Your browser doesn't support javascript.
Show: 20 | 50 | 100
Results 1 - 20 de 28
Filter
1.
Int J Epidemiol ; 50(4): 1124-1133, 2021 08 30.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1387893

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The impact of SARS-CoV-2 alongside influenza is a major concern in the northern hemisphere as winter approaches. METHODS: Test data for influenza and SARS-CoV-2 from national surveillance systems between 20 January 2020 and 25 April 2020 were used to estimate influenza infection on the risk of SARS-CoV-2 infection. A test-negative design was used to assess the odds of SARS-CoV-2 in those who tested positive for influenza compared with those who tested negative. The severity of SARS-CoV-2 was also assessed using univariable and multivariable analyses. RESULTS: The risk of testing positive for SARS-CoV-2 was 58% lower among influenza-positive cases and patients with a coinfection had a risk of death of 5.92 (95% confidence interval: 3.21-10.91) times greater than among those with neither influenza nor SARS-CoV-2. The odds of ventilator use or death and intensive care unit admission or death were greatest among coinfected patients. CONCLUSIONS: Coinfection of these viruses could have a significant impact on morbidity, mortality and health-service demand.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Coinfection , Influenza, Human , Coinfection/epidemiology , Humans , Influenza, Human/epidemiology , SARS-CoV-2 , Severity of Illness Index
2.
J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr ; 85(1): 6-10, 2020 09 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1373693

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: SARS-CoV-2 infection continues to cause significant morbidity and mortality worldwide. Preliminary data on SARS-CoV-2 infection suggest that some immunocompromised hosts experience worse outcomes. We performed a retrospective matched cohort study to characterize outcomes in HIV-positive patients with SARS-CoV-2 infection. METHODS: Leveraging data collected from electronic medical records for all patients hospitalized at NYU Langone Health with COVID-19 between March 2, 2020, and April 23, 2020, we matched 21 HIV-positive patients with 42 non-HIV patients using a greedy nearest-neighbor algorithm. Admission characteristics, laboratory test results, and hospital outcomes were recorded and compared between the 2 groups. RESULTS: Although there was a trend toward increased rates of intensive care unit admission, mechanical ventilation, and mortality in HIV-positive patients, these differences were not statistically significant. Rates for these outcomes in our cohort are similar to those previously published for all patients hospitalized with COVID-19. HIV-positive patients had significantly higher admission and peak C-reactive protein values. Other inflammatory markers did not differ significantly between groups, although HIV-positive patients tended to have higher peak values during their clinical course. Three HIV-positive patients had superimposed bacterial pneumonia with positive sputum cultures, and all 3 patients died during hospitalization. There was no difference in frequency of thrombotic events or myocardial infarction between these groups. CONCLUSIONS: This study provides evidence that HIV coinfection does not significantly impact presentation, hospital course, or outcomes of patients infected with SARS-CoV-2, when compared with matched non-HIV patients. A larger study is required to determine whether the trends we observed apply to all HIV-positive patients.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus , Coinfection/virology , Coronavirus Infections/complications , HIV Infections/complications , Pneumonia, Viral/complications , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , COVID-19 , Case-Control Studies , Cohort Studies , Coinfection/mortality , Coronavirus Infections/mortality , Critical Care , Female , HIV Infections/mortality , Hospitalization , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/mortality , Respiration, Artificial , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Treatment Outcome
3.
Epidemiol Health ; 43: e2021036, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1339664

