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1.
Int J Clin Pract ; 75(9): e14428, 2021 Sep.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1276651

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: Older adults with co-morbidities have been reported to be at higher risk for adverse outcomes of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). The characteristics of COVID-19 in older patients and its clinical outcomes in different kidney disease groups are not well known. METHODS: Data were retrieved from a national multicentric database supported by Turkish Society of Nephrology, which consists of retrospectively collected data between 17 April 2020 and 31 December 2020. Hospitalised patients aged 18 years or older with confirmed COVID-19 diagnosis suffering from stage 3-5 chronic kidney disease (CKD) or on maintenance haemodialysis (HD) treatment were included in the database. Non-uraemic hospitalised patients with COVID-19 were also included as the control group. RESULTS: We included 879 patients [388 (44.1%) female, median age: 63 (IQR: 50-73) years]. The percentage of older patients in the CKD group was 68.8% (n = 188/273), in the HD group was 49.0% (n = 150/306) and in the control group was 30.4% (n = 70/300). Co-morbidities were higher in the CKD and HD groups. The rate of presentation with severe-critical disease was higher in the older CKD and HD groups (43.6%, 55.3% and 16.1%, respectively). Among older patients, the intensive care unit (ICU) admission rate was significantly higher in the CKD and HD groups than in the control group (38.8%, 37.3% and 15.7%, respectively). In-hospital mortality or death and/or ICU admission rates in the older group were significantly higher in the CKD (29.3% and 39.4%) and HD groups (26.7% and 30.1%) compared with the control group (8.6% and 17.1%). In the multivariate analysis, in-hospital mortality rates in CKD and HD groups were higher than control group [hazard ratio (HR): 4.33 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.53-12.26) and HR: 3.09 (95% CI: 1.04-9.17), respectively]. CONCLUSION: Among older COVID-19 patients, in-hospital mortality is significantly higher in those with stage 3-5 CKD and on maintenance HD than older patients without CKD regardless of demographic characteristics, co-morbidities, clinical and laboratory data on admission.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Renal Insufficiency, Chronic , Aged , COVID-19 Testing , Female , Hospitalization , Humans , Middle Aged , Renal Insufficiency, Chronic/complications , Renal Insufficiency, Chronic/epidemiology , Renal Insufficiency, Chronic/therapy , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2
2.
Med Clin (Barc) ; 158(6): 251-259, 2022 03 25.
Article in English, Spanish | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1253376

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To analyse susceptibility/risk of suffering COVID-19 among adults with distinct underlying medical conditions. METHODS: Population-based cohort study involving 79,083 individuals ≥50 years old in Tarragona (Southern Catalonia, Spain). Baseline cohort characteristics (demographic, pre-existing comorbidities, chronic medications and vaccinations history) were established at study start (01/03/2020) and primary outcome was laboratory-confirmed COVID-19 occurred among cohort members throughout 01/03/2020-30/06/2020. Risk of suffering COVID-19 was evaluated by Cox regression, estimating multivariable hazard ratios (HRs) adjusted for age/sex and pre-existing comorbidities. RESULTS: Across study period, 536 laboratory-confirmed COVID-19 cases were observed (mean incidence: 39.5 cases per 100,000 persons-week). In multivariable-analysis, increasing age/years (HR: 1.01; 95% CI: 1.00-1.02), nursing-home (HR: 20.19; 95% CI: 15.98-25.51), neurological disease (HR: 1.35; 95% CI: 1.03-1.77), taking diuretics (HR: 1.39; 95% CI: 1.10-1.75), antiplatelet (HR: 1.36; 95% CI: 1.05-1.76) and benzodiazepines (HR: 1.24; 95% CI: 1.00-1.53) increased risk; conversely, taking angiotensin-converting-enzyme inhibitors (HR: 0.78; 95% CI: 0.61-1.00), angiotensin-receptor-blockers (HR: 0.70; 95%CI: 0.51-0.96) and statins (HR: 0.75; 95% CI: 0.58-0.96) were associated with reduced risk. Among community-dwelling individuals, pre-existing cancer, renal and cardiac disease appeared also related with an increased risk, whereas influenza vaccination was associated with reduced risk. CONCLUSION: In a setting with relatively low incidence of COVID-19 across the first wave of pandemic period, increasing age, nursing-home residence and multiple comorbidities appear predisposing for COVID-19 among middle-aged/older adults. Conversely, statins, angiotensin-receptor blockers/inhibitors and influenza vaccination were related with decreased risk.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Aged , COVID-19/epidemiology , Cohort Studies , Humans , Middle Aged , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Spain/epidemiology
3.
Gerontol Geriatr Med ; 7: 23337214211017398, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1247568

