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1.
Eur J Case Rep Intern Med ; 7(5): 001656, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1791771

ABSTRACT

COVID-19, also called severe acute respiratory distress syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), originated in Wuhan, China. It has caused significant morbidity and mortality worldwide and has been declared a global pandemic by the WHO. Influenza occurs mainly during the winter, with the burden of disease determined by several factors, including the effectiveness of the vaccine that season, the characteristics of the circulating viruses, and how long the season lasts. We describe the case of a 66-year-old woman who was diagnosed with influenza A and COVID-19 co-infection. LEARNING POINTS: COVID-19 can co-occur with other viral infections.Some of these co-infections have active treatments, while supportive treatment is the mainstay of treatment for others.

2.
J Med Virol ; 93(9): 5310-5322, 2021 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1733920

ABSTRACT

The most consequential challenge raised by coinfection is perhaps the inappropriate generation of recombinant viruses through the exchange of genetic material among different strains. These genetically similar viruses can interfere with the replication process of each other and even compete for the metabolites required for the maintenance of the replication cycle. Due to the similarity in clinical symptoms of most viral respiratory tract infections, and their coincidence with COVID-19, caused by SARS-CoV-2, it is recommended to develop a comprehensive diagnostic panel for detection of respiratory and nonrespiratory viruses through the evaluation of patient samples. Given the resulting changes in blood markers, such as coagulation factors and white blood cell count following virus infection, these markers can be of diagnostic value in the detection of mixed infection in individuals already diagnosed with a certain viral illness. In this review, we seek to investigate the coinfection of SARS-CoV-2 with other respiratory and nonrespiratory viruses to provide novel insights into the development of highly sensitive diagnostics and effective treatment modalities.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Coinfection , Virus Diseases/epidemiology , Coinfection/epidemiology , Coinfection/virology , Humans
3.
Clin Infect Dis ; 74(5): 802-811, 2022 03 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1701306

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The COVID-19 pandemic has resulted in unprecedented healthcare challenges, and COVID-19 has been linked to secondary infections. Candidemia, a fungal healthcare-associated infection, has been described in patients hospitalized with severe COVID-19. However, studies of candidemia and COVID-19 coinfection have been limited in sample size and geographic scope. We assessed differences in patients with candidemia with and without a COVID-19 diagnosis. METHODS: We conducted a case-level analysis using population-based candidemia surveillance data collected through the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's Emerging Infections Program during April-August 2020 to compare characteristics of candidemia patients with and without a positive test for COVID-19 in the 30 days before their Candida culture using chi-square or Fisher's exact tests. RESULTS: Of the 251 candidemia patients included, 64 (25.5%) were positive for SARS-CoV-2. Liver disease, solid-organ malignancies, and prior surgeries were each >3 times more common in patients without COVID-19 coinfection, whereas intensive care unit-level care, mechanical ventilation, having a central venous catheter, and receipt of corticosteroids and immunosuppressants were each >1.3 times more common in patients with COVID-19. All-cause in-hospital fatality was 2 times higher among those with COVID-19 (62.5%) than without (32.1%). CONCLUSIONS: One-quarter of candidemia patients had COVID-19. These patients were less likely to have certain underlying conditions and recent surgery commonly associated with candidemia and more likely to have acute risk factors linked to COVID-19 care, including immunosuppressive medications. Given the high mortality, it is important for clinicians to remain vigilant and take proactive measures to prevent candidemia in patients with COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Candidemia , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19 Testing , Candidemia/drug therapy , Humans , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2
4.
J Leukoc Biol ; 110(1): 21-26, 2021 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1574077

