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1.
J Med Internet Res ; 23(2): e23390, 2021 02 22.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1574113

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The initial symptoms of patients with COVID-19 are very much like those of patients with community-acquired pneumonia (CAP); it is difficult to distinguish COVID-19 from CAP with clinical symptoms and imaging examination. OBJECTIVE: The objective of our study was to construct an effective model for the early identification of COVID-19 that would also distinguish it from CAP. METHODS: The clinical laboratory indicators (CLIs) of 61 COVID-19 patients and 60 CAP patients were analyzed retrospectively. Random combinations of various CLIs (ie, CLI combinations) were utilized to establish COVID-19 versus CAP classifiers with machine learning algorithms, including random forest classifier (RFC), logistic regression classifier, and gradient boosting classifier (GBC). The performance of the classifiers was assessed by calculating the area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUROC) and recall rate in COVID-19 prediction using the test data set. RESULTS: The classifiers that were constructed with three algorithms from 43 CLI combinations showed high performance (recall rate >0.9 and AUROC >0.85) in COVID-19 prediction for the test data set. Among the high-performance classifiers, several CLIs showed a high usage rate; these included procalcitonin (PCT), mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration (MCHC), uric acid, albumin, albumin to globulin ratio (AGR), neutrophil count, red blood cell (RBC) count, monocyte count, basophil count, and white blood cell (WBC) count. They also had high feature importance except for basophil count. The feature combination (FC) of PCT, AGR, uric acid, WBC count, neutrophil count, basophil count, RBC count, and MCHC was the representative one among the nine FCs used to construct the classifiers with an AUROC equal to 1.0 when using the RFC or GBC algorithms. Replacing any CLI in these FCs would lead to a significant reduction in the performance of the classifiers that were built with them. CONCLUSIONS: The classifiers constructed with only a few specific CLIs could efficiently distinguish COVID-19 from CAP, which could help clinicians perform early isolation and centralized management of COVID-19 patients.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/diagnosis , Community-Acquired Infections/diagnosis , Machine Learning , Pneumonia/diagnosis , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Area Under Curve , COVID-19/blood , COVID-19/virology , Community-Acquired Infections/blood , Female , Humans , Laboratories , Leukocyte Count , Logistic Models , Male , Middle Aged , Pneumonia/blood , Procalcitonin/blood , ROC Curve , Retrospective Studies
2.
BMC Infect Dis ; 21(1): 327, 2021 Apr 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1173614

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Previous studies found that S100A9 may involve in the pathophysiology of community-acquired pneumonia (CAP). However, the role of S100A9 was unclear in the CAP. The goal was to explore the correlations of serum S100A9 with the severity and prognosis of CAP patients based on a prospective cohort study. METHODS: A total of 220 CAP patients and 110 control subjects were recruited. Demographic and clinical data were collected. Serum S100A9 and inflammatory cytokines were measured. RESULTS: Serum S100A9 was elevated in CAP patients on admission. Serum S100A9 was gradually elevated parallelly with CAP severity scores. Additionally, inflammatory cytokines were increased and blood routine parameters were changed in CAP patients compared with control subjects. Correlation analysis found that serum S100A9 was positively associated with CAP severity scores, blood routine parameters (WBC, NLR and MON) and inflammatory cytokines. Further, logistic regression analysis demonstrated that there were positive associations between serum S100A9 and CAP severity scores. Besides, the prognosis of CAP was tracked. Serum higher S100A9 on the early stage elevated the death of risk and hospital stay among CAP patients. CONCLUSION: Serum S100A9 is positively correlated with the severity of CAP. On admission, serum higher S100A9 elevates the risk of death and hospital stay in CAP patients, suggesting that S100A9 may exert a certain role in the pathophysiology of CAP and regard as a serum diagnostic and managing biomarker for CAP.