ABSTRACT

Introduction: Complications of COVID-19 infection have been greatly investigated. The most recent studies found strong association of COVID-19 pneumonia with thromboembolism. The aim of research was to describe clinical and computed tomography pulmonary angiograms (CTPA) characteristics of COVID-19 related pulmonary artery thromboembolism (PE). Methods: All consecutive CTPA with positive PE in COVID-19 patients from University Hospital Split, from March 23, 2020 to January 31, 2021 were analyzed. Baseline data were collected from patient's electronic records. CTPA scan analysis identified PE anatomical location (i.e., main, lobar, segmental, or subsegmental). Results: A total number of 78 positive CTPA in COVID-19 patients was mainly in elderly with several co-morbidities, high D-dimer levels, at median of 14 days. CTPAs showed involvement of the entire pulmonary artery tree, mainly of the small-to medium diameter pulmonary artery branches, unilaterally (n = 31, 39,74%), and bilaterally (n = 33, 42.31%). The large-diameter branches were the most rarely affected as a single location (n = 14, 17.95%). Conclusion: PE occurred in predominantly elderly people, having several comorbidities, and high D-dimer levels. Embolic involvement of pulmonary branches of all sizes were found, the most frequent of small to medium diameter branches. Further investigation is needed to better understand mechanisms and course of the COVID-19 related PE.

4.
MEDICC Rev ; 23(2): 42, 2021 Apr.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1224445

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Advanced age and chronic disease comorbidities are indicators of poor prognosis in COVID-19 clinical progression. Fatal outcomes in patients with these characteristics are due to a dysfunctional immune response. Understanding COVID-19's immunopathogenesis helps in designing strategies to prevent and mitigate complications during treatment. OBJECTIVE: Describe the main immunopathogenic alterations of COVID-19 in patients of advanced age or with chronic non-communicable diseases. DATA ACQUISITION: We carried out a bibliographic search of primary references in PubMed, Elsevier, Science Direct and SciELO. A total of 270 articles met our initial search criteria. Duplicate articles or those unrelated to at least one chronic comorbidity, senescence or inflammation and those that studied only patient clinical characteristics, laboratory tests or treatments were excluded. Finally, our selection included 124 articles for analysis: 10 meta-analyses, 24 original research articles, 67 review articles, 9 editorials, 9 comments, 3 books and 2 websites. DEVELOPMENT: Hypertension and diabetes mellitus are the most common comorbidities in COVID-19 patients. Risk of developing severe manifestations of the disease, including death, is increased in senescent and obese patients and those with cardiovascular disease, cancer or chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Low-grade chronic inflammation is characteristic of all these conditions, reflected in a pro-inflammatory state, endothelial dysfunction, and changes to innate immunity; mainly of the monocyte-macrophage system with changes in polarization, inflammation, cytotoxicity and altered antigenic presentation. In the case of SARS-CoV-2 infection, mechanisms involved in acute inflammation overlap with the patient's pro-inflammatory state, causing immune system dysfunction. SARS-CoV-2 infection amplifies already-existing alterations, causing failures in the immune system's control mechanisms. The resulting cytokine storm causes an uncontrolled systemic inflammatory response marked by high serum levels of inflammatory biomarkers and a pro-inflammatory cytokine profile with decompensation of underlying diseases. In asthma, chronic eosinophilic inflammation protects against infection by producing a reduced interferon-mediated response and a reduced number of ACE2 receptors. CONCLUSIONS: Low-grade chronic inflammation present in advanced age and chronic diseases-but not in bronchial asthma-produces a pro-inflammatory state that triggers a dysregulated immune response, favoring development of severe forms of COVID-19 and increasing lethality.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/immunology , Inflammation/immunology , Pneumonia, Viral/immunology , Age Factors , COVID-19/pathology , Chronic Disease , Comorbidity , Cytokine Release Syndrome/immunology , Cytokine Release Syndrome/pathology , Humans , Inflammation/pathology , Pneumonia, Viral/pathology , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2
5.
PLoS One ; 16(5): e0250602, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1211717