ABSTRACT

The global pandemic caused by the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) is a highly pathogenic RNA virus causing coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) in humans. Although most patients with COVID-19 have mild illness and may be asymptomatic, some will develop severe pneumonia, acute respiratory distress syndrome, multi-organ failure, and death. RNA viruses such as SARS-CoV-2 are capable of hijacking the epigenetic landscape of host immune cells to evade antiviral defense. Yet, there remain considerable gaps in our understanding of immune cell epigenetic changes associated with severe SARS-CoV-2 infection pathology. Here, we examined genome-wide DNA methylation (DNAm) profiles of peripheral blood mononuclear cells from 9 terminally-ill, critical COVID-19 patients with confirmed SARS-CoV-2 plasma viremia compared with uninfected, hospitalized influenza, untreated primary HIV infection, and mild/moderate COVID-19 HIV coinfected individuals. Cell-type deconvolution analyses confirmed lymphopenia in severe COVID-19 and revealed a high percentage of estimated neutrophils suggesting perturbations to DNAm associated with granulopoiesis. We observed a distinct DNAm signature of severe COVID-19 characterized by hypermethylation of IFN-related genes and hypomethylation of inflammatory genes, reinforcing observations in infection models and single-cell transcriptional studies of severe COVID-19. Epigenetic clock analyses revealed severe COVID-19 was associated with an increased DNAm age and elevated mortality risk according to GrimAge, further validating the epigenetic clock as a predictor of disease and mortality risk. Our epigenetic results reveal a discovery DNAm signature of severe COVID-19 in blood potentially useful for corroborating clinical assessments, informing pathogenic mechanisms, and revealing new therapeutic targets against SARS-CoV-2.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/genetics , DNA Methylation/genetics , Epigenesis, Genetic , Genome, Human , COVID-19/virology , HIV Infections/genetics , Humans , Influenza, Human/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/physiology
5.
Jpn J Infect Dis ; 74(6): 570-572, 2021 Nov 22.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1534553

ABSTRACT

An individual may contract coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) and influenza simultaneously; hence, adequate measures must be undertaken for the next winter in Japan. In preparation for the future, this study aimed to clarify the incidence of influenza coinfection in patients with COVID-19 during the previous winter. We conducted a retrospective study of the medical records of 193 patients diagnosed with COVID-19 between January 31, 2020, and April 23, 2020, in a single hospital. We evaluated the incidence of COVID-19 and influenza coinfection. Using rapid diagnostic testing, we found that no patient with COVID-19 was coinfected with influenza. Coinfection with influenza and COVID-19 was rare during the past winter in Japan.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Coinfection , Influenza, Human , COVID-19/epidemiology , Coinfection/epidemiology , Coinfection/virology , Hospitals , Humans , Influenza, Human/epidemiology , Japan/epidemiology , Retrospective Studies
6.
J Infect Dis ; 224(6): 949-955, 2021 09 17.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1429240

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Early in the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic, there was a concern over possible increase in antibiotic use due to coinfections among COVID-19 patients in the community. Here, we evaluate the changes in nationwide use of broad-spectrum antibiotics during the COVID-19 epidemic in South Korea. METHODS: We obtained national reimbursement data on the prescription of antibiotics, including penicillin with ß-lactamase inhibitors, cephalosporins, fluoroquinolones, and macrolides. We examined the number of antibiotic prescriptions compared with the previous 3 years in the same period from August to July. To quantify the impact of the COVID-19 epidemic on antibiotic use, we developed a regression model adjusting for changes of viral acute respiratory tract infections (ARTIs), which are an important factor driving antibiotic use. RESULTS: During the COVID-19 epidemic in South Korea, the broad-spectrum antibiotic use dropped by 15%-55% compared to the previous 3 years. Overall reduction in antibiotic use adjusting for ARTIs was estimated to be 14%-30%, with a larger impact in children. CONCLUSIONS: Our study found that broad-spectrum antibiotic use was substantially reduced during the COVID-19 epidemic in South Korea. This reduction can be in part due to reduced ARTIs as a result of stringent public health interventions including social distancing measures.


Subject(s)
Broadly Neutralizing Antibodies/administration & dosage , Broadly Neutralizing Antibodies/therapeutic use , COVID-19/epidemiology , Public Health , Respiratory Tract Infections/drug therapy , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Antimicrobial Stewardship , Cephalosporins , Child , Child, Preschool , Female , Fluoroquinolones , Hospitalization/statistics & numerical data , Humans , Infant , Infant, Newborn , Macrolides , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Penicillins , Republic of Korea/epidemiology , Respiratory Tract Infections/epidemiology , SARS-CoV-2 , Young Adult
7.
Am J Respir Crit Care Med ; 2021 May 26.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1416749

