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1.
Eur J Case Rep Intern Med ; 7(5): 001656, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1791771

ABSTRACT

COVID-19, also called severe acute respiratory distress syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), originated in Wuhan, China. It has caused significant morbidity and mortality worldwide and has been declared a global pandemic by the WHO. Influenza occurs mainly during the winter, with the burden of disease determined by several factors, including the effectiveness of the vaccine that season, the characteristics of the circulating viruses, and how long the season lasts. We describe the case of a 66-year-old woman who was diagnosed with influenza A and COVID-19 co-infection. LEARNING POINTS: COVID-19 can co-occur with other viral infections.Some of these co-infections have active treatments, while supportive treatment is the mainstay of treatment for others.

2.
Clin Infect Dis ; 72(12): e978-e992, 2021 06 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1269557

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Clinical outcomes of the interaction between the co-circulating pandemic severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) and seasonal influenza viruses are unknown. METHODS: We established a golden Syrian hamster model coinfected by SARS-CoV-2 and mouse-adapted A(H1N1)pdm09 simultaneously or sequentially. The weight loss, clinical scores, histopathological changes, viral load and titer, and serum neutralizing antibody titer were compared with hamsters challenged by either virus. RESULTS: Coinfected hamsters had more weight loss, more severe lung inflammatory damage, and tissue cytokine/chemokine expression. Lung viral load, infectious virus titers, and virus antigen expression suggested that hamsters were generally more susceptible to SARS-CoV-2 than to A(H1N1)pdm09. Sequential coinfection with A(H1N1)pdm09 one day prior to SARS-CoV-2 exposure resulted in a lower lung SARS-CoV-2 titer and viral load than with SARS-CoV-2 monoinfection, but a higher lung A(H1N1)pdm09 viral load. Coinfection also increased intestinal inflammation with more SARS-CoV-2 nucleoprotein expression in enterocytes. Simultaneous coinfection was associated with delay in resolution of lung damage, lower serum SARS-CoV-2 neutralizing antibody, and longer SARS-CoV-2 shedding in oral swabs compared to that of SARS-CoV-2 monoinfection. CONCLUSIONS: Simultaneous or sequential coinfection by SARS-CoV-2 and A(H1N1)pdm09 caused more severe disease than monoinfection by either virus in hamsters. Prior A(H1N1)pdm09 infection lowered SARS-CoV-2 pulmonary viral loads but enhanced lung damage. Whole-population influenza vaccination for prevention of coinfection, and multiplex molecular diagnostics for both viruses to achieve early initiation of antiviral treatment for improvement of clinical outcome should be considered.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Coinfection , Influenza A Virus, H1N1 Subtype , Influenza, Human , Animals , Cricetinae , Disease Models, Animal , Humans , Mesocricetus , Mice , SARS-CoV-2
3.
Vopr Virusol ; 66(2): 152-161, 2021 05 15.
Article in Russian | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1229649

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Immunodeficiency underlying the development of severe forms of new coronavirus infection may be the result of mixed infection with SARS-CoV-2 and other pathogens, including Epstein-Barr virus (EBV).The aim is to study the prevalence and epidemiological features of co-infection with SARS-CoV-2 and EBV. MATERIAL AND METHODS: A cross-sectional randomized study was conducted in Moscow region from March to May 2020. Two groups were examined for EBV-markers: hospital patients (n = 95) treated for SARS-CoV-2 infection and blood donors (n = 92). RESULTS: With equal EBV prevalence the detection of active infection markers in donors (10.9%) was noticeably lower than in SARS-CoV-2 patients (80%). Significant differences in this indicator were also found when patients from subgroups with interstitial pneumonia with the presence (96.6%) and absence (97.2%) of SARS-CoV-2 in the nasopharyngeal smear were compared with the subgroup of patients with mild COVID-19 (43.3%). The average IgG VCA and IgG EBNA positivity coefficients in donor group were higher than in patient group (p < 0.05). Patients with active EBV infection markers were significantly more likely to have pneumonia, exceeding the reference values of ALT and the relative number of monocytes (odds ratio - 23.6; 3.5; 9.7, respectively). DISCUSSION: The present study examined the incidence and analyzed epidemiological features of active EBV infection in patients with COVID-19. CONCLUSION: A significantly higher rate of detection of active EBV infection markers in hospital patients indicates a combined participation SARS-CoV-2 and EBV in the development of interstitial pneumonia. Low levels of specific IgG EBV serve as predictors of EBV reactivation. Exceeding the reference values of ALT and the relative number of monocytes in patients should serve as a reason for examination for active EBV infection markers.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/metabolism , Epstein-Barr Virus Infections/metabolism , Herpesvirus 4, Human/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2/metabolism , Virus Activation , Adolescent , Adult , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/pathology , Epstein-Barr Virus Infections/epidemiology , Epstein-Barr Virus Infections/pathology , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged
5.
Pathogens ; 10(3)2021 Mar 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1143550

