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1.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 18(11)2021 05 28.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1266725

ABSTRACT

Children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) are commonly affected by medical illness. The aim of the present study was to explore the risks of contracting respiratory infectious diseases (RIDs), including upper and lower RIDs and influenza, in children with ADHD. We also examined whether methylphenidate has a protective effect regarding the risk of contracting RIDs among children with ADHD who have a history of methylphenidate treatment. Children in the Taiwan Maternal and Child Health Database from 2004 to 2016 were included in the present study. Upper and lower RIDs, influenza, ADHD, age, sex, and records of methylphenidate prescription were identified. A Cox proportional hazards regression model was used to estimate the significance of the risk of RIDs among children with ADHD in comparison with that among children without ADHD after adjustment for sex and age. The self-controlled case series analysis was conducted to examine the protective effect of methylphenidate treatment against RIDs. In total, 85,853 children with ADHD and 1,458,750 children without ADHD were included in the study. After controlling for sociodemographic variables, we observed that children with ADHD had significantly higher risks of upper RIDs, lower RIDs, and influenza infection than did those without ADHD. Among the children with ADHD who had a history of methylphenidate treatment, the risk of contracting RIDs was lower during the methylphenidate treatment period than during the nontreatment period. Children with ADHD had a higher RID risk than those without ADHD. Methylphenidate might reduce the risk of RIDs among children with ADHD who have a history of methylphenidate treatment.


Subject(s)
Attention Deficit Disorder with Hyperactivity , Central Nervous System Stimulants , Communicable Diseases , Methylphenidate , Attention Deficit Disorder with Hyperactivity/drug therapy , Attention Deficit Disorder with Hyperactivity/epidemiology , Central Nervous System Stimulants/therapeutic use , Child , Cohort Studies , Humans , Methylphenidate/therapeutic use , Taiwan/epidemiology
2.
EPMA J ; 12(2): 221-241, 2021 Jun.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1261824

ABSTRACT

Sleep quality and duration play a pivotal role in maintaining physical and mental health. In turn, sleep shortage, deprivation and disorders are per evidence the risk factors and facilitators of a broad spectrum of disorders, amongst others including depression, stroke, chronic inflammation, cancers, immune defence insufficiency and individual predisposition to infection diseases with poor outcomes, for example, related to the COVID-19 pandemic. Keeping in mind that COVID-19-related global infection distribution is neither the first nor the last pandemic severely affecting societies around the globe to the costs of human lives accompanied with enormous economic burden, lessons by predictive, preventive and personalised (3P) medical approach are essential to learn and to follow being better prepared to defend against global pandemics. To this end, under extreme conditions such as the current COVID-19 pandemic, the reciprocal interrelationship between the sleep quality and individual outcomes becomes evident, namely, at the levels of disease predisposition, severe versus mild disease progression, development of disease complications, poor outcomes and related mortality for both - population and healthcare givers. The latter is the prominent example clearly demonstrating the causality of severe outcomes, when the long-lasting work overload and shift work rhythm evidently lead to the sleep shortage and/or deprivation that in turn causes immune response insufficiency and strong predisposition to the acute infection with complications. This article highlights and provides an in-depth analysis of the concerted risk factors related to the sleep disturbances under the COVID-19 pandemic followed by the evidence-based recommendations in the framework of predictive, preventive and personalised medical approach.

3.
Commun Biol ; 4(1): 682, 2021 06 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1260957

ABSTRACT

An outbreak of the novel coronavirus SARS-CoV-2, the causative agent of Coronavirus Disease-2019 (COVID-19), a respiratory disease, has infected almost one hundred million people since the end of 2019, killed over two million, and caused worldwide social and economic disruption. Because the mechanisms of SARS-CoV-2 infection of host cells and its pathogenesis remain largely unclear, there are currently no antiviral drugs with proven efficacy. Besides severe respiratory and systematic symptoms, several comorbidities increase risk of fatal disease outcome. Therefore, it is required to investigate the impacts of COVID-19 on pre-existing diseases of patients, such as cancer and other infectious diseases. In the current study, we report that SARS-CoV-2 encoded proteins and some currently used anti-COVID-19 drugs are able to induce lytic reactivation of Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV), one of major human oncogenic viruses, through manipulation of intracellular signaling pathways. Our data indicate that those KSHV + patients especially in endemic areas exposure to COVID-19 or undergoing the treatment may have increased risks to develop virus-associated cancers, even after they have fully recovered from COVID-19.