ABSTRACT

RATIONALE: Early empirical antimicrobial treatment is frequently prescribed to critically ill patients with COVID-19, based on Surviving Sepsis Campaign guidelines. OBJECTIVE: We aimed to determine the prevalence of early bacterial identification in intubated patients with SARS-CoV-2 pneumonia, as compared to influenza pneumonia, and to characterize its microbiology and impact on outcomes. METHODS: Multicenter retrospective European cohort performed in 36 ICUs. All adult patients receiving invasive mechanical ventilation >48h were eligible if they had SARS-CoV-2 or influenza pneumonia at ICU admission. Bacterial identification was defined by a positive bacterial culture, within 48h after intubation, in endotracheal aspirates, bronchoalveolar lavage, blood cultures, or a positive pneumococcal or legionella urinary antigen test. MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS: 1,050 patients were included (568 in SARS-CoV-2 and 482 in influenza groups). The prevalence of bacterial identification was significantly lower in patients with SARS-CoV-2 pneumonia as compared to patients with influenza pneumonia (9.7 vs 33.6%, unadjusted odds ratio (OR) 0.21 (95% confidence interval (CI) 0.15 to 0.30), adjusted OR 0.23 (95% CI 0.16 to 0.33), p<0.0001). Gram-positive cocci were responsible for 58% and 72% of co-infection in patients with SARS-CoV-2 and influenza pneumonia, respectively. Bacterial identification was associated with increased adjusted hazard ratio for 28-day mortality in patients with SARS-CoV-2 pneumonia (1.57 (95% CI 1.01 to 2.44), p=0.043). However, no significant difference was found in heterogeneity of outcomes related to bacterial identification between the two study groups, suggesting that the impact of co-infection on mortality was not different between SARS-CoV-2 and influenza patients. CONCLUSIONS: Bacterial identification within 48h after intubation is significantly less frequent in patients with SARS-CoV-2 pneumonia as compared to patients with influenza pneumonia. This article is open access and distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution Non-Commercial No Derivatives License 4.0 (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0/).

8.
Front Microbiol ; 12: 653399, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1389208

ABSTRACT

Co-infection with ancillary pathogens is a significant modulator of morbidity and mortality in infectious diseases. There have been limited reports of co-infections accompanying SARS-CoV-2 infections, albeit lacking India specific study. The present study has made an effort toward elucidating the prevalence, diversity and characterization of co-infecting respiratory pathogens in the nasopharyngeal tract of SARS-CoV-2 positive patients. Two complementary metagenomics based sequencing approaches, Respiratory Virus Oligo Panel (RVOP) and Holo-seq, were utilized for unbiased detection of co-infecting viruses and bacteria. The limited SARS-CoV-2 clade diversity along with differential clinical phenotype seems to be partially explained by the observed spectrum of co-infections. We found a total of 43 bacteria and 29 viruses amongst the patients, with 18 viruses commonly captured by both the approaches. In addition to SARS-CoV-2, Human Mastadenovirus, known to cause respiratory distress, was present in a majority of the samples. We also found significant differences of bacterial reads based on clinical phenotype. Of all the bacterial species identified, ∼60% have been known to be involved in respiratory distress. Among the co-pathogens present in our sample cohort, anaerobic bacteria accounted for a preponderance of bacterial diversity with possible role in respiratory distress. Clostridium botulinum, Bacillus cereus and Halomonas sp. are anaerobes found abundantly across the samples. Our findings highlight the significance of metagenomics based diagnosis and detection of SARS-CoV-2 and other respiratory co-infections in the current pandemic to enable efficient treatment administration and better clinical management. To our knowledge this is the first study from India with a focus on the role of co-infections in SARS-CoV-2 clinical sub-phenotype.