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: The global pandemic coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) emerged in the city of Wuhan, China around December 2019. Since then, the virus has caused severe morbidity and mortality worldwide and has put pressure on the global medical system. Still, there are limited data regarding the clinical impact of COVID-19 on people living with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). The primary aim of this study was, therefore, to systematically review up-to-date studies reporting the clinical outcomes of COVID-19 amongst HIV patients. METHODS: A thorough literature search was carried out using MEDLINE, Embase, Scopus, and the Cochrane Library Databases in accordance with the PRISMA (Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses) guidelines. RESULTS: A total of 22 studies were identified. Amongst 730 HIV/COVID-19-coinfected patients, 79.4% were males, the median age was 51.5 years, and the number of reported patients receiving antiretroviral drugs was 708 (97.2%). Most coinfected patients had mild to moderate symptoms, including cough (37.7%), fever (37.5%), and dyspnoea (24.7%). Among pre-existing comorbidities, hypertension (26.3%) was the most prevalent in HIV/COVID-19 coinfected patients, and 87% of coinfected patients recovered. CONCLUSIONS: Based on the existing data in this systematic literature review, HIV patients with pre-existing comorbidities, obesity, and older age should be considered as a high-risk group for COVID-19. Furthermore, coinfected patients appear to have marginally comparable clinical outcomes with the general population. The study's findings highlight the need for further investigation to elucidate the impact of COVID-19 infection on HIV patients.


Subject(s)
Anti-Retroviral Agents/therapeutic use , COVID-19/complications , Coinfection , HIV Infections/drug therapy , China , Cough/etiology , Diagnostic Tests, Routine , Fever/etiology , Humans
4.
Emerg Infect Dis ; 27(5): 1535-1537, 2021 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1264309

ABSTRACT

We describe screening results for detection of co-infections with Legionella pneumophila in patients infected with severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2. In total, 93 patients were tested; 1 was positive (1.1%) for L. pneumophila serogroup 1. Co-infections with L. pneumophila occur in coronavirus disease patients and should not be missed.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Coinfection , Legionella pneumophila , Germany/epidemiology , Humans , SARS-CoV-2 , Tertiary Care Centers
5.
J Med Virol ; 93(4): 2385-2395, 2021 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1217388

ABSTRACT

The burden and impact of secondary superadded infections in critically ill coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) patients is widely acknowledged. However, there is a dearth of information regarding the impact of COVID-19 in patients with tuberculosis, HIV, chronic hepatitis, and other concurrent infections. This review was conducted to evaluate the consequence of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection in patients with concurrent co-infections based on the publications reported to date. An extensive comprehensive screening was conducted using electronic databases up to 3rd September 2020 after obtaining registration with PROSPERO (CRD420202064800). The observational studies or interventional studies in English, evaluating the impact of SARS-CoV-2 in patients with concurrent infections are included for the meta-analyses. Our search retrieved 20 studies, with a total of 205,702 patients. Patients with tuberculosis (RR = 2.10; 95% CI, 1.75-2.51; I2 = 0%), influenza (RR = 2.04; 95% CI, 0.15-28.25, I2 = 99%) have an increased risk of mortality during a co-infection with SARS-CoV-2. No significant impact is found in people living with HIV (RR = 0.99; 95% CI, 0.82-1.19; I2 = 30%), Chronic hepatitis (RR = 1.15; 95% CI, 0.73-1.81; I2 = 10%). Several countries (Brazil, Paraguay, Argentina, Peru, Colombia, and Singapore) are on the verge of a dengue co epidemic (cumulative 878,496 and 5,028,380 cases of dengue and COVID-19 respectively). The impact of COVID-19 in patients of concurrent infections with either tuberculosis or influenza is detrimental. The clinical outcomes of COVID-19 in HIV or chronic hepatitis patients are comparable to COVID-19 patients without these concurrent infections.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/microbiology , Coinfection/epidemiology , Coinfection/microbiology , Coinfection/virology , Databases, Factual , Dengue/epidemiology , Dengue/microbiology , HIV Infections/epidemiology , HIV Infections/microbiology , Hepatitis, Chronic/epidemiology , Hepatitis, Chronic/microbiology , Humans , Influenza, Human/epidemiology , Influenza, Human/microbiology , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Tuberculosis/epidemiology , Tuberculosis/microbiology
6.
AIDS Res Ther ; 18(1): 28, 2021 05 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1216906

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) was first detected in December 2019. In March 2020, the World Health Organization declared COVID-19 a pandemic. People with underlying medical conditions may be at greater risk of infection and experience complications from COVID-19. COVID-19 has the potential to affect People living with HIV (PLWH) in various ways, including be increased risk of COVID-19 acquisition and interruptions of HIV treatment and care. The purpose of this review article is to evaluate the impact of COVID-19 among PLWH. The contents focus on 4 topics: (1) the pathophysiology and host immune response of people infected with both SARS-CoV-2 and HIV, (2) present the clinical manifestations and treatment outcomes of persons with co-infection, (3) assess the impact of antiretroviral HIV drugs among PLWH infected with COVID-19 and (4) evaluate the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on HIV services.