Subject(s)
Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , COVID-19/complications , Herpesvirus 8, Human/physiology , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , Sarcoma, Kaposi/etiology , Virus Activation , Azithromycin/pharmacology , Benzamidines/pharmacology , COVID-19/drug therapy , Cell Line , Guanidines/pharmacology , Herpesviridae Infections/chemically induced , Herpesviridae Infections/etiology , Herpesvirus 8, Human/drug effects , Humans , Oncogenic Viruses/drug effects , Oncogenic Viruses/physiology , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects , Sarcoma, Kaposi/chemically induced , Viral Proteins/metabolism , Virus Activation/drug effects
4.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(4)2021 Feb 21.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1256557

ABSTRACT

Vitamin D, a fat-soluble prohormone, is endogenously synthesized in response to sunlight or taken from dietary supplements. Since vitamin D receptors are present in most tissues and cells in the body, the mounting understanding of the role of vitamin D in humans indicates that it does not only play an important role in the musculoskeletal system, but has beneficial effects elsewhere as well. This review summarizes the metabolism of vitamin D, the research regarding the possible risk factors leading to vitamin D deficiency, and the relationships between vitamin D deficiency and numerous illnesses, including rickets, osteoporosis and osteomalacia, muscle weakness and falls, autoimmune disorders, infectious diseases, cardiovascular diseases (CVDs), cancers, and neurological disorders. The system-wide effects of vitamin D and the mechanisms of the diseases are also discussed. Although accumulating evidence supports associations of vitamin D deficiency with physical and mental disorders and beneficial effects of vitamin D with health maintenance and disease prevention, there continue to be controversies over the beneficial effects of vitamin D. Thus, more well-designed and statistically powered trials are required to enable the assessment of vitamin D's role in optimizing health and preventing disease.


Subject(s)
Musculoskeletal System/drug effects , Vitamin D/pharmacology , Animals , Biological Availability , Humans , Models, Biological , Muscle Weakness/complications , Vitamin D/chemistry , Vitamin D/metabolism , Vitamin D Deficiency/complications , Vitamin D Deficiency/pathology
5.
Psychosom Med ; 83(4): 368-372, 2021 05 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1216704

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: Infectious diseases can cause psychological changes in patients. This study aimed to evaluate the prevalence and related risk factors for anxiety and depression in patients with COVID-19. METHODS: A cross-sectional study was performed on patients with COVID-19 admitted to the Sino-French New City branch of Wuhan Tongji Hospital from January to February 2020. The Zung Self-Rating Anxiety and Depression Scales were used to evaluate the prevalence of anxiety and depression. Demographic, clinical, and sociological data were also collected. Multivariable logistic regression analysis was used to identify independent risk factors of anxiety and depression in patients with COVID-19. RESULTS: In the current study, 183 patients were enrolled (mean age = 53 ± 9 years; 41.1% women). The prevalences of anxiety and depression were 56.3% and 39.3%, respectively. Logistic regression analysis revealed that older age, female sex, being divorced or widowed, COVID-19 disease duration, renal disease, and depression were identified as independent risk factors for anxiety in patients with COVID-19. Factors that were associated with depression were female sex, being widowed, COVID-19 disease duration, and anxiety. CONCLUSIONS: This study demonstrates a high prevalence of anxiety and depression in patients with COVID-19 at the peak of the epidemic in Wuhan, China. The identification of demographic, clinical, and social factors may help identify health care professionals to provide psychological care as part of treatment for patients with COVID-19 and other life-threatening infectious diseases.


Subject(s)
Anxiety/epidemiology , COVID-19/psychology , Depression/epidemiology , Anxiety/etiology , COVID-19/complications , China/epidemiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Depression/etiology , Female , Humans , Logistic Models , Male , Middle Aged , Prevalence , Psychiatric Status Rating Scales , Risk Factors
6.
Front Psychol ; 12: 608413, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1200101

ABSTRACT

Aim of the study was to analyze the posttraumatic stress disorder risk nurses, detecting the relationship between distress experience and personality dimensions in Italian COVID-19 outbreak. A cross-sectional study was conducted based on 2 data detection (March 2020 and September 2020). Mental evaluation was carried out in Laboratory of Clinical Psychology on n.69 nurses in range age 22-64 years old (mean age 37.3; sd ± 10.3; 55% working in nursing care with confirmed COVID-19 patients (named frontline; secondline nurses have been identified by nursing care working with infectious patients but no confirmed COVID-19). Measurement was focused on symptoms anxiety, personality traits, peritraumatic dissociation and post-traumatic stress for all participants. No online screening was applied. Comparisons (ANOVA test) within the various demographic characteristics demonstrated few significant differences between groups on DASS-21, PDEQ, and ISE-R scores. Correlation analysis (Spearman test) was performed among PDEQ, DASS-21, BFI-10 and IES-R and confirmed between anxiety (DASS-21) and peritraumatic dissociation and post-traumatic stress; then anxiety is positively correlated to agreeableness variable of BFI-10 test. The emotional distress was protracted overtime (after 6 months) but in long-term personality traits resulted mediator facing subjective stress. Our finding drew details for protective and predictive risk factors as well as mental health issues of nurses dealing with pandemic: healthcare workers faced the protracted challenge caring COVID-19 patients over and over again: in short time the impact was relevant, and the prolonged exposition to the stressor was tackled by personal resources such as personality traits.