Subject(s)
Calgranulin B/blood , Community-Acquired Infections/blood , Pneumonia/blood , Aged , Biomarkers/blood , Cohort Studies , Community-Acquired Infections/diagnosis , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Patient Acuity , Pneumonia/diagnosis , Prognosis , Prospective Studies
3.
SAGE Open Med ; 9: 20503121211020167, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1262485

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: The majority of patients with COVID-19 showed mild symptoms. However, approximately 5% of them were critically ill and require intensive care unit admission for advanced life supports. Patients in the intensive care unit were high risk for venous thromboembolism and hemorrhage due to the immobility and anticoagulants used during advanced life supports. The aim of the study was to report the incidence and treatments of the two complications in such patients. METHOD: Patients with COVID-19 (Group 1) and patients with community-acquired pneumonia (Group 2) that required intensive care unit admission were enrolled in this retrospective study. Their demographics, laboratory results, ultrasound findings and complications such as venous thromboembolism and hemorrhage were collected and compared. RESULTS: Thirty-four patients with COVID-19 and 51 patients with community-acquired pneumonia were included. The mean ages were 66 and 63 years in Groups 1 and 2, respectively. Venous thromboembolism was detected in 6 (18%) patients with COVID-19 and 18 (35%) patients with community-acquired pneumonia (P = 0.09). The major type was distal deep venous thrombosis. Twenty-one bleeding events occurred in 12 (35%) patients with COVID-19 and 5 bleeding events occurred in 5 (10%) patients with community-acquired pneumonia, respectively (P = 0.01). Gastrointestinal system was the most common source of bleeding. With the exception of one death due to intracranial bleeding, blood transfusion with or without surgical/endoscopic treatments was able to manage the bleeding in the remaining patients. Multivariable logistic regression showed increasing odds of hemorrhage with extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (odds ratio: 13.9, 95% confidence interval: 4.0-48.1) and COVID-19 (odds ratio: 4.7, 95% confidence interval: 1.2-17.9). CONCLUSION: Venous thromboembolism and hemorrhage were common in both groups. The predominant type of venous thromboembolism was distal deep venous thrombosis, which presented a low risk of progression. COVID-19 and extracorporeal membrane oxygenation were risk factors for hemorrhage. Blood transfusion with or without surgical/endoscopic treatments was able to manage it in most cases.

4.
Respir Med Res ; 79: 100826, 2021 May.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1221020

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Early recognition of the severe illness is critical in coronavirus disease-19 (COVID-19) to provide best care and optimize the use of limited resources. OBJECTIVES: We aimed to determine the predictive properties of common community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) severity scores and COVID-19 specific indices. METHODS: In this retrospective cohort, COVID-19 patients hospitalized in a teaching hospital between 18 March-20 May 2020 were included. Demographic, clinical, and laboratory characteristics related to severity and mortality were measured and CURB-65, PSI, A-DROP, CALL, and COVID-GRAM scores were calculated as defined previously in the literature. Progression to severe disease and in-hospital/overall mortality during the follow-up of the patients were determined from electronic records. Kaplan-Meier, log-rank test, and Cox proportional hazard regression model was used. The discrimination capability of pneumonia severity indices was evaluated by receiver-operating-characteristic (ROC) analysis. RESULTS: Two hundred ninety-eight patients were included in the study. Sixty-two patients (20.8%) presented with severe COVID-19 while thirty-one (10.4%) developed severe COVID-19 at any time from the admission. In-hospital mortality was 39 (13.1%) while the overall mortality was 44 (14.8%). The mortality in low-risk groups that were identified to manage outside the hospital was 0 in CALL Class A, 1.67% in PSI low risk, and 2.68% in CURB-65 low-risk. However, the AUCs for the mortality prediction in COVID-19 were 0.875, 0.873, 0.859, 0.855, and 0.828 for A-DROP, PSI, CURB-65, COVID-GRAM, and CALL scores respectively. The AUCs for the prediction of progression to severe disease was 0.739, 0.711, 0,697, 0.673, and 0.668 for CURB-65, CALL, PSI, COVID-GRAM, A-DROP respectively. The hazard ratios (HR) for the tested pneumonia severity indices demonstrated that A-DROP and CURB-65 scores had the strongest association with mortality, and PSI, and COVID-GRAM scores predicted mortality independent from age and comorbidity. CONCLUSION: Community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) scores can predict in COVID-19. The indices proposed specifically to COVID-19 work less than nonspecific scoring systems surprisingly. The CALL score may be used to decide outpatient management in COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/mortality , Severity of Illness Index , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Cohort Studies , Disease Progression , Female , Hospital Mortality , Hospitalization , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Prognosis , Retrospective Studies , Turkey/epidemiology
5.
J Med Virol ; 93(5): 3113-3121, 2021 May.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1196540