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: We aimed to systematically identify the possible risk factors responsible for severe cases. METHODS: We searched PubMed, Embase, Web of science and Cochrane Library for epidemiological studies of confirmed COVID-19, which include information about clinical characteristics and severity of patients' disease. We analyzed the potential associations between clinical characteristics and severe cases. RESULTS: We identified a total of 41 eligible studies including 21060 patients with COVID-19. Severe cases were potentially associated with advanced age (Standard Mean Difference (SMD) = 1.73, 95% CI: 1.34-2.12), male gender (Odds Ratio (OR) = 1.51, 95% CI:1.33-1.71), obesity (OR = 1.89, 95% CI: 1.44-2.46), history of smoking (OR = 1.40, 95% CI:1.06-1.85), hypertension (OR = 2.42, 95% CI: 2.03-2.88), diabetes (OR = 2.40, 95% CI: 1.98-2.91), coronary heart disease (OR: 2.87, 95% CI: 2.22-3.71), chronic kidney disease (CKD) (OR = 2.97, 95% CI: 1.63-5.41), cerebrovascular disease (OR = 2.47, 95% CI: 1.54-3.97), chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) (OR = 2.88, 95% CI: 1.89-4.38), malignancy (OR = 2.60, 95% CI: 2.00-3.40), and chronic liver disease (OR = 1.51, 95% CI: 1.06-2.17). Acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) (OR = 39.59, 95% CI: 19.99-78.41), shock (OR = 21.50, 95% CI: 10.49-44.06) and acute kidney injury (AKI) (OR = 8.84, 95% CI: 4.34-18.00) were most likely to prevent recovery. In summary, patients with severe conditions had a higher rate of comorbidities and complications than patients with non-severe conditions. CONCLUSION: Patients who were male, with advanced age, obesity, a history of smoking, hypertension, diabetes, malignancy, coronary heart disease, hypertension, chronic liver disease, COPD, or CKD are more likely to develop severe COVID-19 symptoms. ARDS, shock and AKI were thought to be the main hinderances to recovery.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Comorbidity , Adult , Age Factors , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Cerebrovascular Disorders/epidemiology , Diabetes Mellitus/epidemiology , Female , Humans , Hypertension/epidemiology , Liver Diseases/epidemiology , Male , Middle Aged , Neoplasms/epidemiology , Obesity/epidemiology , Pulmonary Disease, Chronic Obstructive/epidemiology , Renal Insufficiency, Chronic/epidemiology , Risk Factors , Sex Factors , Smoking/adverse effects , Young Adult
6.
Occup Ther Int ; 2021: 8886193, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1192546

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Self-care, leisure, and productivity are important occupational domains for older adults' quality of life, which might be affected by cancer and its treatment. A great number of publications about older adults focus on function or self-care, so we aimed to analyse how cancer and its treatments affect leisure and productivity. Secondary objectives were to identify whether particular clinical and/or sociodemographic factors were associated with occupational disruptions and to assess the impact of rehabilitation approaches on leisure and productivity in this population. METHODS: A systematic review of the 2009-2019 literature performed on Medline, Embase, and the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials. RESULTS: 1471 publications were retrieved: 48 full texts were assessed; seven of these (four cross-sectional studies, two cohort studies, and a case report) were reviewed, including data on 16668 people (12649 healthy controls, 3918 cancer survivors, and 101 ill patients). Older adults with comorbidities and a low level of activity before cancer diagnosis may be more at risk of occupational disruptions. However, studies focused more on physical activity than leisure and productivity. Two studies mentioned occupational therapy. Discussion. As cancer can become a chronic disease, it appears important to also offer occupation-centred assessments and follow-up. CONCLUSION: An occupation-centred approach could be developed; its effectiveness must be assessed.


Subject(s)
Neoplasms , Occupational Therapy , Aged , Cross-Sectional Studies , Humans , Leisure Activities , Quality of Life
7.
Acta Clin Belg ; : 1-8, 2021 Apr 17.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1191081