Subject(s)
Anti-Retroviral Agents/therapeutic use , COVID-19/pathology , Coinfection/pathology , HIV Infections/pathology , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Adult , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/drug therapy , COVID-19/immunology , Coinfection/immunology , Cytokines/blood , HIV Infections/complications , HIV Infections/drug therapy , HIV Infections/immunology , HIV-1/immunology , Humans , Immunocompromised Host/immunology , Immunocompromised Host/physiology , Lymphopenia/pathology , Middle Aged , Treatment Outcome
7.
Int J Epidemiol ; 50(4): 1124-1133, 2021 08 30.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1214583

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The impact of SARS-CoV-2 alongside influenza is a major concern in the northern hemisphere as winter approaches. METHODS: Test data for influenza and SARS-CoV-2 from national surveillance systems between 20 January 2020 and 25 April 2020 were used to estimate influenza infection on the risk of SARS-CoV-2 infection. A test-negative design was used to assess the odds of SARS-CoV-2 in those who tested positive for influenza compared with those who tested negative. The severity of SARS-CoV-2 was also assessed using univariable and multivariable analyses. RESULTS: The risk of testing positive for SARS-CoV-2 was 58% lower among influenza-positive cases and patients with a coinfection had a risk of death of 5.92 (95% confidence interval: 3.21-10.91) times greater than among those with neither influenza nor SARS-CoV-2. The odds of ventilator use or death and intensive care unit admission or death were greatest among coinfected patients. CONCLUSIONS: Coinfection of these viruses could have a significant impact on morbidity, mortality and health-service demand.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Coinfection , Influenza, Human , Coinfection/epidemiology , Humans , Influenza, Human/epidemiology , SARS-CoV-2 , Severity of Illness Index
8.
J Hosp Infect ; 113: 145-154, 2021 Jul.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1182572

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: SARS-CoV-2 predisposes patients to secondary infections; however, a better understanding of the impact of coinfections on the outcome of hospitalized COVID-19 patients is still necessary. AIM: To analyse death risk due to coinfections in COVID-19 patients. METHODS: The odds of death of 212 severely ill COVID-19 patients were evaluated, with detailed focus on the risks for each pathogen, site of infection, comorbidities and length of hospitalization. FINDINGS: The mortality rate was 50.47%. Fungal and/or bacterial isolation occurred in 89 patients, of whom 83.14% died. Coinfected patients stayed hospitalized longer and had an increased odds of dying (odds ratio (OR): 13.45; R2 = 0.31). The risk of death was increased by bacterial (OR: 11.28) and fungal (OR: 5.97) coinfections, with increased levels of creatinine, leucocytes, urea and C-reactive protein. Coinfections increased the risk of death if patients suffered from cardiovascular disease (OR: 11.53), diabetes (OR: 6.00) or obesity (OR: 5.60) in comparison with patients with these comorbidities but without pathogen isolation. The increased risk of death was detected for coagulase-negative Staphylococcus (OR: 25.39), Candida non-albicans (OR: 11.12), S. aureus (OR: 10.72), Acinetobacter spp. (OR: 6.88), Pseudomonas spp. (OR: 4.77), and C. albicans (OR: 3.97). The high-risk sites of infection were blood, tracheal aspirate, and urine. Patients with coinfection undergoing invasive mechanical ventilation were 3.8 times more likely to die than those without positive cultures. CONCLUSION: Severe COVID-19 patients with secondary coinfections required longer hospitalization and had higher risk of death. The early diagnosis of coinfections is essential to identify high-risk patients and to determine the right interventions to reduce mortality.