ABSTRACT

The clinical symptoms of community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) and coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19)-associated pneumonia are similar. Effective predictive markers are needed to differentiate COVID-19 pneumonia from CAP in the current pandemic conditions. Copeptin, a 39-aminoacid glycopeptide, is a C-terminal part of the precursor pre-provasopressin (pre-proAVP). The activation of the AVP system stimulates copeptin secretion in equimolar amounts with AVP. This study aims to determine serum copeptin levels in patients with CAP and COVID-19 pneumonia and to analyze the power of copeptin in predicting COVID-19 pneumonia. The study consists of 98 patients with COVID-19 and 44 patients with CAP. The basic demographic and clinical data of all patients were recorded, and blood samples were collected. The receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve was generated and the area under the ROC curve (AUC) was measured to evaluate the discriminative ability. Serum copeptin levels were significantly higher in COVID-19 patients compared to CAP patients (10.2 ± 4.4 ng/ml and 7.1 ± 3.1 ng/ml; p < .001). Serum copeptin levels were positively correlated with leukocyte, neutrophil, and platelet count (r = -.21, p = .012; r = -.21, p = .013; r = -.20, p = .018; respectively). The multivariable logistic regression analysis revealed that increased copeptin (odds ratio [OR] = 1.183, 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.033-1.354; p = .015) and CK-MB (OR = 1.052, 95% CI, 1.013-1.092; p = .008) levels and decreased leukocyte count (OR = 0.829, 95% CI, 0.730-0.940; p = .004) were independent predictors of COVID-19 pneumonia. A cut-off value of 6.83 ng/ml for copeptin predicted COVID-19 with a sensitivity of 78% and a specificity of 73% (AUC: 0.764% 95 Cl: 0.671-0.856, p < .001). Copeptin could be a promising and useful biomarker to be used to distinguish COVID-19 patients from CAP patients.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/diagnosis , Glycopeptides/blood , Pneumonia, Bacterial/diagnosis , SARS-CoV-2 , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Biomarkers/blood , Community-Acquired Infections , Female , Glycopeptides/metabolism , Humans , Logistic Models , Male , Middle Aged
6.
Cent Eur J Public Health ; 29(1): 3-8, 2021 Mar.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1173112

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: The aim of the study was to obtain data on demands on the intensive care capacities to treat COVID-19 patients, and to identify predictors for in-hospital mortality. METHODS: The prospective observational multicentre study carried out from 1 March till 30 June 2020 included adult patients with confirmed SARS-CoV-2 infection with respiratory failure requiring ventilatory support or high-flow nasal oxygen therapy (HFNO). RESULTS: Seventy-four patients, 46 males and 28 females, median age 67.5 (Q1-Q3: 56-75) years, were included. Sixty-four patients (86.5%) had comorbidity. Sixty-six patients (89.2%) were mechanically ventilated, four of them received extracorporeal membrane oxygenation therapy. Eight patients (10.8%) were treated with non-invasive ventilation and HFNO only. The median of intensive care unit (ICU) stay was 22.5 days. Eighteen patients (24.3%) needed continuous renal replacement therapy. Thirty patients (40.5%) died. Age and acute kidney injury were identified as independent predictors of in-hospital death, and chronic kidney disease showed trend towards statistical significance for poor outcome. CONCLUSIONS: Sufficient number of intensive care beds, organ support equipment and well-trained staff is a decisive factor in managing the COVID-19 epidemic. The study focused on the needs of intensive care in the COVID-19 patients. Advanced age and acute kidney injury were identified as independent predictors for in-hospital mortality. When compared to clinical course and ICU management of patients with severe community-acquired pneumonia caused by other pathogens, we observed prolonged need for ventilatory support, high rate of progression to acute respiratory distress syndrome and significant mortality in studied population.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Adult , Aged , Critical Care , Female , Hospital Mortality , Humans , Male , Prospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2
7.
Clin Radiol ; 76(7): 549.e17-549.e24, 2021 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1163598