ABSTRACT

AIM: Associations of depression, dementia, and poor life quality with mortality of COVID-19have not been studied yet. We aimed to identify the risk factors for mortality and analyze the associations with patients' physiological and mental well-being, as reflected by comorbidities, life quality, depression, and cognitive impairment. METHODS: : Older patients receiving inpatient hospital care for COVID-19 were included.Demographic data, medical history, symptoms at admission, laboratory findings, and treatment outcomes were recorded. RESULTS: : There were 122 patients with a median age of 73.0 years. The mortality rate was 9.0% (n = 11 patients). Patients with mortality were significantly active smokers, obese, and having comorbidities using polypharmacy. Weight loss ≥of 10% during hospitalization was significantly associated with mortality.Poor life quality and a higher risk of depression, cognitive impairment, and falling were more frequently seen in non-survived patients. (p < 0.05). High ferritin was the only independent risk factor for mortality (OR = 15.61, 95% CI:1.08-226.09, p = 0.044). CONCLUSION: : The presence of comorbidities, depression, cognitive impairment, higher falling risk, and poor life quality were significantly associated with higher mortality rates in older adults with COVID-19. High ferritin level was an independent risk factor for mortality.

8.
Scand J Immunol ; 93(6): e13043, 2021 Jun.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1158095

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus infections are frequent viral infections in several species. As soon as the severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) appeared in the early 2000s, most of the research focused on pulmonary disease. However, disorders in immune response and organ dysfunctions have been documented. Elderly individuals with comorbidities exhibit worse outcomes in all the coronavirus that cause SARS. Disease severity in SARS-CoV-2 infection is related to severe inflammation and tissue injury, and effective immune response against the virus is still under analysis. ACE2 receptor expression and polymorphism, age, gender and immune genetics are factors that also play an essential role in patients' clinical features and immune responses and have been partially discussed. The present report aims to review the physiopathology of SARS-CoV-2 infection and propose new research topics to understand the complex mechanisms of viral infection and viral clearance.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/virology , Host-Pathogen Interactions/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/genetics , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/metabolism , Biomarkers , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/metabolism , Cytokine Release Syndrome/etiology , Cytokine Release Syndrome/metabolism , Cytokines/metabolism , Disease Susceptibility/immunology , Energy Metabolism , Humans , Immunity, Innate , Inflammation Mediators/metabolism , Lymphocyte Subsets/immunology , Lymphocyte Subsets/metabolism , Receptor, Angiotensin, Type 2/metabolism , Receptors, Virus/metabolism , Virus Replication
9.
Cytokine ; 143: 155507, 2021 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1157230

ABSTRACT

AIM: COVID-19 pandemic has caused extensive burden on public life and health care worldwide. This study aimed to assess circulating levels of inflammatory cytokines in adult patients who were hospitalized with COVID-19 and stratified according to age (older or younger than 65 years) aiming to explore associations between these markers of inflammation and comorbidities. METHODS: This was a cross-sectional study of 142 COVID-19 patients consecutively admitted to the University Hospital of the Federal University of São Carlos, from July to October 2020. Sociodemographic data, chronic comorbidities, and baseline NEWS2 and SOFA for clinical deterioration were obtained at hospital admission. Serum levels of inflammatory cytokines were determined by flow cytometry. RESULTS: Older adults with COVID-19 had higher serum levels of IL-6 and IL-10 as compared to those under 65 years of age (p < 0.001 and p = 0.003, respectively). IL-10 was independently associated with age (p = 0.04) and severity of the disease (p = 0.05), whereas serum levels of IL-6 were not directly associated with age (p = 0.5). The comorbidity index seems to be the main responsible for this, being significantly associated with IL-6 levels among those aged 65 and over (p = 0.007), in addition to the severity of the disease. CONCLUSIONS: Higher serum levels of IL-6 and IL-10 are associated with the severity of the disease and a higher comorbidity index among adults aged 65 and over with COVID-19. This should raise awareness of the importance of comorbidity index, rather than age, during risk stratification.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/blood , COVID-19/pathology , Interleukin-10/blood , Interleukin-6/blood , Severity of Illness Index , Adult , Age Factors , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Aging , Brazil , Comorbidity , Cross-Sectional Studies , Cytokine Release Syndrome/blood , Cytokine Release Syndrome/pathology , Female , Humans , Inflammation/diagnosis , Male , Middle Aged , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Young Adult
10.
SN Compr Clin Med ; 3(4): 937-944, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1130995