9.
Int J Epidemiol ; 50(4): 1124-1133, 2021 08 30.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1387893

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The impact of SARS-CoV-2 alongside influenza is a major concern in the northern hemisphere as winter approaches. METHODS: Test data for influenza and SARS-CoV-2 from national surveillance systems between 20 January 2020 and 25 April 2020 were used to estimate influenza infection on the risk of SARS-CoV-2 infection. A test-negative design was used to assess the odds of SARS-CoV-2 in those who tested positive for influenza compared with those who tested negative. The severity of SARS-CoV-2 was also assessed using univariable and multivariable analyses. RESULTS: The risk of testing positive for SARS-CoV-2 was 58% lower among influenza-positive cases and patients with a coinfection had a risk of death of 5.92 (95% confidence interval: 3.21-10.91) times greater than among those with neither influenza nor SARS-CoV-2. The odds of ventilator use or death and intensive care unit admission or death were greatest among coinfected patients. CONCLUSIONS: Coinfection of these viruses could have a significant impact on morbidity, mortality and health-service demand.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Coinfection , Influenza, Human , Coinfection/epidemiology , Humans , Influenza, Human/epidemiology , SARS-CoV-2 , Severity of Illness Index
12.
J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr ; 85(1): 6-10, 2020 09 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1373693

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: SARS-CoV-2 infection continues to cause significant morbidity and mortality worldwide. Preliminary data on SARS-CoV-2 infection suggest that some immunocompromised hosts experience worse outcomes. We performed a retrospective matched cohort study to characterize outcomes in HIV-positive patients with SARS-CoV-2 infection. METHODS: Leveraging data collected from electronic medical records for all patients hospitalized at NYU Langone Health with COVID-19 between March 2, 2020, and April 23, 2020, we matched 21 HIV-positive patients with 42 non-HIV patients using a greedy nearest-neighbor algorithm. Admission characteristics, laboratory test results, and hospital outcomes were recorded and compared between the 2 groups. RESULTS: Although there was a trend toward increased rates of intensive care unit admission, mechanical ventilation, and mortality in HIV-positive patients, these differences were not statistically significant. Rates for these outcomes in our cohort are similar to those previously published for all patients hospitalized with COVID-19. HIV-positive patients had significantly higher admission and peak C-reactive protein values. Other inflammatory markers did not differ significantly between groups, although HIV-positive patients tended to have higher peak values during their clinical course. Three HIV-positive patients had superimposed bacterial pneumonia with positive sputum cultures, and all 3 patients died during hospitalization. There was no difference in frequency of thrombotic events or myocardial infarction between these groups. CONCLUSIONS: This study provides evidence that HIV coinfection does not significantly impact presentation, hospital course, or outcomes of patients infected with SARS-CoV-2, when compared with matched non-HIV patients. A larger study is required to determine whether the trends we observed apply to all HIV-positive patients.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus , Coinfection/virology , Coronavirus Infections/complications , HIV Infections/complications , Pneumonia, Viral/complications , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , COVID-19 , Case-Control Studies , Cohort Studies , Coinfection/mortality , Coronavirus Infections/mortality , Critical Care , Female , HIV Infections/mortality , Hospitalization , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/mortality , Respiration, Artificial , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Treatment Outcome
13.
Epidemiol Health ; 43: e2021036, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1339664

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: The global pandemic coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) emerged in the city of Wuhan, China around December 2019. Since then, the virus has caused severe morbidity and mortality worldwide and has put pressure on the global medical system. Still, there are limited data regarding the clinical impact of COVID-19 on people living with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). The primary aim of this study was, therefore, to systematically review up-to-date studies reporting the clinical outcomes of COVID-19 amongst HIV patients. METHODS: A thorough literature search was carried out using MEDLINE, Embase, Scopus, and the Cochrane Library Databases in accordance with the PRISMA (Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses) guidelines. RESULTS: A total of 22 studies were identified. Amongst 730 HIV/COVID-19-coinfected patients, 79.4% were males, the median age was 51.5 years, and the number of reported patients receiving antiretroviral drugs was 708 (97.2%). Most coinfected patients had mild to moderate symptoms, including cough (37.7%), fever (37.5%), and dyspnoea (24.7%). Among pre-existing comorbidities, hypertension (26.3%) was the most prevalent in HIV/COVID-19 coinfected patients, and 87% of coinfected patients recovered. CONCLUSIONS: Based on the existing data in this systematic literature review, HIV patients with pre-existing comorbidities, obesity, and older age should be considered as a high-risk group for COVID-19. Furthermore, coinfected patients appear to have marginally comparable clinical outcomes with the general population. The study's findings highlight the need for further investigation to elucidate the impact of COVID-19 infection on HIV patients.