ABSTRACT

AIM: To compare the incidence of pulmonary embolism (PE) in COVID-19 pneumonia and non-COVID-19-related community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) in hospitalised patients. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A retrospective case-control study was conducted. This included patients hospitalised with pneumonia and investigated for suspected PE with computed tomography pulmonary angiogram (CTPA). Cases were defined as patients with COVID-19 pneumonia from 1 March 2020 to 17 May 2020; controls were patients with CAP from 5 July 2019 to 31 January 2020. The primary outcome was to determine the risk of developing PE in both groups. Multivariable logistic regression was used to calculate the adjusted odds ratio for PE. RESULTS: One hundred and forty-four patients were included; 72 cases (47% male; mean age 59 (±15) years), and 72 controls (56% male; mean age 58 (±20) years). PE was diagnosed in 23.6% of the cases versus 6.9% of the controls. The adjusted odds ratio for PE in hospitalised patients with COVID-19 pneumonia compared with those with CAP was 3.23 (95% confidence interval [CI] 1.04-10.04, p=0.04). CONCLUSION: The odds of developing PE in hospitalised patients with COVID-19 pneumonia are three-times higher than in those with CAP. The results provide a quantitative assessment of the risk of PE in COVID-19 pneumonia, a condition new to healthcare, compared to other forms of pneumonia with a well-established scientific basis.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Pneumonia/epidemiology , Pulmonary Embolism/epidemiology , Acute Disease , Case-Control Studies , Community-Acquired Infections/diagnostic imaging , Community-Acquired Infections/epidemiology , Comorbidity , Computed Tomography Angiography/methods , Female , Humans , Lung/diagnostic imaging , Male , Middle Aged , Pneumonia/diagnostic imaging , Pulmonary Embolism/diagnostic imaging , Retrospective Studies , Risk Assessment , SARS-CoV-2 , United Kingdom/epidemiology
8.
Curr Opin Infect Dis ; 34(2): 135-141, 2021 04 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1038330

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The purpose of this review is to address the relevant issues surrounding older adults with community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) today. RECENT FINDINGS: Approximately 1 million people >65 years have CAP in the US per year, which is more than previously reported (or realized). Older adults are vulnerable to the increasing prevalence of viral CAP, as the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic emphasizes, but pneumococcus is still the most common pathogen to cause CAP. Racial disparities continue to need to be addressed in order to improve early and late outcomes of older adults with CAP. SUMMARY: The epidemiology of CAP, specifically for older adults is changing. More recent pathogen incidence studies have included culture, as well as newer microbiological methods to determine etiology. Current disparities among disadvantaged populations, including African-Americans, result in more comorbidities which predisposes to more severe CAP. However, outcomes in the hospital between races tend to be similar, and outcomes between age groups tends to be worse for older compared to younger adults. Finally, the cost of CAP is significant compared to diabetes mellitus, myocardial infarction and stroke.