7.
Med Clin (Barc) ; 156(4): 172-176, 2021 02 26.
Article in English, Spanish | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1198965

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: The appearance of a highly contagious disease forced the confinement of the population in almost all parts of the world, causing an increase in psychological problems, with pregnant women being a particularly vulnerable group to suffer negative consequences. The aim of this research was to check which confinement or psychological stress variables are related to the increase of anxious and depressive symptoms in pregnant women, as a consequence of the pandemic caused by the COVID-19. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The sample was composed of 131 pregnant women who experienced the confinement imposed by the Government of Spain on March 14, 2020. Sociodemographic, obstetric, confinement related and psychological variables were collected. RESULTS: Perceived stress, pregnancy-specific stress, as well as insomnia are predictive variables in most anxious (obsessions and compulsions, anxiety and phobic anxiety) and depressive symptoms related to COVID-19. CONCLUSIONS: It is important to focus future psychological interventions in this population on stress control and sleep monitoring, since these variables influence the increase of anxiety and depression.


Subject(s)
Anxiety/etiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19/psychology , Depression/etiology , Physical Distancing , Pregnancy Complications/etiology , Stress, Psychological/etiology , Adult , Anxiety/diagnosis , Anxiety/epidemiology , Depression/diagnosis , Depression/epidemiology , Female , Health Policy , Health Surveys , Humans , Pregnancy , Pregnancy Complications/diagnosis , Pregnancy Complications/epidemiology , Spain/epidemiology , Stress, Psychological/diagnosis , Stress, Psychological/epidemiology
8.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(8)2021 Apr 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1196033

ABSTRACT

Amyloidoses are a group of diseases associated with the formation of pathological protein fibrils with cross-ß structures. Approximately 5-10% of the cases of these diseases are determined by amyloidogenic mutations, as well as by transmission of infectious amyloids (prions) between organisms. The most common group of so-called sporadic amyloidoses is associated with abnormal aggregation of wild-type proteins. Some sporadic amyloidoses are known to be induced only against the background of certain pathologies, but in some cases the cause of amyloidosis is unclear. It is assumed that these diseases often occur by accident. Here we present facts and hypotheses about the association of sporadic amyloidoses with vascular pathologies, trauma, oxidative stress, cancer, metabolic diseases, chronic infections and COVID-19. Generalization of current data shows that all sporadic amyloidoses can be regarded as a secondary event occurring against the background of diseases provoking a cellular stress response. Various factors causing the stress response provoke protein overproduction, a local increase in the concentration or modifications, which contributes to amyloidogenesis. Progress in the treatment of vascular, metabolic and infectious diseases, as well as cancers, should lead to a significant reduction in the risk of sporadic amyloidoses.


Subject(s)
Amyloidosis/etiology , Stress, Physiological , Brain Injuries/complications , Communicable Diseases/complications , Humans , Metabolic Diseases/complications , Neoplasms/complications , Oxidative Stress , Vascular Diseases/complications
9.
Sports Med ; 51(8): 1673-1686, 2021 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1193177