Subject(s)
Anti-Retroviral Agents/therapeutic use , COVID-19/complications , Coinfection , HIV Infections/drug therapy , China , Cough/etiology , Diagnostic Tests, Routine , Fever/etiology , Humans
14.
Clin Infect Dis ; 74(5): 802-811, 2022 03 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1276160

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The COVID-19 pandemic has resulted in unprecedented healthcare challenges, and COVID-19 has been linked to secondary infections. Candidemia, a fungal healthcare-associated infection, has been described in patients hospitalized with severe COVID-19. However, studies of candidemia and COVID-19 coinfection have been limited in sample size and geographic scope. We assessed differences in patients with candidemia with and without a COVID-19 diagnosis. METHODS: We conducted a case-level analysis using population-based candidemia surveillance data collected through the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's Emerging Infections Program during April-August 2020 to compare characteristics of candidemia patients with and without a positive test for COVID-19 in the 30 days before their Candida culture using chi-square or Fisher's exact tests. RESULTS: Of the 251 candidemia patients included, 64 (25.5%) were positive for SARS-CoV-2. Liver disease, solid-organ malignancies, and prior surgeries were each >3 times more common in patients without COVID-19 coinfection, whereas intensive care unit-level care, mechanical ventilation, having a central venous catheter, and receipt of corticosteroids and immunosuppressants were each >1.3 times more common in patients with COVID-19. All-cause in-hospital fatality was 2 times higher among those with COVID-19 (62.5%) than without (32.1%). CONCLUSIONS: One-quarter of candidemia patients had COVID-19. These patients were less likely to have certain underlying conditions and recent surgery commonly associated with candidemia and more likely to have acute risk factors linked to COVID-19 care, including immunosuppressive medications. Given the high mortality, it is important for clinicians to remain vigilant and take proactive measures to prevent candidemia in patients with COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Candidemia , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19 Testing , Candidemia/drug therapy , Humans , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2
15.
J Microbiol Immunol Infect ; 54(1): 105-108, 2021 Feb.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1272568

ABSTRACT

Cases of co-infection and secondary infection emerging during the current Coronavirus Disease-19 (COVID-19) pandemic are a major public health concern. Such cases may result from immunodysregulation induced by the SARS-CoV-2 virus. Pandemic preparedness must include identification of disease natural history and common secondary infections to implement clinical solutions.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/microbiology , Coinfection/immunology , Coinfection/virology , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/virology , Coinfection/epidemiology , Humans , Lymphopenia/immunology , Lymphopenia/microbiology , Lymphopenia/virology , Pandemics , Prevalence , Public Health , Superinfection/immunology , Superinfection/microbiology , Superinfection/virology
17.
Virol J ; 18(1): 127, 2021 06 14.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1269882

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: In COVID-19 patients, undetected co-infections may have severe clinical implications associated with increased hospitalization, varied treatment approaches and mortality. Therefore, we investigated the implications of viral and bacterial co-infection in COVID-19 clinical outcomes. METHODS: Nasopharyngeal samples were obtained from 48 COVID-19 patients (29% ICU and 71% non-ICU) and screened for the presence of 24 respiratory pathogens using six multiplex PCR panels. RESULTS: We found evidence of co-infection in 34 COVID-19 patients (71%). Influenza A H1N1 (n = 17), Chlamydia pneumoniae (n = 13) and human adenovirus (n = 10) were the most commonly detected pathogens. Viral co-infection was associated with increased ICU admission (r = 0.1) and higher mortality (OR 1.78, CI = 0.38-8.28) compared to bacterial co-infections (OR 0.44, CI = 0.08-2.45). Two thirds of COVID-19 critically ill patients who died, had a co-infection; and Influenza A H1N1 was the only pathogen for which a direct relationship with mortality was seen (r = 0.2). CONCLUSIONS: Our study highlights the importance of screening for co-infecting viruses in COVID-19 patients, that could be the leading cause of disease severity and death. Given the high prevalence of Influenza co-infection in our study, increased coverage of flu vaccination is encouraged to mitigate the transmission of influenza virus during the on-going COVID-19 pandemic and reduce the risk of severe outcome and mortality.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/mortality , Coinfection/mortality , Influenza, Human/mortality , Adult , Aged , Bacterial Infections/epidemiology , Bacterial Infections/mortality , Bacterial Infections/pathology , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/pathology , Coinfection/epidemiology , Coinfection/pathology , Female , Hospitalization , Humans , Influenza A Virus, H1N1 Subtype/isolation & purification , Influenza, Human/epidemiology , Influenza, Human/pathology , Intensive Care Units , Male , Middle Aged , Nasopharynx/microbiology , Nasopharynx/virology , Prevalence , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Saudi Arabia/epidemiology
18.
Clin Infect Dis ; 72(12): e978-e992, 2021 06 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1269557

