-dose aspirin is used effectively in secondary prevention of atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease, prevention of venous thromboembolism after total hip or knee replacement, prevention of pre-eclampsia and postdischarge treatment for multisystem inflammatory syndrome in children. Prehospital low-dose aspirin therapy may reduce the risk of intensive care unit admission and mechanical ventilation in hospitalised patients with COVID-19, whereas aspirin association with mortality is still debatable. CONCLUSION: The authors recommend a low-dose aspirin regimen for primary prevention of arterial thromboembolism in patients aged 40-70 years who are at high atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease risk, or an intermediate risk with a risk-enhancer and have a low risk of bleeding. Aspirin's protective roles in COVID-19 associated with acute lung injury, vascular thrombosis without previous cardiovascular disease and mortality need further randomised controlled trials to establish causal conclusions.


Subject(s)
Anti-Inflammatory Agents, Non-Steroidal , Aspirin , COVID-19 , Thromboembolism , Adult , Aged , Anti-Inflammatory Agents, Non-Steroidal/administration & dosage , Anti-Inflammatory Agents, Non-Steroidal/adverse effects , Anti-Inflammatory Agents, Non-Steroidal/therapeutic use , Aspirin/administration & dosage , Aspirin/adverse effects , Aspirin/therapeutic use , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/physiopathology , COVID-19/therapy , Humans , Inflammation , Middle Aged , Practice Guidelines as Topic , Thromboembolism/drug therapy , Thromboembolism/etiology , Thromboembolism/prevention & control
2.
Clin Endocrinol (Oxf) ; 95(3): 469-477, 2021 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1165871

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: Existing studies reported the potential prognostic role of non-thyroidal illness syndrome (NTIS), characterized by low triiodothyronine (T3) with normal/low thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH), mainly in severe COVID-19. None considered the significant impact of SARS-CoV-2 viral load on adverse outcomes. We aimed to clarify the prognostic role of NTIS among predominantly mild-to-moderate COVID-19 patients. DESIGN: A prospective study of COVID-19 patients. PATIENTS AND MEASUREMENTS: Consecutive adults admitted to Queen Mary Hospital for confirmed COVID-19 from July to December 2020 were prospectively recruited. SARS-CoV-2 viral load was represented by cycle threshold (Ct) values from real-time reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction of the respiratory specimen on admission. Serum TSH, free thyroxine and free T3 were measured on admission. The outcome was deterioration in clinical severity, defined as worsening in ≥1 category of clinical severity according to the Chinese National Health Commission guideline. RESULTS: We recruited 367 patients. At baseline, 75.2% had mild disease, and 27 patients (7.4%) had NTIS. Fifty-three patients (14.4%) had clinical deterioration. Patients with NTIS were older, had more comorbidities, worse symptomatology, higher SARS-CoV-2 viral loads and worse profiles of inflammatory and tissue injury markers. They were more likely to have clinical deterioration (p < .001). In multivariable stepwise logistic regression analysis, NTIS independently predicted clinical deterioration (adjusted odds ratio 3.19, p = .017), in addition to Ct value <25 (p < .001), elevated C-reactive protein (p = .004), age >50 years (p = .011) and elevated creatine kinase (p = .017). CONCLUSIONS: Non-thyroidal illness syndrome was not uncommon even in mild-to-moderate COVID-19 patients. NTIS on admission could predict clinical deterioration in COVID-19, independent of SARS-CoV-2 viral load, age and markers of inflammation and tissue injury.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Euthyroid Sick Syndromes , Adult , Humans , Middle Aged , Prospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Triiodothyronine , Viral Load
4.
PLoS One ; 16(1): e0246396, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1054891

ABSTRACT

Because of the constantly growing numbers of COVID-19 infections and deaths, attempts were undertaken to find drugs with anti-SARS-CoV-2 activity among ones already approved for other pathologies. In the framework of such attempts, in a number of in vitro, as well as in vivo, models it was shown that hydroxychloroquine (HCQ) has an effect against SARS-CoV-2. While there were not enough clinical data to support the use of HCQ, several countries including Russia have included HCQ in treatment protocols for infected patients and for prophylaxis. In the current non-randomized, observational study we evaluated the SARS-CoV-2 RNA in nasopharynx swabs from infected patients 7-10 days post symptoms with clinically mild disease and compared the viral RNA load dynamics between patients receiving HCQ (200 mg twice per day according to the Ministry of Health of Russian Federation treatment instructions, n = 33) and a control group without antiviral pharmacological therapy (n = 12). We found a statistically significant relationship between maximal RNA quantity and deterioration of patients' medical conditions, and as well we confirmed arterial hypertension to be a risk factor for people with COVID-19. However, we showed that at the dose used in the study HCQ therapy neither shortened the viral shedding period nor reduced the virus RNA load.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/drug therapy , COVID-19/physiopathology , Hydroxychloroquine/administration & dosage , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Viral Load , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/virology , Humans , Nasopharynx/virology , RNA, Viral/analysis , RNA, Viral/genetics , Russia/epidemiology , Severity of Illness Index
5.
BMJ Open Respir Res ; 7(1)2020 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-983651