ABSTRACT

Elderly people and people with co-morbidities have emerged as the most vulnerable group at risk of developing complications and succumbing to novel coronavirus (COVID-19) infection. We recorded the baseline demographic profile, baseline clinical and laboratory parameters, and prevalence of various co-morbidities and their effect on the prognosis of COVID-19 cases. We conducted a prospective observational study and analyzed baseline clinical and laboratory parameters and co-morbidities and their effect on severity and mortality in 710 COVID-19 cases. Seven hundred ten patients with laboratory-confirmed COVID-19 were recruited from the 28th of March to the 31st of August 2020. The mean age was 48.4 ± 16.4years. A total of 530 (74.6%) patients were male. Overall, the mean length of hospital stay was 12.7 days. In total, 645 patients(90.8%) were mild to moderate cases and did not require initial ICU care. Sixty-five (9.2%) cases required initial intensive care unit care. Fifty (7%) admitted patients succumbed to the illness. Diabetes mellitus and hypertension increased the risk of death in COVID-19 patients irrespective of age. Increasing age and co-morbidities adversely affect the prognosis of patients of COVID-19. Diabetes mellitus and hypertension increase the risk of death in COVID-19 patients and negate the incremental effect of age on death in these patients.

11.
Biomolecules ; 11(1)2021 Jan 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1041770

ABSTRACT

The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic is caused by a novel coronavirus; the Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2). Millions of cases and deaths to date have resulted in a global challenge for healthcare systems. COVID-19 has a high mortality rate, especially in elderly individuals with pre-existing chronic comorbidities. There are currently no effective therapeutic approaches for the prevention and treatment of COVID-19. Therefore, the identification of effective therapeutics is a necessity. Terpenes are the largest class of natural products that could serve as a source of new drugs or as prototypes for the development of effective pharmacotherapeutic agents. In the present study, we discuss the antiviral activity of these natural products and we perform simulations against the Mpro and PLpro enzymes of SARS-CoV-2. Our results strongly suggest the potential of these compounds against human coronaviruses, including SARS-CoV-2.


Subject(s)
Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , Coronavirus 3C Proteases/antagonists & inhibitors , Drug Discovery , Protease Inhibitors/pharmacology , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects , Terpenes/pharmacology , Antiviral Agents/chemistry , COVID-19/drug therapy , COVID-19/virology , Coronavirus 3C Proteases/metabolism , Humans , Molecular Docking Simulation , Protease Inhibitors/chemistry , SARS-CoV-2/enzymology , Terpenes/chemistry
12.
Curr Opin Infect Dis ; 34(2): 135-141, 2021 04 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1038330

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The purpose of this review is to address the relevant issues surrounding older adults with community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) today. RECENT FINDINGS: Approximately 1 million people >65 years have CAP in the US per year, which is more than previously reported (or realized). Older adults are vulnerable to the increasing prevalence of viral CAP, as the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic emphasizes, but pneumococcus is still the most common pathogen to cause CAP. Racial disparities continue to need to be addressed in order to improve early and late outcomes of older adults with CAP. SUMMARY: The epidemiology of CAP, specifically for older adults is changing. More recent pathogen incidence studies have included culture, as well as newer microbiological methods to determine etiology. Current disparities among disadvantaged populations, including African-Americans, result in more comorbidities which predisposes to more severe CAP. However, outcomes in the hospital between races tend to be similar, and outcomes between age groups tends to be worse for older compared to younger adults. Finally, the cost of CAP is significant compared to diabetes mellitus, myocardial infarction and stroke.


Subject(s)
Pneumonia/epidemiology , Aged , Community-Acquired Infections/economics , Community-Acquired Infections/epidemiology , Community-Acquired Infections/etiology , Cost of Illness , Demography , Healthcare Disparities , Humans , Pneumonia/economics , Pneumonia/etiology , Severity of Illness Index , Treatment Outcome
13.
J Stroke Cerebrovasc Dis ; 30(1): 105454, 2021 Jan.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1023683