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Clinical outcomes of the interaction between the co-circulating pandemic severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) and seasonal influenza viruses are unknown. METHODS: We established a golden Syrian hamster model coinfected by SARS-CoV-2 and mouse-adapted A(H1N1)pdm09 simultaneously or sequentially. The weight loss, clinical scores, histopathological changes, viral load and titer, and serum neutralizing antibody titer were compared with hamsters challenged by either virus. RESULTS: Coinfected hamsters had more weight loss, more severe lung inflammatory damage, and tissue cytokine/chemokine expression. Lung viral load, infectious virus titers, and virus antigen expression suggested that hamsters were generally more susceptible to SARS-CoV-2 than to A(H1N1)pdm09. Sequential coinfection with A(H1N1)pdm09 one day prior to SARS-CoV-2 exposure resulted in a lower lung SARS-CoV-2 titer and viral load than with SARS-CoV-2 monoinfection, but a higher lung A(H1N1)pdm09 viral load. Coinfection also increased intestinal inflammation with more SARS-CoV-2 nucleoprotein expression in enterocytes. Simultaneous coinfection was associated with delay in resolution of lung damage, lower serum SARS-CoV-2 neutralizing antibody, and longer SARS-CoV-2 shedding in oral swabs compared to that of SARS-CoV-2 monoinfection. CONCLUSIONS: Simultaneous or sequential coinfection by SARS-CoV-2 and A(H1N1)pdm09 caused more severe disease than monoinfection by either virus in hamsters. Prior A(H1N1)pdm09 infection lowered SARS-CoV-2 pulmonary viral loads but enhanced lung damage. Whole-population influenza vaccination for prevention of coinfection, and multiplex molecular diagnostics for both viruses to achieve early initiation of antiviral treatment for improvement of clinical outcome should be considered.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Coinfection , Influenza A Virus, H1N1 Subtype , Influenza, Human , Animals , Cricetinae , Disease Models, Animal , Humans , Mesocricetus , Mice , SARS-CoV-2
19.
Balkan Med J ; 38(3): 150-155, 2021 May.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1268391

ABSTRACT

Antibiotic consumption rates were quite high in number, although the bacterial coinfection rates were low in coronavirus disease 2019 pneumonia. Generally, empirical antibiotic treatment is not recommended for uncomplicated coronavirus disease 2019 mild to moderate pneumonia cases. On the other hand, antibiotic treatment and de-escalation are recommended for intubated intensive care unit patients or critical patients with sepsis, septic shock, or acute respiratory distress syndrome. The presentation of patients with severe coronavirus disease 2019 pneumonia can direct the clinicians to use antibiotics. We believe that wait and watch strategy can be preferred in such cases without sepsis, secondary bacterial infection findings, or procalcitonin < 0.5 ng/ mL. We think that a new wave of resistance will occur inevitably if we cannot perform the antibiotic stewardship properly.


Subject(s)
Anti-Bacterial Agents/therapeutic use , Antimicrobial Stewardship , COVID-19 , Patient Selection , Antimicrobial Stewardship/methods , Antimicrobial Stewardship/standards , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/drug therapy , Humans , Medical Overuse/prevention & control , Severity of Illness Index
20.
Emerg Infect Dis ; 27(5): 1535-1537, 2021 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1264309

ABSTRACT

We describe screening results for detection of co-infections with Legionella pneumophila in patients infected with severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2. In total, 93 patients were tested; 1 was positive (1.1%) for L. pneumophila serogroup 1. Co-infections with L. pneumophila occur in coronavirus disease patients and should not be missed.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Coinfection , Legionella pneumophila , Germany/epidemiology , Humans , SARS-CoV-2 , Tertiary Care Centers
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