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Regular physical activity is the prime modality for the prevention of numerous non-communicable diseases and has also been advocated for resilience against COVID-19 and other infectious diseases. However, there is currently no systematic and quantitative evidence synthesis of the association between physical activity and the strength of the immune system. OBJECTIVE: To examine the association between habitual physical activity and (1) the risk of community-acquired infectious disease, (2) laboratory-assessed immune parameters, and (3) immune response to vaccination. METHODS: We conducted a systemic review and meta-analysis according to PRISMA guidelines. We searched seven databases (MEDLINE, Embase, Cochrane CENTRAL, Web of Science, CINAHL, PsycINFO, and SportDiscus) up to April 2020 for randomised controlled trials and prospective observational studies were included if they compared groups of adults with different levels of physical activity and reported immune system cell count, the concentration of antibody, risk of clinically diagnosed infections, risk of hospitalisation and mortality due to infectious disease. Studies involving elite athletes were excluded. The quality of the selected studies was critically examined following the Cochrane guidelines using ROB2 and ROBINS_E. Data were pooled using an inverse variance random-effects model. RESULTS: Higher level of habitual physical activity is associated with a 31% risk reduction (hazard ratio 0.69, 95% CI 0.61-0.78, 6 studies, N = 557,487 individuals) of community-acquired infectious disease and 37% risk reduction (hazard ratio 0.64, 95% CI 0.59-0.70, 4 studies, N = 422,813 individuals) of infectious disease mortality. Physical activity interventions resulted in increased CD4 cell counts (32 cells/µL, 95% CI 7-56 cells/µL, 24 studies, N = 1112 individuals) and salivary immunoglobulin IgA concentration (standardised mean difference 0.756, 95% CI 0.146-1.365, 7 studies, N = 435 individuals) and decreased neutrophil counts (704 cells/µL, 95% CI 68-1340, 6 studies, N = 704 individuals) compared to controls. Antibody concentration after vaccination is higher with an adjunct physical activity programme (standardised mean difference 0.142, 95% CI 0.021-0.262, 6 studies, N = 497 individuals). CONCLUSION: Regular, moderate to vigorous physical activity is associated with reduced risk of community-acquired infectious diseases and infectious disease mortality, enhances the first line of defence of the immune system, and increases the potency of vaccination. PROTOCOL REGISTRATION: The original protocol was prospectively registered with PROSPERO (CRD42020178825).


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Adult , Exercise , Humans , Immune System , Observational Studies as Topic , SARS-CoV-2 , Vaccination
10.
Br J Dermatol ; 185(2): 363-370, 2021 Aug.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1175029

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Understanding factors impacting deaths from COVID-19 is of the highest priority. Seasonal variation in environmental meteorological conditions affects the incidence of many infectious diseases and may also affect COVID-19. Ultraviolet (UV) A (UVA) radiation induces release of cutaneous photolabile nitric oxide (NO) impacting the cardiovascular system and metabolic syndrome, both COVID-19 risk factors. NO also inhibits the replication of SARS-CoV2. OBJECTIVES: To investigate the relationship between ambient UVA radiation and COVID-19 deaths. METHODS: COVID-19 deaths at the county level, across the USA, were modelled in a zero-inflated negative-binomial model with a random effect for states adjusting for confounding by demographic, socioeconomic and long-term environmental variables. Only those areas where UVB was too low to induce significant cutaneous vitamin D3 synthesis were modelled. We used satellite-derived estimates of UVA, UVB and temperature and relative humidity. Replication models were undertaken using comparable data for England and Italy. RESULTS: The mortality rate ratio (MRR) in the USA falls by 29% [95% confidence interval (CI) 40% to 15%) per 100 kJ m-2 increase in mean daily UVA. We replicated this in independent studies in Italy and England and estimate a pooled decline in MRR of 32% (95% CI 48% to 12%) per 100 kJ m-2 across the three studies. CONCLUSIONS: Our analysis suggests that higher ambient UVA exposure is associated with lower COVID-19-specific mortality. Further research on the mechanism may indicate novel treatments. Optimized UVA exposure may have population health benefits.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Humans , Italy , RNA, Viral , SARS-CoV-2 , Ultraviolet Rays/adverse effects , United States/epidemiology
11.
Front Immunol ; 12: 646095, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1170086

ABSTRACT

Background: The association of pro-inflammatory markers such as interleukin-6 (IL-6) and other biomarkers with severe coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is of increasing interest, however their kinetics, response to current COVID-related treatments, association with disease severity and comparison with other disease states associated with potential cytokine storm (CS) such as Staphylococcus aureus bacteraemia (SAB) are ill-defined. Methods: A cohort of 55 hospitalized SARS-CoV-2 positive patients was prospectively recruited - blood sampling was performed at baseline, post-treatment and hospital discharge. Serum IL-6, C-reactive protein (CRP) and other laboratory investigations were compared between treatment groups and across timepoints. Acute serum IL-6 and CRP levels were then compared to those with suspected COVID-19 (SCOVID) and age and sex matched patients with SAB and patients hospitalized for any non-infectious condition (NIC). Results: IL-6 was elevated at admission in the SARS-CoV-2 cohort but at lower levels compared to matched SAB patients. Median (IQR) IL-6 at admission was 73.89 pg/mL (30.9, 126.39) in SARS-CoV-2 compared to 92.76 pg/mL (21.75, 246.55) in SAB (p=0.017); 12.50 pg/mL (3.06, 35.77) in patients with NIC; and 95.51 pg/mL (52.17, 756.67) in SCOVID. Median IL-6 and CRP levels decreased between admission and discharge timepoints. This reduction was amplified in patients treated with remdesivir and/or dexamethasone. CRP and bedside vital signs were the strongest predictors of COVID-19 severity. Conclusions: Knowledge of the kinetics of IL-6 did not offer enhanced predictive value for disease severity in COVID-19 over common investigations such as CRP and vital signs.