ABSTRACT

The aim of our study was to define the spectrum of viral infections in pilgrims with acute respiratory tract illnesses presenting to healthcare facilities around the holy places in Makkah, Saudi Arabia during the 2019 Hajj pilgrimage. During the five days of Hajj, a total of 185 pilgrims were enrolled in the study. Nasopharyngeal swabs (NPSs) of 126/185 patients (68.11%) tested positive for one or more respiratory viruses by PCR. Among the 126 pilgrims whose NPS were PCR positive: (a) there were 93/126 (74%) with a single virus infection, (b) 33/126 (26%) with coinfection with more than one virus (up to four viruses): of these, 25/33 cases had coinfection with two viruses; 6/33 were infected with three viruses, while the remaining 2/33 patients had infection with four viruses. Human rhinovirus (HRV) was the most common detected viruses with 53 cases (42.06%), followed by 27 (21.43%) cases of influenza A (H1N1), and 23 (18.25%) cases of influenza A other than H1N1. Twenty-five cases of CoV-229E (19.84%) were detected more than other coronavirus members (5 CoV-OC43 (3.97%), 4 CoV-HKU1 (3.17%), and 1 CoV-NL63 (0.79%)). PIV-3 was detected in 8 cases (6.35%). A single case (0.79%) of PIV-1 and PIV-4 were found. HMPV represented 5 (3.97%), RSV and influenza B 4 (3.17%) for each, and Parechovirus 1 (0.79%). Enterovirus, Bocavirus, and M. pneumoniae were not detected. Whether identification of viral nucleic acid represents nasopharyngeal carriage or specific causal etiology of RTI remains to be defined. Large controlled cohort studies (pre-Hajj, during Hajj, and post-Hajj) are required to define the carriage rates and the specific etiology and causal roles of specific individual viruses or combination of viruses in the pathogenesis of respiratory tract infections in pilgrims participating in the annual Hajj. Studies of the specific microbial etiology of respiratory track infections (RTIs) at mass gathering religious events remain a priority, especially in light of the novel SARS-CoV-2 pandemic.

6.
World J Gastroenterol ; 27(9): 782-793, 2021 Mar 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1138766

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has become a global pandemic and garnered international attention. The causative pathogen of COVID-19 is severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), a novel, highly contagious coronavirus. Numerous studies have reported that liver injury is quite common in patients with COVID-19. Hepatitis B has a worldwide distribution as well as in China. At present, hepatitis B virus (HBV) remains a leading cause of cirrhosis, liver failure, and hepatocellular carcinoma. Because both viruses challenge liver physiology, it raises questions as to how coinfection with HBV and SARS-CoV-2 affect disease progression and mortality. Is there an increased risk of COVID-19 in patients with HBV infection? In this review, we summarize the current reports of SARS-CoV-2 and HBV coinfection and elaborate the interaction of the two diseases. The emphasis was placed on evaluating the impact of HBV infection on disease severity and clinical outcomes in patients with COVID-19 and discussing the potential mechanism behind this effect.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/physiopathology , Coinfection/physiopathology , Hepatitis B, Chronic/physiopathology , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/mortality , Coinfection/diagnosis , Coinfection/immunology , Coinfection/mortality , Disease Progression , Global Health , Hepatitis B, Chronic/diagnosis , Hepatitis B, Chronic/immunology , Hepatitis B, Chronic/mortality , Humans , Prognosis , Severity of Illness Index
7.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 3040, 2021 02 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1107304