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: COVID-19 disproportionately affects older adults and individuals with cardiovascular co-morbidities. This report presents fifteen patients who had COVID-19 respiratory illness followed by cerebrovascular events. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A call by the Iranian Neurological Association gathered cases across the country who developed neurological symptoms attributed to hemorrhagic or ischemic stroke after a definite or probable Covid-19 respiratory illness. Definite cases were those with a typical respiratory illness, positive nasopharyngeal Covid-19 PCR test, and chest CT consistent with Covid-19 infection. Probable cases were defined by a typical respiratory illness, history of contacts with a Covid-19 case, and chest CT characteristic for Covid-19 infection. RESULTS: Fifteen patients (12 men and 3 women) with an age range of 38 to 93 years old (median: 65 years old) were included. Fourteen patients had a first-ever acute ischemic stroke and one patient had a subarachnoid hemorrhage. Eleven patients (73%) had previous cardiovascular comorbidities. The median time between respiratory symptoms and neurological symptoms was seven days (range 1-16 days). Stroke severity in two patients was mild (NIHSS ≤ 6), in six patients moderate (NIHSS: 7-12), and in seven patients severe (NIHSS ≥13). One patient received intravenous tissue plasminogen activator ( IV-tPA) with improved neurological symptoms. Six out of 15 patients (40%) died. All but one of those who survived had significant disability assessed by a modified ranking scale >2. The majority of patients in this case series had vascular risk factors and their stroke was associated with severe disability and death. CONCLUSION: This report highlights the need for further investigation of the links between Covid-19 and cerebrovascular events.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , Cerebrovascular Disorders/etiology , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/mortality , COVID-19/therapy , Cerebrovascular Disorders/diagnosis , Cerebrovascular Disorders/mortality , Cerebrovascular Disorders/therapy , Disability Evaluation , Female , Humans , Iran , Male , Middle Aged , Recovery of Function , Risk Factors , Severity of Illness Index , Thrombolytic Therapy , Treatment Outcome
14.
Biomolecules ; 11(1)2021 Jan 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1016100

ABSTRACT

The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic is caused by a novel coronavirus; the Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2). Millions of cases and deaths to date have resulted in a global challenge for healthcare systems. COVID-19 has a high mortality rate, especially in elderly individuals with pre-existing chronic comorbidities. There are currently no effective therapeutic approaches for the prevention and treatment of COVID-19. Therefore, the identification of effective therapeutics is a necessity. Terpenes are the largest class of natural products that could serve as a source of new drugs or as prototypes for the development of effective pharmacotherapeutic agents. In the present study, we discuss the antiviral activity of these natural products and we perform simulations against the Mpro and PLpro enzymes of SARS-CoV-2. Our results strongly suggest the potential of these compounds against human coronaviruses, including SARS-CoV-2.


Subject(s)
Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , Coronavirus 3C Proteases/antagonists & inhibitors , Drug Discovery , Protease Inhibitors/pharmacology , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects , Terpenes/pharmacology , Antiviral Agents/chemistry , COVID-19/drug therapy , COVID-19/virology , Coronavirus 3C Proteases/metabolism , Humans , Molecular Docking Simulation , Protease Inhibitors/chemistry , SARS-CoV-2/enzymology , Terpenes/chemistry
15.
Turk J Phys Med Rehabil ; 66(4): 480-494, 2020 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1000520

ABSTRACT

The novel coronavirus-2019 (COVID-19) pandemic primarily affects the respiratory system. Elderly individuals with comorbidity are severely affected. Survivors weaned from mechanical ventilation are at a higher risk of developing post-intensive care syndrome (PICS). This scoping review, based on 40 recent publications, highlights pulmonary rehabilitation (PR) in COVID-19. There is a paucity of high-quality research on this topic. However, rehabilitation societies including the Turkish Society of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation have issued PR recommendations in COVID-19 pneumonia with productive cough can benefit from diaphragmatic breathing, pursed-lip breathing, and resistance-breathing training. Besides, those in mechanical ventilation and post-PICS COVID-19 cases, oxygen therapy, early mobilization, airway clearance, aerobic exercise, gradual-graded limb muscle resistance exercise, nutritional and psychological interventions should be consideration. During PR, careful evaluation of vital signs and exercise-induced symptoms is also required. When in-person PR is not possible, telerehabilitation should be explored. However, the long-term effects of PR in COVID-19 need further evaluation.