Subject(s)
Pneumonia/epidemiology , Aged , Community-Acquired Infections/economics , Community-Acquired Infections/epidemiology , Community-Acquired Infections/etiology , Cost of Illness , Demography , Healthcare Disparities , Humans , Pneumonia/economics , Pneumonia/etiology , Severity of Illness Index , Treatment Outcome
9.
J Infect Chemother ; 27(2): 336-341, 2021 Feb.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-978337

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: In patients with severe coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), respiratory failure is a major complication and its symptoms occur around one week after onset. The CURB-65, A-DROP and expanded CURB-65 tools are known to predict the risk of mortality in patients with community-acquired pneumonia. In this retrospective single-center retrospective study, we aimed to assess the correlations of the A-DROP, CURB-65, and expanded CURB-65 scores on admission with an increase in oxygen requirement in patients with severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) pneumonia. METHODS: We retrospectively analyzed 207 patients who were hospitalized with SARS-CoV-2 pneumonia at the Self-Defense Forces Central Hospital in Tokyo, Japan. Performance of A-DROP, CURB-65, and the expanded CURB-65 scores were validated. In addition, we assessed whether there were any associations between an increase in oxygen requirement and known risk factors for critical illness in COVID-19, including elevation of liver enzymes and C-reactive protein (CRP), lymphocytopenia, high D-dimer levels and the chest computed tomography (CT) score. RESULTS: The areas under the curve for the ability of CURB-65, A-DROP, and the expanded CURB-65 scores to predict an increase in oxygen requirement were 0.6961, 0.6980 and 0.8327, respectively, and the differences between the three groups were statistically significant (p < 0.001). Comorbid cardiovascular disease, lymphocytopenia, elevated CRP, liver enzyme and D-dimer levels, and higher chest CT score were significantly associated with an increase in oxygen requirement CONCLUSIONS: The expanded CURB-65 score can be a better predictor of an increase in oxygen requirement in patients with SARS-CoV-2 pneumonia.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/therapy , Oxygen Inhalation Therapy/methods , Severity of Illness Index , Adult , Aged , C-Reactive Protein/analysis , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/mortality , Female , Fibrin Fibrinogen Degradation Products/analysis , Humans , Lymphopenia/epidemiology , Male , Middle Aged , Pneumonia, Viral/mortality , Pneumonia, Viral/therapy , Prognosis , Respiratory Insufficiency/epidemiology , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2 , Tokyo , Tomography, X-Ray Computed
10.
J Thromb Thrombolysis ; 50(3): 548-557, 2020 Oct.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-592260

ABSTRACT

In the recent outbreak of novel coronavirus infection worldwide, the risk of thrombosis and bleeding should be concerned. We aimed to observe the dynamic changes of D-dimer levels during disease progression to evaluate their value for thrombosis. In this study, we report the clinical and laboratory results of 57 patients with confirmed COVID-19 pneumonia and 46 patients with confirmed community-acquired bacterial pneumonia (CAP). And their concentrations of D-dimer, infection-related biomarkers, and conventional coagulation were retrospectively analyzed. The Padua prediction score is used to identify patients at high risk for venous thromboembolism (VTE). The results found that, on admission, both in COVID-19 patients and CAP patients, D-dimer levels were significantly increased, and compared with CAP patients, D-dimer levels were higher in COVID-19 patients (P < 0.05). Besides, we found that in COVID-19 patients, D-dimer were related with markers of inflammation, especially with hsCRP (R = 0.426, P < 0.05). However, there was low correlation between VTE score and D-dimer levels (Spearman's R = 0.264, P > 0.05) weakened the role of D-dimer in the prediction of thrombosis. After treatments, D-dimer levels decreased which was synchronous with hsCRP levels in patients with good clinical prognosis, but there were still some patients with anomalous increasing D-dimer levels after therapy. In conclusion, elevated baseline D-dimer levels are associated with inflammation but not with VTE score in COVID-19 patients, suggesting that it is unreasonable to judge whether anticoagulation is needed only according to D-dimer levels. However, the abnormal changes of D-dimer and inflammatory factors suggest that anticoagulant therapy might be needed.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus/pathogenicity , Coronavirus Infections/blood , Fibrin Fibrinogen Degradation Products/metabolism , Pneumonia, Bacterial/blood , Pneumonia, Viral/blood , Venous Thromboembolism/blood , Aged , Biomarkers/blood , Blood Coagulation , C-Reactive Protein/metabolism , COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections/diagnosis , Coronavirus Infections/therapy , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Female , Host-Pathogen Interactions , Humans , Inflammation Mediators/blood , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Bacterial/diagnosis , Pneumonia, Bacterial/microbiology , Pneumonia, Bacterial/therapy , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnosis , Pneumonia, Viral/therapy , Pneumonia, Viral/virology , Retrospective Studies , Risk Assessment , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2 , Time Factors , Venous Thromboembolism/diagnosis , Venous Thromboembolism/microbiology , Venous Thromboembolism/virology
11.
J Infect ; 81(3): e96-e98, 2020 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-401340