ABSTRACT

Porcine epidemic diarrhea virus (PEDV) and porcine deltacoronavirus (PDCoV) cause an enteric disease characterized by diarrhea clinically indistinguishable. Both viruses are simultaneously detected in clinical cases, but a study involving the co-infection has not been reported. The study was therefore conducted to investigate the disease severity following a co-infection with PEDV and PDCoV. In the study, 4-day-old pigs were orally inoculated with PEDV and PDCoV, either alone or in combination. Following challenge, fecal score was monitored on a daily basis. Fecal swabs were collected and assayed for the presence of viruses. Three pigs per group were necropsied at 3 and 5 days post inoculation (dpi). Microscopic lesions and villous height to crypt depth (VH:CD) ratio, together with the presence of PEDV and PDCoV antigens, were evaluated in small intestinal tissues. Expressions of interferon alpha (IFN-α) and interleukin 12 (IL12) were investigated in small intestinal mucosa. The findings indicated that coinoculation increased the disease severity, demonstrated by significantly prolonged fecal score and virus shedding and decreasing VH:CD ratio in the jejunum compared with pigs inoculated with either PEDV or PDCoV alone. Notably, in single-inoculated groups, PEDV and PDCoV antigens were detected only in villous enterocytes wile in the coinoculated group, PDCoV antigen was detected in both villous enterocytes and crypts. IFN-α and IL12 were significantly up-regulated in coinoculated groups in comparison with single-inoculated groups. In conclusion, co-infection with PEDV and PDCoV exacerbate clinical signs and have a synergetic on the regulatory effect inflammatory cytokines compared to a single infection with either virus.


Subject(s)
Deltacoronavirus/pathogenicity , Diarrhea/genetics , Interferon-alpha/genetics , Interleukin-12/genetics , Porcine epidemic diarrhea virus/pathogenicity , Animals , Coinfection/genetics , Coinfection/veterinary , Coinfection/virology , Coronavirus Infections/genetics , Coronavirus Infections/veterinary , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Deltacoronavirus/genetics , Deltacoronavirus/isolation & purification , Diarrhea/veterinary , Diarrhea/virology , Feces/virology , Porcine epidemic diarrhea virus/genetics , Porcine epidemic diarrhea virus/isolation & purification , Severity of Illness Index , Swine , Swine Diseases/genetics , Swine Diseases/virology
8.
Front Med (Lausanne) ; 7: 571214, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1058420

ABSTRACT

Different viral agents, such as herpesviruses, human papillomavirus, and Coxsackie virus, are responsible for primary oral lesions, while other viruses, such as human immunodeficiency virus, affect the oral cavity due to immune system weakness. Interestingly, it has been reported that coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) patients can show cutaneous manifestations, including the oral cavity. However, the association between oral injuries and severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection is still unclear. This narrative review aimed to summarize the available literature and provide an overview of oral lesions associated with COVID-19. An online literature search was conducted to select relevant studies published up to November 2020. The results of 17 studies showed variability in oral lesions associated with COVID-19, including ulcerations, aphthous-like lesions, and macules. The tongue, lips, and palate were the most frequent anatomical locations. According to current knowledge, the etiopathogenesis of multiple COVID-19-associated lesions seems to be multifactorial. The appearance of such lesions could be related to the direct or indirect action of SARS-CoV-2 over the oral mucosa cells, coinfections, immunity impairment, and adverse drug reactions. Nevertheless, COVID-19-associated oral lesions may be underreported, mainly due to lockdown periods and the lack of mandatory dispositive protection. Consequently, further research is necessary to determine the diagnostic and pathological significance of oral manifestations of COVID-19. All medical doctors, dentists, and dermatologists are encouraged to perform an accurate and thorough oral examination of all suspected and confirmed COVID-19 cases to recognize the disease's possible early manifestations.