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Several characteristics of the metabolic syndrome, such as obesity and hypertension, have emerged as risk factors for a poor clinical outcome in COVID-19. However, most reports lack data on the metabolic syndrome itself. This study investigated prospectively the relationship between respiratory deterioration and the presence of metabolic syndrome or abdominal adiposity in patients with COVID-19. METHODS: A prospective observational cohort study analysing patients with respiratory symptoms who presented at a local emergency department in the Netherlands. The influence of abdominal adiposity-assessed by an increased waist-hip ratio-and metabolic syndrome on respiratory deterioration and the length of hospital stay were analysed with multivariable logistic regressions and Kaplan-Meier analyses. RESULTS: In total, 166 patients were analysed, of whom 86 (52%) tested positive for COVID-19. The prevalence of metabolic syndrome did not differ between patients with COVID-19 with and without the need for intubation or level of supportive care (37.5% vs 48.4%, p=0.338). In contrast, abdominal adiposity is an independent risk factor for respiratory distress in COVID-19, adjusted for metabolic syndrome, age, gender and BMI (OR 1.11, 95% CI 1.02 to 1.20, p=0.014). CONCLUSION: This study shows that abdominal adiposity, and not the presence of metabolic syndrome, is associated with clinical deterioration in COVID-19. This prospective study provides further insight into the risk stratification of patients with COVID-19 based on a simple measurement as the waist and hip circumference. TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBER: NL8580.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , Metabolic Syndrome/complications , Obesity, Abdominal/complications , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/etiology , Adiposity , Adult , Aged , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/virology , Female , Humans , Hypertension/complications , Length of Stay/statistics & numerical data , Male , Metabolic Syndrome/diagnosis , Metabolic Syndrome/epidemiology , Middle Aged , Netherlands/epidemiology , Obesity/complications , Obesity, Abdominal/epidemiology , Prevalence , Prospective Studies , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/epidemiology , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/mortality , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Waist-Hip Ratio/methods
6.
Tanaffos ; 19(2): 122-128, 2020 Nov.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-964064

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Following the recent epidemic of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) in Wuhan, China, a novel betacoronavirus was isolated from two patients in Iran on February 19, 2020. In this study, we aimed to determine the clinical manifestations and outcomes of the first confirmed cases of COVID-19 infection (n=127). MATERIALS AND METHODS: This prospective study was conducted on all COVID-19-suspected cases, admitted to Masih Daneshvari Hospital (a designated hospital for COVID-19), Tehran, Iran, since February 19, 2020. All patients were tested for COVID-19, using reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) assay. Data of confirmed cases, including demographic characteristics, clinical features, and outcomes, were collected and compared between three groups of patients, requiring different types of admission (requiring ICU admission, admission to the general ward, and transfer to ICU). RESULTS: Of 412 suspected cases, with the mean age of 54.1 years (SD=13.4), 127 (31%) were positive for COVID-19. Following the patients' first visit to the clinic, 115 cases were admitted to the general ward, while ten patients required ICU admission. Due to clinical deterioration in the condition of 25 patients (out of 115 patients), ICU admission was essential. Based on the results, the baseline characteristics of the groups were similar. Patients requiring ICU admission were more likely to have multiorgan involvement (liver involvement, P<0.001; renal involvement, P<0.001; and cardiac involvement, P=0.02), low O2 saturation (P<0.001), and lymphopenia (P=0.05). During hospital admission, 21 (16.5%) patients died, while the rest (83.5%) were discharged and followed-up until March 26, 2020. Also, the survival rate of patients, who received immunoglobulin, was higher than other patients (60.87% vs. 39.13%). CONCLUSION: The mortality rate of COVID-19 patients was considerable in our study. Based on the present results, this infection can cause multiorgan damage. Therefore, intensive monitoring of these patients needs to be considered.