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: The CURB-65 is a severity score to predict mortality secondary to community acquired pneumonia and is widely used to identify patients who can be managed as outpatients. However, whether CURB-65 can be applicable to COVID-19 patients for the decision of outpatient treatment is still unknown. METHODS: We conducted a retrospective single-centre study assessing the performance of the CURB-65 to predict the risk of poor outcome, defined as the need for mechanical ventilation and/or death, among patients hospitalized for COVID-19. The association between the CURB-65 and the outcome was assessed by a univariable Cox proportional hazard regression model. RESULTS: A total of 279 patients were hospitalized between March 15th and April 14th, 2020. According to the CURB-65, 171 (61.3%) patients were considered at low risk (CURB-65 01), 66 (23.7%) at intermediate risk (CURB-65=2), and 42 (15.1%) had high risk of 30-day mortality (CURB-65 35). During the study period, 88 (31.5%) patients had a poor outcome. The CURB-65 was strongly associated with a poor outcome (Pfor linear trend <0.001). However, among patients with a CURB-65 of 01, thus considered at low risk, 36/171 (21.1%) had a poor outcome. CONCLUSIONS: Our study suggests that the applicability of CURB-65 to guide the decision of inpatient or outpatient care is scarce, as it does not safely identify patients who could be managed as outpatients.


Subject(s)
Community-Acquired Infections , Coronavirus Infections , Coronavirus , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral , Pneumonia , Ambulatory Care , Betacoronavirus , COVID-19 , Humans , Outpatients , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Severity of Illness Index , United Kingdom
12.
Liver Int ; 40(9): 2095-2103, 2020 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-208654

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The SARS-CoV-2 pandemic is an ongoing global health emergency. The aim of our study was to investigate the changes of liver function and its clinical significance in COVID-19 patients. METHOD: This retrospective, single-centre study was conducted on 115 confirmed cases of COVID-19 in Zhongnan hospital of Wuhan University from 18 January 2020 to 22 February 2020. Liver function and related indexes were analysed to evaluate its relationship with disease progression in COVID-19 patients. RESULTS: Part of the COVID-19 patients presented with varying degrees of abnormality in liver function indexes. However, the levels of ALT, AST, TBIL, GGT and LDH in COVID-19 patients were not significantly different when compared with hospitalised community-acquired pneumonia patients, and the levels of albumin is even significantly higher. The levels of ALT, AST, TBIL, LDH and INR showed statistically significant elevation in severe COVID-19 cases compared with that in mild cases. However, the clinical significance of the elevation is unremarkable. Majority of severe COVID-19 patients showed significantly decreasing in albumin level and continuously decreasing in the progress of illness. Most of the liver function indexes in COVID-19 patients were correlated with CRP and NLR, the markers of inflammation. Logistic regression analysis further identified NLR as the independent risk factor for severe COVID-19, as well as age. CONCLUSIONS: Although abnormalities of liver function indexes are common in COVID-19 patients, the impairment of liver function is not a prominent feature of COVID-19, and also may not have serious clinical consequences.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/physiopathology , Liver/physiopathology , Pneumonia, Viral/physiopathology , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Betacoronavirus , C-Reactive Protein/metabolism , COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections/blood , Coronavirus Infections/pathology , Female , Humans , Intensive Care Units , Liver/enzymology , Liver/pathology , Liver Function Tests , Logistic Models , Lymphocyte Count , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/blood , Pneumonia, Viral/pathology , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Young Adult
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