9.
J Med Virol ; 93(5): 2947-2954, 2021 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1039177

ABSTRACT

The coronavirus 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic, caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), has spread across the world and is responsible for over 1,686,267 deaths worldwide. Co-infection with influenza A virus (IFV-A) during the upcoming flu season may complicate diagnosis and treatment of COVID-19. Little is known about epidemiology and outcomes of co-infection. Data for 213 COVID-19 patients treated at Tongji Hospital in Wuhan from January 28, 2020 to March 24, 2020 were retrospectively analyzed. Ninety-seven of the patients (45.5%) tested positive for anti- IFV-A immunoglobulin M antibodies. The clinical characteristics were described and analyzed for patients with SARS-CoV-2 infection only and patients with SARS-CoV-2/IFV-A co-infection. Patients with co-infection showed similar patterns of symptoms and clinical outcomes to patients with SARS-CoV-2 infection only. However, an increased expression of serum cytokines (interleukin-2R [IL-2R], IL-6, IL-8, and tumor necrosis factor-α) and cardiac troponin I, and higher incidence of lymphadenopathy were observed in patients with SARS-CoV-2 infection only. Male patients and patients aged less than 60 years in the SARS-CoV-2 infection group also had significantly higher computed tomography scores than patients in co-infection group, indicating that co-infection with IFV-A had no effect on the disease outcome but alleviated inflammation in certain populations of COVID-19 patients. The study will provide a reference for diagnosing and treating IFV-A and SARS-CoV-2 co-infection cases in the upcoming flu season.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Coinfection/epidemiology , Influenza A virus , Influenza, Human/epidemiology , SARS-CoV-2 , Aged , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/physiopathology , China/epidemiology , Coinfection/complications , Coinfection/virology , Cytokines/blood , Female , Humans , Immunoglobulin M/blood , Influenza, Human/complications , Influenza, Human/diagnosis , Influenza, Human/physiopathology , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Retrospective Studies , Seasons
10.
Cureus ; 12(11): e11512, 2020 Nov 16.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1000579

ABSTRACT

Background and objective Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is a viral infection that has grown to be a global pandemic, and it is caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). The ocular involvement in COVID-19, both in the anterior and posterior segments, is increasingly being recognized by ophthalmologists. We report the fundus photographic and systemic findings in 25 patients without recent-onset visual symptoms who were hospitalized with COVID-19. Methods Patients with COVID-19 infection who were admitted to an isolation ward/ICU in Mumbai, India during June-August 2020 underwent a comprehensive clinical and systemic evaluation. We performed a fundus evaluation using a handheld fundus camera during their admission period. We conducted a retrospective case record review and extracted demographic characteristics, laboratory findings, and fundus photographs from each case record. Results We screened 25 non-consecutive patients, and they included 20 (80%) men and five (20%) women, with ages ranging from 31 to 79 years (mean: 56.3 years). Systemically, the spectrum of severity on admission varied from mild to moderate to severely ill. The majority of the patients had no complaints of recent visual loss. An analysis of fundus photographs of 50 eyes of 25 patients revealed no evidence of fundus lesions in as many as 48 photographs. Two photographs of two eyes of patients showed incidental lesions. Conclusions We found no evidence of vascular, inflammatory, or thromboembolic disease that could be linked to COVID-19 infection in any of the images we studied; however, fundus examination may be utilized in patients with co-infection.

11.
J Clin Microbiol ; 59(1)2020 12 17.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-991749

ABSTRACT

Broad testing for respiratory viruses among persons under investigation (PUIs) for SARS-CoV-2 has been performed inconsistently, limiting our understanding of alternative viral infections and coinfections in these patients. RNA metagenomic next-generation sequencing (mNGS) offers an agnostic tool for the detection of both SARS-CoV-2 and other RNA respiratory viruses in PUIs. Here, we used RNA mNGS to assess the frequencies of alternative viral infections in SARS-CoV-2 RT-PCR-negative PUIs (n = 30) and viral coinfections in SARS-CoV-2 RT-PCR-positive PUIs (n = 45). mNGS identified all viruses detected by routine clinical testing (influenza A [n = 3], human metapneumovirus [n = 2], and human coronavirus OC43 [n = 2], and human coronavirus HKU1 [n = 1]). mNGS also identified both coinfections (1, 2.2%) and alternative viral infections (4, 13.3%) that were not detected by routine clinical workup (respiratory syncytial virus [n = 3], human metapneumovirus [n = 1], and human coronavirus NL63 [n = 1]). Among SARS-CoV-2 RT-PCR-positive PUIs, lower cycle threshold (CT ) values correlated with greater SARS-CoV-2 read recovery by mNGS (R 2, 0.65; P < 0.001). Our results suggest that current broad-spectrum molecular testing algorithms identify most respiratory viral infections among SARS-CoV-2 PUIs, when available and implemented consistently.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus/isolation & purification , COVID-19/diagnosis , Coronavirus OC43, Human/isolation & purification , Influenza A virus/isolation & purification , Metapneumovirus/isolation & purification , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Betacoronavirus/genetics , COVID-19 Nucleic Acid Testing/methods , Coinfection/virology , Coronavirus OC43, Human/genetics , Genome, Viral/genetics , High-Throughput Nucleotide Sequencing , Humans , Influenza A virus/genetics , Metagenome , Metagenomics , Metapneumovirus/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/genetics
12.
J Med Virol ; 92(11): 2657-2665, 2020 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-942391