16.
Ann Transl Med ; 8(19): 1249, 2020 Oct.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-994850

ABSTRACT

While Jehovah's Witness (JW) patients refuse transfusions of blood or blood products, they are willing to accept renal allograft transplantation. We describe here a case of what we believe is the oldest (a 70-year-old) JW candidate to undergo a deceased donor kidney transplant reported in the literature. Prior to transplantation, discussions ensued amongst the multidisciplinary transplant team, weighing the potential benefits vs. risks of performing a kidney transplant on this patient due to her refusal (due to religion) to accept any blood transfusions or blood products combined with her advanced age and having longstanding insulin-dependent, type 2 diabetes mellitus with extensive peripheral vascular disease. Preoperatively, we believed that the odds were in favor of performing the kidney transplant safely without the need for any blood product usage. However, her post-operative course was complicated by severe anemia, which developed by post-transplant day 4. The anemia incapacitated the patient's physical and psychological state, creating medical, social and financial burdens on the patient, family, medical team and hospital. Both family and patient grew concerned about her overall condition. Blood transfusion was offered in order to improve her weakness and shortness of breath that developed due to the severe anemia, but the patient (along with her family) refused such treatment. During the 17 days of hospitalization, it was a continuous struggle between the transplant team, patient, and family for her to continue with the recovery process; at times we had even considered that performing the transplant had been a mistake. While organ transplantation can be performed safely in Jehovah's Witnesses, there are multiple factors seen in this particular case that warrant analyzing: (I) the potential use of stricter transplant exclusionary criteria, given the recipient's advanced age and preexisting co-morbidities, which likely increased her risk of developing severe anemia post-operatively, and (II) the recipient's emotional/psychological post-operative state of high anxiety, which developed while she was experiencing the severe anemia; in hindsight, her anxiety level may have been reduced if we had offered daily post-operative psychological counseling sessions. While the patient's allograft is currently doing well, we probably did not have strict enough criteria for proper selection of a JW candidate for kidney transplantation.

17.
J Nutr Health Aging ; 24(9): 928-937, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-973690

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: Older adults have been continuously reported to be at higher risk for adverse outcomes of Covid-19. We aimed to describe clinical characteristics and early outcomes of the older Covid-19 patients hospitalized in our center comparatively with the younger patients, and also to analyze the triage factors that were related to the in-hospital mortality of older adults. DESIGN: Retrospective; observational study. SETTING: Istanbul Faculty of Medicine hospital, Turkey. PARTICIPANTS: 362 hospitalized patients with laboratory-confirmed Covid-19 from March 11 to May 11, 2020. MEASUREMENTS: The demographic information; associated comorbidities; presenting clinical, laboratory, radiological characteristics on admission and outcomes from the electronic medical records were analyzed comparatively between the younger (<65 years) and older (≥65 years) adults. Factors associated with in-hospital mortality of the older adults were analyzed by multivariate regression analyses. RESULTS: The median age was 56 years (interquartile range [IQR], 46-67), and 224 (61.9%) were male. There were 104 (28.7%) patients ≥65 years of age. More than half of the patients (58%) had one or more chronic comorbidity. The three most common presenting symptoms in the older patients were fatigue/myalgia (89.4%), dry cough (72.1%), and fever (63.5%). Cough and fever were significantly less prevalent in older adults compared to younger patients (p=0.001 and 0.008, respectively). Clinically severe pneumonia was present in 31.5% of the study population being more common in older adults (49% vs. 24.4%) (p<0.001). The laboratory parameters that were significantly different between the older and younger adults were as follows: the older patients had significantly higher CRP, D-dimer, TnT, pro-BNP, procalcitonin levels, higher prevalence of lymphopenia, neutrophilia, increased creatinine, and lower hemoglobin, ALT, albumin level (p<0.05). In the radiological evaluation, more than half of the patients (54.6%) had moderate-severe pneumonia, which was more prevalent in older patients (66% vs. 50%) (p=0.006). The adverse outcomes were significantly more prevalent in older adults compared to the younger patients (ICU admission, 28.8% vs. 8.9%; mortality, 23.1% vs. 4.3%, p<0.001). Among the triage evaluation parameters, the only factor associated with higher mortality was the presence of clinically severe pneumonia on admission (Odds Ratio=12.3, 95% confidence interval=2.7-55.5, p=0.001). CONCLUSION: Older patients presented with more prevalent chronic comorbidities, less prevalent symptomatology but more severe respiratory signs and laboratory abnormalities than the younger patients. Among the triage assessment factors, the clinical evaluation of pulmonary involvement came in front to help clinicians to stratify the patients for mortality risk.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Hospital Mortality , Hospitalization , Pandemics , Age Factors , Aged , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/mortality , Comorbidity , Female , Fibrin Fibrinogen Degradation Products/metabolism , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Pneumonia/etiology , Pneumonia/mortality , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2 , Triage , Turkey/epidemiology
18.
BMJ Open ; 10(12): e041577, 2020 12 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-971723