Subject(s)
Bacterial Infections/mortality , COVID-19/mortality , Coinfection/mortality , Mycoses/mortality , Adult , Aged , Bacterial Infections/complications , COVID-19/complications , Female , Humans , Length of Stay , Male , Middle Aged , Mycoses/complications , Respiration, Artificial
9.
Influenza Other Respir Viruses ; 15(4): 425-428, 2021 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1166028

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: Our work assessed the prevalence of co-infections in patients with SARS-CoV-2. METHODS: All patients hospitalized in a Parisian hospital during the first wave of COVID-19 were tested by multiplex PCR if they presented ILI symptoms. RESULTS: A total of 806 patients (21%) were positive for SARS-CoV-2, 755 (20%) were positive for other respiratory viruses. Among the SARS-CoV-2-positive patients, 49 (6%) had viral co-infections. They presented similar age, symptoms, except for fever (P = .013) and headaches (P = .048), than single SARS-CoV-2 infections. CONCLUSIONS: SARS-CoV-2-infected patients presenting viral co-infections had similar clinical characteristics and prognosis than patients solely infected with SARS-CoV-2.


Subject(s)
Coinfection/epidemiology , Respiratory Tract Infections/epidemiology , Virus Diseases/epidemiology , Aged , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/epidemiology , Coinfection/diagnosis , Female , Hospitalization , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Multiplex Polymerase Chain Reaction , Paris/epidemiology , Prevalence , Prognosis , Respiratory Tract Infections/diagnosis , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Virus Diseases/diagnosis , Viruses/classification , Viruses/genetics , Viruses/isolation & purification
10.
Pathogens ; 10(3)2021 Mar 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1143550

ABSTRACT

The aim of our study was to define the spectrum of viral infections in pilgrims with acute respiratory tract illnesses presenting to healthcare facilities around the holy places in Makkah, Saudi Arabia during the 2019 Hajj pilgrimage. During the five days of Hajj, a total of 185 pilgrims were enrolled in the study. Nasopharyngeal swabs (NPSs) of 126/185 patients (68.11%) tested positive for one or more respiratory viruses by PCR. Among the 126 pilgrims whose NPS were PCR positive: (a) there were 93/126 (74%) with a single virus infection, (b) 33/126 (26%) with coinfection with more than one virus (up to four viruses): of these, 25/33 cases had coinfection with two viruses; 6/33 were infected with three viruses, while the remaining 2/33 patients had infection with four viruses. Human rhinovirus (HRV) was the most common detected viruses with 53 cases (42.06%), followed by 27 (21.43%) cases of influenza A (H1N1), and 23 (18.25%) cases of influenza A other than H1N1. Twenty-five cases of CoV-229E (19.84%) were detected more than other coronavirus members (5 CoV-OC43 (3.97%), 4 CoV-HKU1 (3.17%), and 1 CoV-NL63 (0.79%)). PIV-3 was detected in 8 cases (6.35%). A single case (0.79%) of PIV-1 and PIV-4 were found. HMPV represented 5 (3.97%), RSV and influenza B 4 (3.17%) for each, and Parechovirus 1 (0.79%). Enterovirus, Bocavirus, and M. pneumoniae were not detected. Whether identification of viral nucleic acid represents nasopharyngeal carriage or specific causal etiology of RTI remains to be defined. Large controlled cohort studies (pre-Hajj, during Hajj, and post-Hajj) are required to define the carriage rates and the specific etiology and causal roles of specific individual viruses or combination of viruses in the pathogenesis of respiratory tract infections in pilgrims participating in the annual Hajj. Studies of the specific microbial etiology of respiratory track infections (RTIs) at mass gathering religious events remain a priority, especially in light of the novel SARS-CoV-2 pandemic.