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic caused infection in a season when influenza is still prevalent. Both viruses have similar transmission characteristics and common clinical manifestations. Influenza has been described to cause respiratory infection with some other respiratory pathogens. However, the information of COVID-19 and influenza coinfection is limited. In this study, we reported our coinfected cases and reviewed the literature. We included all COVID-19 diagnosed patients. All patients with a presumed diagnosis of COVID-19 were routinely screened for influenza. Their thorax radiology was reviewed for COVID-19-influenza differentiation. During the study period, 1103 patients have been diagnosed with COVID-19. Among them, six patients (0.54%) were diagnosed coinfected with influenza. There have been 28 more coinfected patients reported. Laboratory-based screening studies reported more patients. Thorax radiology findings were compatible with COVID-19 in five and with influenza in one of our patients. Our cases were mild to moderate in severity. The reported cases in the literature included patients died (n = 2) and those living ventilator dependent or under mechanical ventilation. COVID-19 and influenza coinfection is rare. Screening studies report more cases, suggesting that unless screening patients with COVID-19, the coinfection remains undiagnosed and underestimated. Increasing experience in thoracic radiology may contribute to diagnose the responsible virus(es) from the clinical illness. Influenza vaccine for larger population groups can be recommended to simplify clinicians' work.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Coinfection/diagnosis , Coinfection/virology , Influenza, Human/epidemiology , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , COVID-19/virology , Child , Child, Preschool , Coinfection/epidemiology , Comorbidity , Female , Humans , Infant , Influenza, Human/virology , Male , Middle Aged , Radiography, Thoracic , Tomography, X-Ray Computed , Young Adult
13.
Med Sci Monit ; 26: e928754, 2020 Nov 14.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-926253

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND A lethal synergism between the influenza virus and Streptococcus pneumoniae has been identified. However, bacterial coinfection is considered relatively infrequent in hospitalized patients with COVID-19, and the co-prevalence of Streptococcus pneumoniae is low. MATERIAL AND METHODS We retrospectively analyzed the clinical characteristics and outcomes of patients subsequently admitted to AMITA Health Saint Francis Hospital between March 1 and June 30, 2020, with documented SARS-CoV-2 and S. pneumoniae coinfection. RESULTS We identified 11 patients with S. pneumoniae coinfection. The median age was 77 years (interquartile range [IQR], 74-82 years), 45.5% (5/11) were males, 54.5% (6/11) were white, and 90.9% (10/11) were long-term care facility (LTCF) residents. The median length of stay was 7 days (IQR, 6-8 days). Among 11 patients, 4 were discharged in stable condition and 7 had died, resulting in an inpatient mortality rate of 64%. CONCLUSIONS At our center, 11 patients with COVID-19 pneumonia who had confirmed infection with SARS-CoV-2 were diagnosed with Streptococcus pneumoniae infection while in hospital. All patients had pneumonia confirmed on imaging and a nonspecific increase in markers of inflammation. The in-hospital mortality rate of 64% (7 patients) was higher in this group than in previous reports. This study highlights the importance of monitoring bacterial coinfection in patients with viral lung infection due to SARS-CoV-2.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Coinfection/epidemiology , Pneumonia, Pneumococcal/epidemiology , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/microbiology , Coinfection/diagnosis , Coinfection/immunology , Coinfection/microbiology , Datasets as Topic , Female , Hospital Mortality , Hospitalization , Humans , Lung/diagnostic imaging , Male , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Pneumococcal/diagnosis , Pneumonia, Pneumococcal/immunology , Pneumonia, Pneumococcal/microbiology , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Severity of Illness Index , Streptococcus pneumoniae/immunology , Streptococcus pneumoniae/isolation & purification
14.
mSphere ; 5(5)2020 09 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-742193