Subject(s)
Bacteremia/blood , Biomarkers/blood , C-Reactive Protein/metabolism , COVID-19/blood , COVID-19/physiopathology , Interleukin-6/blood , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/blood , Staphylococcal Infections/blood , Adenosine Monophosphate/analogs & derivatives , Adenosine Monophosphate/therapeutic use , Adult , Aged , Alanine/analogs & derivatives , Alanine/therapeutic use , Anti-Inflammatory Agents/therapeutic use , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/drug therapy , Cohort Studies , Comorbidity , Dexamethasone/therapeutic use , Female , Humans , Longitudinal Studies , Male , Middle Aged , Prospective Studies , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/complications , Severity of Illness Index
12.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(6)2021 Mar 20.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1143520

ABSTRACT

The recent pandemic Sars-CoV2 infection and studies on previous influenza epidemic have drawn attention to the association between the obesity and infectious diseases susceptibility and worse outcome. Metabolic complications, nutritional aspects, physical inactivity, and a chronic unbalance in the hormonal and adipocytokine microenvironment are major determinants in the severity of viral infections in obesity. By these pleiotropic mechanisms obesity impairs immune surveillance and the higher leptin concentrations produced by adipose tissue and that characterize obesity substantially contribute to such immune response dysregulation. Indeed, leptin not only controls energy balance and body weight, but also plays a regulatory role in the interplay between energy metabolism and immune system. Since leptin receptor is expressed throughout the immune system, leptin may exert effects on cells of both innate and adaptive immune system. Chronic inflammatory states due to metabolic (i.e., obesity) as well as infectious diseases increase leptin concentrations and consequently lead to leptin resistance further fueling inflammation. Multiple factors, including inflammation and ER stress, contribute to leptin resistance. Thus, if leptin is recognized as one of the adipokines responsible for the low grade inflammation found in obesity, on the other hand, impairments of leptin signaling due to leptin resistance appear to blunt the immunologic effects of leptin and possibly contribute to impaired vaccine-induced immune responses. However, many aspects concerning leptin interactions with inflammation and immune system as well as the therapeutical approaches to overcome leptin resistance and reduced vaccine effectiveness in obesity remain a challenge for future research.


Subject(s)
Leptin/immunology , Leptin/metabolism , Obesity/complications , Obesity/virology , Virus Diseases/complications , Animals , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/drug therapy , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/metabolism , Energy Metabolism/immunology , Humans , Immune System/metabolism , Immune System/virology , Obesity/immunology , Obesity/metabolism , Viral Vaccines/therapeutic use , Virus Diseases/drug therapy , Virus Diseases/immunology , Virus Diseases/metabolism
13.
Clin Nutr ; 40(4): 1637-1643, 2021 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1116485

ABSTRACT

The high prevalence of obesity and obesity-related comorbidities has reached pandemic proportions, particularly in Western countries. Obesity increases the risk to develop several chronic noncommunicable disease, ultimately contributing to reduced survival. Recently, obesity has been recognized as major risk factor for coronavirus disease-19 (COVID-19)-related prognosis, contributing to worse outcomes in those with established COVID-19. Particularly, obesity has been associated with higher hospitalization rates in acute or intensive care and greater risk for invasive mechanical ventilation than lean people. Obesity is characterized by metabolic impairments and chronic low-grade systemic inflammation that causes a pro-inflammatory microenvironment, further aggravating the cytokine production and risk of cytokine storm response during Sars-Cov2 sepsis or other secondary infections. Moreover, the metabolic dysregulations are closely related to an impaired immune system and altered response to viral infection that can ultimately lead to a greater susceptibility to infections, longer viral shedding and greater duration of illness and severity of the disease. In individuals with obesity, maintaining a healthy diet, remaining physically active and reducing sedentary behaviors are particularly important during COVID-19-related quarantine to reduce metabolic and immune impairments. Moreover, such stategies are of utmost importance to reduce the risk for sarcopenia and sarcopenic obesity, and to prevent a reduction and potentially even increase cardiorespiratory fitness, a well-known independent risk factor for cardiovascular and metabolic diseases and recently found to be a risk factor also for hospitalizations secondary to COVID-19. Such lifestyle strategies may ultimately reduce morbility and mortality in patients with infectious disease, especially in those with concomitant obesity. The aim of this review is to discuss how obesity might increase the risk of COVID-19 and potentially affect its prognosis once COVID-19 is diagnosed. We therefore advocate for implementation of strategies aimed at preventing obesity in the first place, but also to minimize the metabolic anomalies that may lead to a compromized immune response and chronic low-grade systemic inflammation, especially in patients with COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Disease Susceptibility/epidemiology , Obesity/epidemiology , Obesity/prevention & control , COVID-19/immunology , Cardiorespiratory Fitness/physiology , Comorbidity , Diet/standards , Disease Susceptibility/immunology , Exercise/physiology , Humans , Obesity/immunology , Prognosis , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2 , Severity of Illness Index
14.
Nutrients ; 13(1)2021 Jan 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1067765