11.
Pathogens ; 10(3)2021 Mar 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1143548

ABSTRACT

Rattus norvegicus, the brown or Norway rat, is the most abundant mammal after humans in urban areas, where they live in close proximity to people. Among rodent-borne diseases, the reservoir role of Norway rats of zoonotic parasites in cities has practically been ignored. Considering the parasitic diseases in the One Health approach, we intended to identify and quantify the zoonotic intestinal protozoans (ZIP) in an urban population of R. norvegicus in the city of Barcelona, Spain. We studied the presence of ZIP in 100 rats trapped in parks (n = 15) as well as in the city's sewage system (n = 85) in the winter of 2016/17. The protozoans were molecularly identified by means of a multiplex PCR (AllplexTM Gastrointestinal Panel-Parasite Assay). We also investigated the presence of co-infections among the species found. Four ZIP were identified, presenting significant prevalences in sewers, specifically Blastocystis (83.5%), Giardia duodenalis (37.7%), Cryptosporidium spp. (34.1%), and Dientamoeba fragilis (14.1%). Several co-infections among the detected ZIP were also detected. The reservoir role of ZIP that Norway rats play in cities as well as the role rats may play as sentinels of zoonotic parasites affecting humans in urban areas are strongly backed up by our findings. The increasing worldwide urbanization, climate change, and the COVID-19 pandemic are factors that are producing an increase in human-rat interactions. Our results should be considered a warning to the authorities to intensify rat control and surveillance in public health interventions.

12.
World J Gastroenterol ; 27(9): 782-793, 2021 Mar 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1138766

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has become a global pandemic and garnered international attention. The causative pathogen of COVID-19 is severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), a novel, highly contagious coronavirus. Numerous studies have reported that liver injury is quite common in patients with COVID-19. Hepatitis B has a worldwide distribution as well as in China. At present, hepatitis B virus (HBV) remains a leading cause of cirrhosis, liver failure, and hepatocellular carcinoma. Because both viruses challenge liver physiology, it raises questions as to how coinfection with HBV and SARS-CoV-2 affect disease progression and mortality. Is there an increased risk of COVID-19 in patients with HBV infection? In this review, we summarize the current reports of SARS-CoV-2 and HBV coinfection and elaborate the interaction of the two diseases. The emphasis was placed on evaluating the impact of HBV infection on disease severity and clinical outcomes in patients with COVID-19 and discussing the potential mechanism behind this effect.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/physiopathology , Coinfection/physiopathology , Hepatitis B, Chronic/physiopathology , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/mortality , Coinfection/diagnosis , Coinfection/immunology , Coinfection/mortality , Disease Progression , Global Health , Hepatitis B, Chronic/diagnosis , Hepatitis B, Chronic/immunology , Hepatitis B, Chronic/mortality , Humans , Prognosis , Severity of Illness Index
13.
J Maxillofac Oral Surg ; 20(3): 418-425, 2021 Sep.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1130934

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: Collate and analyse data of maxillofacial/rhino-cerebro-orbital fungal infections reported during the era of the Covid-19 pandemic, with the aim of investigating the common contributing factors leading to such infections and of highlighting the significance of this surge seen in patients infected with SARS-CoV-2. METHOD: This retrospective observational multi-centric study analysed patient data collected from clinicians belonging to different specialties in Bangalore, India. The data included the presentation and management of patients presenting with aggressive maxillofacial and rhino-cerebro-orbital fungal infections and explored the relationship between SARS-CoV-2, corticosteroid administration and uncontrolled diabetes mellitus. RESULTS: All 18 patients were Covid positive. Sixteen of the 18 patients received steroids for Covid treatment and 16 patients were diabetic (of whom 15 patients who were diabetics received steroids for Covid-19 treatment). Loss of vision was noted in 12 of the 18 patients and 7 of them underwent orbital exenteration. The fungi noted was mucormycosis in 16 patients, aspergillosis in 1 patient and a mixed fungal infection in 1 patient. Eleven of the patients survived, 6 died and 1 was lost to follow-up. There was a significantly higher incidence of diabetes (p = 0.03) amongst these cohort of patients who were Covid-19 positive with mucormycosis. A significantly higher number (p = 0.0013) of patients were administered steroids at some point during the treatment. CONCLUSION: Despite the limited sample size, it is evident that there is a significant increase in the incidence of angioinvasive maxillofacial fungal infections in diabetic patients treated for SARS-CoV-2 with a strong association with corticosteroid administration.