ABSTRACT

The novel coronavirus, SARS-coronavirus (CoV)-2 (SARS-CoV-2), has caused over 17 million infections in just a few months, with disease manifestations ranging from largely asymptomatic infection to critically severe disease. The remarkable spread and unpredictable disease outcomes continue to challenge management of this infection. Among the hypotheses to explain the heterogeneity of symptoms is the possibility that exposure to other coronaviruses (CoVs), or overall higher capability to develop immunity against respiratory pathogens, may influence the evolution of immunity to SARS-CoV-2. Thus, we profiled the immune response across multiple coronavirus receptor binding domains (RBDs), respiratory viruses, and SARS-CoV-2, to determine whether heterologous immunity to other CoV-RBDs or other infections influenced the evolution of the SARS-CoV-2 humoral immune response. Overall changes in subclass, isotype, and Fc-receptor binding were profiled broadly across a cohort of 43 individuals against different coronaviruses-RBDs of SARS-CoV-2 and the more common HKU1 and NL63 viruses. We found rapid functional evolution of responses to SARS-CoV-2 over time, along with broad but relatively more time-invariant responses to the more common CoVs. Moreover, there was little evidence of correlation between SARS-CoV-2 responses and HKU1, NL63, and respiratory infection (influenza and respiratory syncytial virus) responses. These findings suggest that common viral infections including common CoV immunity, targeting the receptor binding domain involved in viral infection, do not appear to influence the rapid functional evolution of SARS-CoV-2 immunity, and thus should not impact diagnostics or shape vaccine-induced immunity.IMPORTANCE A critical step to ending the spread of the novel severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) is the ability to detect, diagnose, and understand why some individuals develop mild and others develop severe disease. For example, defining the early evolutionary patterns of humoral immunity to SARS-CoV-2, and whether prevalent coronaviruses or other common infections influence the evolution of immunity, remains poorly understood but could inform diagnostic and vaccine development. Here, we deeply profiled the evolution of SARS-CoV-2 immunity, and how it is influenced by other coinfections. Our data suggest an early and rapid rise in functional humoral immunity in the first 2 weeks of infection across antigen-specific targets, which is negligibly influenced by cross-reactivity to additional common coronaviruses or common respiratory infections. These data suggest that preexisting receptor binding domain-specific immunity does not influence or bias the evolution of immunity to SARS-CoV-2 and should have negligible influence on shaping diagnostic or vaccine-induced immunity.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus/immunology , Coronavirus Infections/immunology , Immunity, Heterologous , Immunity, Humoral , Pneumonia, Viral/immunology , Antibodies, Viral/blood , Biomarkers/blood , COVID-19 , COVID-19 Testing , Clinical Laboratory Techniques , Coronavirus Infections/blood , Coronavirus Infections/diagnosis , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Cross Reactions , Humans , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/blood , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnosis , Pneumonia, Viral/virology , SARS-CoV-2
15.
Influenza Other Respir Viruses ; 14(6): 739-746, 2020 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-610706

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Acute respiratory illnesses are a leading cause of global morbidity and mortality in children. Coinfection with multiple respiratory viruses is common. Although the effects of each virus have been studied individually, the impacts of coinfection on disease severity are less understood. METHODS: A secondary analysis was performed of a maternal influenza vaccine trial conducted between 2011 and 2014 in Nepal. Prospective weekly household-based active surveillance of infants was conducted from birth to 180 days of age. Mid-nasal swabs were collected and tested for respiratory syncytial virus (RSV), rhinovirus, influenza, human metapneumovirus (HMPV), coronavirus, parainfluenza (HPIV), and bocavirus by RT-PCR. Coinfection was defined as the presence of two or more respiratory viruses detected as part of the same illness episode. RESULTS: Of 1730 infants with a respiratory illness, 327 (19%) had at least two respiratory viruses detected in their primary illness episode. Of 113 infants with influenza, 23 (20%) had coinfection. Of 214 infants with RSV, 87 (41%) had coinfection. The cohort of infants with coinfection had increased occurrence of fever lasting ≥ 4 days (OR 1.4, 95% CI: 1.1, 2.0), and so did the subset of coinfected infants with influenza (OR 5.8, 95% CI: 1.8, 18.7). Coinfection was not associated with seeking further care (OR 1.1, 95% CI: 0.8, 1.5) or pneumonia (OR 1.2, 95% CI: 0.96, 1.6). CONCLUSION: A high proportion of infants had multiple viruses detected. Coinfection was associated with greater odds of fever lasting for four or more days, but not with increased illness severity by other measures.


Subject(s)
Coinfection/epidemiology , Coinfection/virology , Respiratory Tract Infections/epidemiology , Respiratory Tract Infections/virology , Coinfection/pathology , Fever/epidemiology , Fever/pathology , Fever/virology , Humans , Infant , Infant, Newborn , Nepal/epidemiology , Odds Ratio , Prospective Studies , Respiratory Tract Infections/pathology , Rural Population , Virus Diseases/epidemiology , Virus Diseases/pathology , Virus Diseases/virology , Viruses/classification , Viruses/isolation & purification
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