ABSTRACT

Reduced magnesium (Mg) intake is a frequent cause of deficiency with age together with reduced absorption, renal wasting, and polypharmacotherapy. Chronic Mg deficiency may result in increased oxidative stress and low-grade inflammation, which may be linked to several age-related diseases, including higher predisposition to infectious diseases. Mg might play a role in the immune response being a cofactor for immunoglobulin synthesis and other processes strictly associated with the function of T and B cells. Mg is necessary for the biosynthesis, transport, and activation of vitamin D, another key factor in the pathogenesis of infectious diseases. The regulation of cytosolic free Mg in immune cells involves Mg transport systems, such as the melastatin-like transient receptor potential 7 channel, the solute carrier family, and the magnesium transporter 1 (MAGT1). The functional importance of Mg transport in immunity was unknown until the description of the primary immunodeficiency XMEN (X-linked immunodeficiency with Mg defect, Epstein-Barr virus infection, and neoplasia) due to a genetic deficiency of MAGT1 characterized by chronic Epstein-Barr virus infection. This and other research reporting associations of Mg deficit with viral and bacterial infections indicate a possible role of Mg deficit in the recent coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) and its complications. In this review, we will discuss the importance of Mg for the immune system and for infectious diseases, including the recent pandemic of COVID-19.


Subject(s)
Aging/physiology , COVID-19/metabolism , Communicable Diseases/metabolism , Magnesium Deficiency/complications , Magnesium/metabolism , Aged , COVID-19/etiology , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/virology , Cation Transport Proteins/metabolism , Communicable Diseases/immunology , Communicable Diseases/microbiology , Communicable Diseases/virology , Epstein-Barr Virus Infections/metabolism , Female , Humans , Magnesium/immunology , Magnesium Deficiency/immunology , Magnesium Deficiency/metabolism , Male , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , X-Linked Combined Immunodeficiency Diseases/metabolism
15.
Sensors (Basel) ; 21(2)2021 Jan 13.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1058521

ABSTRACT

São Paulo is the most populous state in Brazil, home to around 22% of the country's population. The total number of Covid-19-infected people in São Paulo has reached more than 1 million, while its total death toll stands at 25% of all the country's fatalities. Joining the Brazilian academia efforts in the fight against Covid-19, in this paper we describe a unified framework for monitoring and forecasting the Covid-19 progress in the state of São Paulo. More specifically, a freely available, online platform to collect and exploit Covid-19 time-series data is presented, supporting decision-makers while still allowing the general public to interact with data from different regions of the state. Moreover, a novel forecasting data-driven method has also been proposed, by combining the so-called Susceptible-Infectious-Recovered-Deceased model with machine learning strategies to better fit the mathematical model's coefficients for predicting Infections, Recoveries, Deaths, and Viral Reproduction Numbers. We show that the obtained predictor is capable of dealing with badly conditioned data samples while still delivering accurate 10-day predictions. Our integrated computational system can be used for guiding government actions mainly in two basic aspects: real-time data assessment and dynamic predictions of Covid-19 curves for different regions of the state. We extend our analysis and investigation to inspect the virus spreading in Brazil in its regions. Finally, experiments involving the Covid-19 advance in other countries are also given.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Brazil/epidemiology , COVID-19/virology , Data Interpretation, Statistical , Forecasting , Humans , Machine Learning , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification
16.
Hematology Am Soc Hematol Educ Program ; 2020(1): 319-327, 2020 12 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1043090