14.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 3040, 2021 02 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1107304

ABSTRACT

Porcine epidemic diarrhea virus (PEDV) and porcine deltacoronavirus (PDCoV) cause an enteric disease characterized by diarrhea clinically indistinguishable. Both viruses are simultaneously detected in clinical cases, but a study involving the co-infection has not been reported. The study was therefore conducted to investigate the disease severity following a co-infection with PEDV and PDCoV. In the study, 4-day-old pigs were orally inoculated with PEDV and PDCoV, either alone or in combination. Following challenge, fecal score was monitored on a daily basis. Fecal swabs were collected and assayed for the presence of viruses. Three pigs per group were necropsied at 3 and 5 days post inoculation (dpi). Microscopic lesions and villous height to crypt depth (VH:CD) ratio, together with the presence of PEDV and PDCoV antigens, were evaluated in small intestinal tissues. Expressions of interferon alpha (IFN-α) and interleukin 12 (IL12) were investigated in small intestinal mucosa. The findings indicated that coinoculation increased the disease severity, demonstrated by significantly prolonged fecal score and virus shedding and decreasing VH:CD ratio in the jejunum compared with pigs inoculated with either PEDV or PDCoV alone. Notably, in single-inoculated groups, PEDV and PDCoV antigens were detected only in villous enterocytes wile in the coinoculated group, PDCoV antigen was detected in both villous enterocytes and crypts. IFN-α and IL12 were significantly up-regulated in coinoculated groups in comparison with single-inoculated groups. In conclusion, co-infection with PEDV and PDCoV exacerbate clinical signs and have a synergetic on the regulatory effect inflammatory cytokines compared to a single infection with either virus.


Subject(s)
Deltacoronavirus/pathogenicity , Diarrhea/genetics , Interferon-alpha/genetics , Interleukin-12/genetics , Porcine epidemic diarrhea virus/pathogenicity , Animals , Coinfection/genetics , Coinfection/veterinary , Coinfection/virology , Coronavirus Infections/genetics , Coronavirus Infections/veterinary , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Deltacoronavirus/genetics , Deltacoronavirus/isolation & purification , Diarrhea/veterinary , Diarrhea/virology , Feces/virology , Porcine epidemic diarrhea virus/genetics , Porcine epidemic diarrhea virus/isolation & purification , Severity of Illness Index , Swine , Swine Diseases/genetics , Swine Diseases/virology
15.
Virology ; 553: 131-134, 2021 01 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1059938

ABSTRACT

In patients coinfected with SARS-CoV-2 and HBV, liver injury was common. However, the interactions between SARS-CoV-2 and HBV coinfection remained unknown. Sixty-seven COVID-19 patients from the previous cohort were enrolled and classified into 2 groups (7 with HBsAg+ and 60 with HBsAg-). The association of HBV- and SARS-CoV-2-related markers were analyzed. During the acute course of SARS-CoV-2 infection, markers of HBV replication did not extensively fluctuate during SARS-CoV-2 infection. Coinfection with HBV did not extend the viral shedding cycle or incubation periods of SARS-CoV-2. Effects of SARS-CoV-2 on the dynamics of chronic HBV infection seemed not apparent. SARS-CoV-2 infection would not be the source of HBV reactivation in these individuals.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/virology , Coinfection/virology , Hepatitis B, Chronic/virology , SARS-CoV-2 , Adult , Aged , COVID-19/drug therapy , Coinfection/drug therapy , Female , Hepatitis B, Chronic/drug therapy , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Virus Activation , Virus Shedding
16.
Front Med (Lausanne) ; 7: 571214, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1058420