7.
Int J Biol Sci ; 17(1): 62-72, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-948161

ABSTRACT

Multi-system involvement and rapid clinical deterioration are hallmarks of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) related mortality. The unique clinical phenomena in severe COVID-19 can be perplexing, and they include disproportionately severe hypoxemia relative to lung alveolar-parenchymal pathology and rapid clinical deterioration, with poor response to O2 supplementation, despite preserved lung mechanics. Factors such as microvascular injury, thromboembolism, pulmonary hypertension, and alteration in hemoglobin structure and function could play important roles. Overwhelming immune response associated with "cytokine storms" could activate reactive oxygen species (ROS), which may result in consumption of nitric oxide (NO), a critical vasodilation regulator. In other inflammatory infections, activated neutrophils are known to release myeloperoxidase (MPO) in a natural immune response, which contributes to production of hypochlorous acid (HOCl). However, during overwhelming inflammation, HOCl competes with O2 at heme binding sites, decreasing O2 saturation. Moreover, HOCl contributes to several oxidative reactions, including hemoglobin-heme iron oxidation, heme destruction, and subsequent release of free iron, which mediates toxic tissue injury through additional generation of ROS and NO consumption. Connecting these reactions in a multi-hit model can explain generalized tissue damage, vasoconstriction, severe hypoxia, and precipitous clinical deterioration in critically ill COVID-19 patients. Understanding these mechanisms is critical to develop therapeutic strategies to combat COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/physiopathology , Clinical Deterioration , Peroxidase/metabolism , Reactive Oxygen Species/metabolism , COVID-19/metabolism , COVID-19/virology , Catalysis , Humans , Hypochlorous Acid/metabolism , Oxidation-Reduction , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification
8.
Am J Hypertens ; 33(10): 944-948, 2020 10 21.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-574682

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The effect of chronic use of renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system (RAAS) inhibitors on the severity of COVID-19 infection is still unclear in patients with hypertension. We aimed to investigate the association between chronic use of angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors (ACEIs) or angiotensin II receptor blockers (ARBs) and COVID-19-related outcomes in hypertensive patients. METHODS: A single-center study was conducted on 133 consecutive hypertensive subjects presenting to the emergency department with acute respiratory symptoms and/or fever who were diagnosed with COVID-19 infection between 9 and 31 March 2020. RESULTS: All patients were grouped according to their chronic antihypertensive medications (ACEIs, N = 40; ARBs, N = 42; not on RAAS inhibitors, N = 51). There was no statistical difference between ACEIs and ARBs groups in terms of hospital admission rate, oxygen therapy, and need for noninvasive ventilation. Patients chronically treated with RAAS inhibitors showed a significantly lower rate of admission to semi-intensive/intensive care units, when compared with the non-RAAS population (odds ratio (OR) 0.25, confidence interval (CI) 95% 0.09-0.66, P = 0.006). Similarly, the risk of mortality was lower in the former group, although not reaching statistical significance (OR 0.56, CI 95% 0.17-1.83, P = 0.341). CONCLUSIONS: Our data suggest that chronic use of RAAS inhibitors does not negatively affect clinical course of COVID-19 in hypertensive patients. Further studies are needed to confirm this finding and determine whether RAAS inhibitors may have a protective effect on COVID-19-related morbidity and mortality.


Subject(s)
Angiotensin Receptor Antagonists/therapeutic use , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme Inhibitors/therapeutic use , Coronavirus Infections/mortality , Hypertension/complications , Pneumonia, Viral/mortality , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections/complications , Coronavirus Infections/drug therapy , Female , Humans , Hypertension/drug therapy , Italy/epidemiology , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/complications , Retrospective Studies
9.
Eur J Case Rep Intern Med ; 7(5): 001675, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-253706

ABSTRACT

Younger patients with COVID-19 may experience an exaggerated immune response to SARS-CoV-2 infection and develop cytokine release syndrome (CRS), which may be life threatening. There is no proven antiviral therapy for COVID-19 so far, but profound immunosuppression has recently been suggested as a treatment for COVID-19-associated CRS. We present a case of life-threatening CRS caused by COVID-19 infection with a favourable response to immunosuppressive therapy with tocilizumab (TCZ). The rapid clinical and biochemical improvement following TCZ administration suggests that treatment with immunotherapy can be life-saving in selected patients with COVID-19-induced CRS. LEARNING POINTS: Cytokine release syndrome may cause sudden and potentially life-threatening clinical deterioration in COVID-19 pneumonia, particularly in younger patients.Immunosuppressive therapy may provide important additional therapeutic benefit in these patients.Tocilizumab, a specific IL-6 inhibitor, led to dramatic clinical improvement in a young patient with severe COVID-19-associated cytokine release syndrome.

10.
Zhonghua Jie He He Hu Xi Za Zhi ; 43(4): 339-344, 2020 Apr 12.
Article in Chinese | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-72745

ABSTRACT

The rapid spread of the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has become a global threat. But the pathogenesis and treatment of the disease are not clear yet. Virological researches revealed close relationship between 2019-nCoV and SARS-CoV. The experience and knowledge we gained from severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS), especially with regard to the time course of viral replication, host immune response and clinical progression of the patient, may provide important insights into understanding and management of COVID-19. Clinical deterioration accompanied by decreasing viral load in the second week after symptom onset was noted both in SARS and COVID-19, suggesting that the lung damage at this phase is more related to excessive host immune response rather than uncontrolled viral replication.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/therapy , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Pneumonia, Viral/therapy , Pneumonia, Viral/virology , SARS Virus , Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome/therapy , Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome/virology , Betacoronavirus , COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections/immunology , Disease Progression , Humans , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/immunology , SARS-CoV-2 , Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome/immunology , Viral Load , Virus Replication
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