ABSTRACT

Corticosteroids constitute a first-line therapy for adults and children suffering from nonmalignant immune-mediated hematologic diseases. However, high disease relapse rates during the tapering period or upon drug discontinuation result in long-term corticosteroid use that increases the risk of infection. This same concept applies to other immunosuppressive agents, such as antimetabolites, calcineurin inhibitors, and cyclophosphamide. Corticosteroids are associated with a length-of-treatment and dose-dependent risk for infection. Screening and antimicrobial prophylaxis against tuberculosis, hepatitis B, Strongyloides stercoralis, and Pneumocystis jirovecii pneumonia (PJP) might be indicated in patients who are scheduled to be on high-dose corticosteroids for >4 weeks (>30 mg of prednisone-equivalent dose [PEQ]) or in patients chronically treated (≥8 weeks of continuous or intermittent corticosteroid use) with moderate doses (≥15 to <30 mg PEQ). Antimetabolites (azathioprine, mycophenolate) increase the risk of progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy (PML); however, other opportunistic infections and viral reactivation have also been reported. In case of new onset of neurological symptoms, PML needs to be considered, and an urgent neurology consultation should be obtained. Cyclophosphamide-induced myelosuppression can lead to serious infections related to neutropenia. PJP prophylaxis should be considered with combination therapy of cyclophosphamide and corticosteroids until a PEQ dose ≤ 5 mg/d is reached. Data on infectious risk when cyclosporine is used in patients with nonmalignant hematologic diseases are lacking. Discontinuation of any immunosuppressive agent during an episode of infection is recommended. In all patients, adherence to an age-based immunization schedule is appropriate.


Subject(s)
Adrenal Cortex Hormones/adverse effects , Antimetabolites/adverse effects , Cyclophosphamide/adverse effects , Cyclosporine/adverse effects , Immunosuppressive Agents/adverse effects , Infections/chemically induced , Adrenal Cortex Hormones/therapeutic use , Aged , Antimetabolites/therapeutic use , Cyclophosphamide/therapeutic use , Cyclosporine/therapeutic use , Female , Hematologic Diseases/drug therapy , Herpes Zoster/chemically induced , Herpes Zoster/prevention & control , Humans , Immunosuppressive Agents/therapeutic use , Infection Control , Pneumonia, Pneumocystis/chemically induced , Pneumonia, Pneumocystis/prevention & control , Strongyloidiasis/chemically induced , Strongyloidiasis/prevention & control
17.
Sensors (Basel) ; 21(2)2021 Jan 13.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1027297

ABSTRACT

São Paulo is the most populous state in Brazil, home to around 22% of the country's population. The total number of Covid-19-infected people in São Paulo has reached more than 1 million, while its total death toll stands at 25% of all the country's fatalities. Joining the Brazilian academia efforts in the fight against Covid-19, in this paper we describe a unified framework for monitoring and forecasting the Covid-19 progress in the state of São Paulo. More specifically, a freely available, online platform to collect and exploit Covid-19 time-series data is presented, supporting decision-makers while still allowing the general public to interact with data from different regions of the state. Moreover, a novel forecasting data-driven method has also been proposed, by combining the so-called Susceptible-Infectious-Recovered-Deceased model with machine learning strategies to better fit the mathematical model's coefficients for predicting Infections, Recoveries, Deaths, and Viral Reproduction Numbers. We show that the obtained predictor is capable of dealing with badly conditioned data samples while still delivering accurate 10-day predictions. Our integrated computational system can be used for guiding government actions mainly in two basic aspects: real-time data assessment and dynamic predictions of Covid-19 curves for different regions of the state. We extend our analysis and investigation to inspect the virus spreading in Brazil in its regions. Finally, experiments involving the Covid-19 advance in other countries are also given.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Brazil/epidemiology , COVID-19/virology , Data Interpretation, Statistical , Forecasting , Humans , Machine Learning , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification
18.
Eur J Clin Invest ; 51(3): e13490, 2021 Mar.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1020570

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: There is an ongoing debate on a potential protective role of habitual physical activity and passive heat therapy on the risk of COVID-19, a respiratory infectious disease that can manifest as severe pneumonia. To explore these putative roles, we evaluated the independent and joint associations of cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF) and frequency of sauna bathing (FSB) with pneumonia risk in a prospective cohort study of 2275 men aged 42-61 years at recruitment. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Objectively measured CRF and self-reported sauna bathing habits were assessed at baseline. CRF was categorized as low and high (median cut-offs) and FSB as low and high (defined as ≤1 and 2-7 sessions/wk, respectively). Multivariable-adjusted hazard ratios (HRs) with confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated for incident pneumonia. RESULTS: During a median follow-up of 26.6 years, 529 cases of pneumonia occurred. Comparing high vs low CRF, the multivariable-adjusted HR (95% CIs) for pneumonia was 0.75 (0.61-0.91). Comparing high vs low FSB, the corresponding HR was 0.81 (0.68-0.97). Compared to men with low CRF & low FSB, the multivariable-adjusted HRs of pneumonia for the following groups: high CRF & low FSB; low CRF & high FSB; and high CRF & high FSB were 0.88 (0.65-1.20), 0.89 (0.71-1.13), and 0.62 (0.48-0.80) respectively. CONCLUSIONS: In a general male Caucasian population, a combination of high fitness levels and frequent sauna baths is associated with a substantially lowered future pneumonia risk compared with each modality alone. The implications of these findings in altering COVID-19 disease or its severity deserve study.