ABSTRACT

Different viral agents, such as herpesviruses, human papillomavirus, and Coxsackie virus, are responsible for primary oral lesions, while other viruses, such as human immunodeficiency virus, affect the oral cavity due to immune system weakness. Interestingly, it has been reported that coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) patients can show cutaneous manifestations, including the oral cavity. However, the association between oral injuries and severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection is still unclear. This narrative review aimed to summarize the available literature and provide an overview of oral lesions associated with COVID-19. An online literature search was conducted to select relevant studies published up to November 2020. The results of 17 studies showed variability in oral lesions associated with COVID-19, including ulcerations, aphthous-like lesions, and macules. The tongue, lips, and palate were the most frequent anatomical locations. According to current knowledge, the etiopathogenesis of multiple COVID-19-associated lesions seems to be multifactorial. The appearance of such lesions could be related to the direct or indirect action of SARS-CoV-2 over the oral mucosa cells, coinfections, immunity impairment, and adverse drug reactions. Nevertheless, COVID-19-associated oral lesions may be underreported, mainly due to lockdown periods and the lack of mandatory dispositive protection. Consequently, further research is necessary to determine the diagnostic and pathological significance of oral manifestations of COVID-19. All medical doctors, dentists, and dermatologists are encouraged to perform an accurate and thorough oral examination of all suspected and confirmed COVID-19 cases to recognize the disease's possible early manifestations.

17.
PLoS Biol ; 18(12): e3000963, 2020 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1040033

ABSTRACT

Approximately 28% of the human population have been exposed to Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB), with the overwhelming majority of infected individuals not developing disease (latent TB infection (LTBI)). While it is known that uncontrolled HIV infection is a major risk factor for the development of TB, the effect of underlying LTBI on HIV disease progression is less well characterized, in part because longitudinal data are lacking. We sorted all participants of the Swiss HIV Cohort Study (SHCS) with at least 1 documented MTB test into one of the 3 groups: MTB uninfected, LTBI, or active TB. To detect differences in the HIV set point viral load (SPVL), linear regression was used; the frequency of the most common opportunistic infections (OIs) in the SHCS between MTB uninfected patients, patients with LTBI, and patients with active TB were compared using logistic regression and time-to-event analyses. In adjusted models, we corrected for baseline demographic characteristics, i.e., HIV transmission risk group and gender, geographic region, year of HIV diagnosis, and CD4 nadir. A total of 13,943 SHCS patients had at least 1 MTB test documented, of whom 840 (6.0%) had LTBI and 770 (5.5%) developed active TB. Compared to MTB uninfected patients, LTBI was associated with a 0.24 decreased log HIV SPVL in the adjusted model (p < 0.0001). Patients with LTBI had lower odds of having candida stomatitis (adjusted odds ratio (OR) = 0.68, p = 0.0035) and oral hairy leukoplakia (adjusted OR = 0.67, p = 0.033) when compared to MTB uninfected patients. The association of LTBI with a reduced HIV set point virus load and fewer unrelated infections in HIV/TB coinfected patients suggests a more complex interaction between LTBI and HIV than previously assumed.


Subject(s)
HIV Infections/complications , Latent Tuberculosis/complications , Latent Tuberculosis/diagnosis , AIDS-Related Opportunistic Infections/complications , AIDS-Related Opportunistic Infections/etiology , AIDS-Related Opportunistic Infections/microbiology , Adult , CD4-Positive T-Lymphocytes , Cohort Studies , Disease Progression , Female , HIV Infections/metabolism , HIV-1/pathogenicity , Humans , Interferon-gamma , Latent Tuberculosis/metabolism , Male , Middle Aged , Mycobacterium tuberculosis/pathogenicity , Opportunistic Infections/complications , Risk , Tuberculosis/complications , Tuberculosis/diagnosis , Viral Load/immunology
18.
Case Rep Infect Dis ; 2021: 8840536, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1039931