Subject(s)
Cardiorespiratory Fitness , Pneumonia/epidemiology , Steam Bath/statistics & numerical data , COVID-19/epidemiology , Cohort Studies , Finland/epidemiology , Humans , Incidence , Male , Middle Aged , Multivariate Analysis , Prospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Safety Management
19.
Nutrients ; 13(1)2021 Jan 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1016214

ABSTRACT

Reduced magnesium (Mg) intake is a frequent cause of deficiency with age together with reduced absorption, renal wasting, and polypharmacotherapy. Chronic Mg deficiency may result in increased oxidative stress and low-grade inflammation, which may be linked to several age-related diseases, including higher predisposition to infectious diseases. Mg might play a role in the immune response being a cofactor for immunoglobulin synthesis and other processes strictly associated with the function of T and B cells. Mg is necessary for the biosynthesis, transport, and activation of vitamin D, another key factor in the pathogenesis of infectious diseases. The regulation of cytosolic free Mg in immune cells involves Mg transport systems, such as the melastatin-like transient receptor potential 7 channel, the solute carrier family, and the magnesium transporter 1 (MAGT1). The functional importance of Mg transport in immunity was unknown until the description of the primary immunodeficiency XMEN (X-linked immunodeficiency with Mg defect, Epstein-Barr virus infection, and neoplasia) due to a genetic deficiency of MAGT1 characterized by chronic Epstein-Barr virus infection. This and other research reporting associations of Mg deficit with viral and bacterial infections indicate a possible role of Mg deficit in the recent coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) and its complications. In this review, we will discuss the importance of Mg for the immune system and for infectious diseases, including the recent pandemic of COVID-19.


Subject(s)
Aging/physiology , COVID-19/metabolism , Communicable Diseases/metabolism , Magnesium Deficiency/complications , Magnesium/metabolism , Aged , COVID-19/etiology , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/virology , Cation Transport Proteins/metabolism , Communicable Diseases/immunology , Communicable Diseases/microbiology , Communicable Diseases/virology , Epstein-Barr Virus Infections/metabolism , Female , Humans , Magnesium/immunology , Magnesium Deficiency/immunology , Magnesium Deficiency/metabolism , Male , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , X-Linked Combined Immunodeficiency Diseases/metabolism
20.
Acute Crit Care ; 35(4): 263-270, 2020 Nov.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1000457

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is a highly contagious disease that causes respiratory failure. Tracheostomy is an essential procedure in critically ill COVID-19 patients; however, it is an aerosol-generating technique and thus carries the risk of infection transmission. We report our experience with percutaneous tracheostomy and its safety in a real medical setting. METHODS: During the COVID-19 outbreak, 13 critically ill patients were admitted to the intensive care unit (ICU) at Daegu Catholic University Medical Center between February 24 and April 30, 2020. Seven of these patients underwent percutaneous tracheostomy using Ciaglia Blue Rhino. The medical environment, percutaneous tracheostomy method, and COVID-19 reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) results were retrospectively reviewed. After treatment, the COVID-19 infection status of healthcare personnel was investigated by RT-PCR. RESULTS: The ICU contained negative pressure cohort areas and isolation rooms, and healthcare personnel wore a powered air-purifying respirator system. We performed seven cases of percutaneous tracheostomy in the same way as in patients without COVID-19. Five patients (71.4%) tested positive for COVID-19 by RT-PCR at the time of tracheostomy. The median cycle threshold value for the RNA-dependent RNA polymerase was 30.60 (interquartile range [IQR], 25.50-36.56) in the upper respiratory tract and 35.04 (IQR, 28.40-36.74) in the lower respiratory tract. All healthcare personnel tested negative for COVID-19 by RT-PCR. CONCLUSIONS: Percutaneous tracheostomy was performed with conventional methods in the negative pressure cohort area. It was safe to perform percutaneous tracheostomy in an environment of COVID-19 infection.

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