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Coronavirus disease (COVID-19) is a worldwide pandemic causing multiple fatalities and morbidities worldwide. We report a case of severe pneumonia causing acute respiratory distress syndrome due to a coinfection with SARS-CoV-2 and Mycobacterium abscessus in an elderly patient with multiple myeloma in Florida, USA. Case Presentation. An 84-year-old male with a medical history significant for multiple myeloma not in remission was sent to the emergency department to rule out COVID-19 infection prior to continuing his chemotherapy sessions. At presentation, he had nonspecific mild symptoms and an unremarkable physical examination. He had significant blood test findings including serum lactate dehydrogenase 373 U/L, high sensitive C-reactive protein 17.40 mg/l, and ferritin 415 ng/ml. Xpert-SARS-CoV-2 was positive. Chest radiograph revealed patchy areas of interstitial infiltrates in mid to lower lung zones. During his hospitalization course, his oxygenation deteriorated, requiring mechanical intubation. Repeat chest radiograph showed worsening bilateral infiltrates. He was started on broad-spectrum antibiotics and eventually weaned off mechanical intubation and extubated. On the 11th day of admission, he was found to be bradycardic and in shock, and he was reintubated. His labs showed worsening inflammatory markers along with kidney dysfunction to the point of requiring renal replacement therapy. He received both convalescent plasma and remdesivir for treatment of COVID-19 pneumonia. Eventually, repeat blood cultures came back positive for the growth of acid-fast beaded bacilli. While awaiting final culture and sensitivity reports, his antibiotics were upgraded to cover possible nocardia infection. Repeat blood and sputum cultures resulted in growth of AFB bacilli Mycobacterium abscessus 1 week after. CONCLUSIONS: This case report highlights the importance of keeping a broad differential and considering multiple coinfections, including atypical ones during this COVID-19 pandemic, such as the one that was discussed above, Mycobacterium abscessus, in order to provide goal-directed therapy.

19.
Cell Commun Signal ; 19(1): 7, 2021 01 13.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1028574

ABSTRACT

The cytokine release syndrome or cytokine storm, which is the hyper-induction of inflammatory responses has a central role in the mortality rate of COVID-19 and some other viral infections. Interleukin-6 (IL-6) is a key player in the development of cytokine storms. Shedding of interleukin-6 receptor (IL-6Rα) results in the accumulation of soluble interleukin-6 receptors (sIL-6R). Only relatively few cells express membrane-bound IL-6Rα. However, sIL-6R can act on potentially all cells and organs through the ubiquitously expressed gp130, the coreceptor of IL-6Rα. Through this, so-called trans-signaling, IL-6-sIL-6R is a powerful factor in the development of cytokine storms and multiorgan involvement. Some bacteria (e.g., Serratia marcescens, Staphylococcus aureus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Listeria monocytogenes), commonly considered to cause co-infections during viral pneumonia, can directly induce the shedding of membrane receptors, including IL-6Rα, or enhance endogenous shedding mechanisms causing the increase of sIL-6R level. Here we hypothesise that bacteria promoting shedding and increase the sIL-6R level can be an important contributing factor for the development of cytokine storms. Therefore, inhibition of IL-6Rα shedding by drastically reducing the number of relevant bacteria may be a critical element in reducing the chance of a cytokine storm. Validation of this hypothesis can support the consideration of the prophylactic use of antibiotics more widely and at an earlier stage of infection to decrease the mortality rate of COVID-19. Video abstract.


Subject(s)
Bacteria/enzymology , Bacterial Proteins/metabolism , COVID-19/pathology , Cytokine Release Syndrome/etiology , Metalloproteases/metabolism , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/virology , Cytokine Release Syndrome/microbiology , Humans , Interleukin-6/metabolism , Receptors, Interleukin-6/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Signal Transduction
20.
J Fungi (Basel) ; 6(4)2020 Nov 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1024594

ABSTRACT

The disease caused by the new SARS-CoV-2, known as Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), was first identified in China in December 2019 and rapidly spread around the world. Coinfections with fungal pathogens in patients with COVID-19 add challenges to patient care. We conducted a literature review on fungal coinfections in patients with COVID-19. We describe a report of a patient with disseminated histoplasmosis who was likely infected with SARS-CoV-2 and experienced COVID-19 during hospital care in Buenos Aires, Argentina. This patient presented with advanced HIV disease, a well-known factor for disseminated histoplasmosis; on the other hand, we suspected that COVID-19 was acquired during hospitalization but there is not enough evidence to support this hypothesis. Clinical correlation and the use of specific Histoplasma and COVID-19 rapid diagnostics assays were key to the timely diagnosis of both infections, permitting appropriate treatment and patient care.

SELECTION OF CITATIONS
SEARCH DETAIL