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To investigate possible relationships between pre-existing medical conditions (including common comorbidities and chronic medications) and risk for suffering COVID-19 disease in middle-aged and older adults. DESIGN: Population-based retrospective cohort study. SETTING: Twelve primary care centres (PCCs) in Tarragona (Spain). PARTICIPANTS: 79 083 people (77 676 community-dwelling and 1407 nursing-home residents), who were all individuals aged >50 years affiliated to the 12 participating PCCs. OUTCOMES: Baseline cohort characteristics (age, sex, vaccinations, comorbidities and chronic medications) were established at study start (1st. March 2020) and primary outcome was time to COVID-19 confirmed by PCR among cohort members throughout the epidemic period (from 1st. March 2020 to 23rd. May 2020). Risk for suffering COVID-19 was evaluated by Cox regression, estimating multivariable HRs adjusted for age, sex, comorbidities and medications use. RESULTS: During the study period, 2324 cohort members were PCR-tested, with 1944 negative and 380 positive results, which means an incidence of 480.5 PCR-confirmed COVID-19 cases per 100 000 persons-period. Assessing the total study cohort, only age (HR 1.02; 95% CI 1.01 to 1.03; p=0.002), nursing-home residence (HR 21.83; 95% CI 16.66 to 28.61; p<0.001) and receiving diuretics (HR 1.35; 95% CI 1.04 to 1.76; p=0.026) appeared independently associated with increased risk. Smoking (HR 0.62; 95% CI 0.41 to 0.93; p=0.022), ACE inhibitors (HR 0.68; 95% CI 0.47 to 0.99; p=0.046) and antihistamine (HR 0.47; 95% CI 0.22 to 1.01; p=0.052) were associated with a lower risk. Among community-dwelling individuals, cancer (HR 1.52; 95% CI 1.03 to 2.24; p=0.035), chronic respiratory disease (HR 1.82; 95% CI 1.08 to 3.07; p=0.025) and cardiac disease (HR 1.53; 95% CI 1.06 to 2.19; p=0.021) emerged to be also associated with an increased risk. Receiving ACE inhibitors (HR 0.66; 95% CI 0.44 to 0.99; p=0.046) and influenza vaccination (HR 0.63; 95% CI 0.44 to 0.91; p=0.012) was associated with decreased risk. CONCLUSION: Age, nursing-home residence and multiple comorbidities appear predisposing for COVID-19. Conversely, receiving ACE inhibitors, antihistamine and influenza vaccination could be protective, which should be closely investigated in further studies specifically focused on these concerns.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Comorbidity , Pharmaceutical Preparations/administration & dosage , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme Inhibitors/therapeutic use , Female , Heart Diseases/epidemiology , Humans , Influenza Vaccines/therapeutic use , Male , Middle Aged , Nursing Homes , Proportional Hazards Models , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors , Spain/epidemiology
19.
Geriatr Gerontol Int ; 21(1): 60-65, 2021 Jan.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-954350

ABSTRACT

AIM: The present study aimed both to gain knowledge on the distinctive clinical characteristics of older adults with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), in comparison with those of younger patients, and to identify risk factors for mortality. METHODS: A retrospective observational study was carried out of patients consecutively admitted to Doctor Peset University Hospital, Valencia (Spain) for COVID-19 from 11 March to 28 April 2020. Every case was diagnosed by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction or by serology test to detect antibodies. Demographic details, clinical characteristics, laboratory findings on admission and complications of each case were collected from electronic medical records. RESULTS: The dataset comprised 340 patients. Of them, 152 (44.6%) were aged >70 years. Comorbidities were more common in the older groups. Confusion was more common in older adults, whereas typical symptoms of COVID-19, such as fever, cough and myalgia, were less common. Oxygen saturation ≤93% on room air, neutrophilia, D-dimer >0.5 µg/mL, creatinine >1.5 mg/dL, lactate dehydrogenase ≥250 U/L and elevation of creatine kinase were higher in the older adult groups. Complications during hospitalization, such as acute respiratory distress syndrome (53.3% vs 33.2%, P < 0.001), acute kidney injury (11.8% vs 5.3%; P = 0.030) and mortality (28.9% vs 6.5%; P < 0.001) were more common in patients aged >70 years. Oxygen saturation ≤93% on room air on admission was a predictor of mortality (odds ratio 11.65, 95% confidence interval 3.26-41.66, P < 0.001) in patients aged >70 years. CONCLUSIONS: Older adults with COVID-19 have more atypical presentation, more complications and higher mortality. Oxygen saturation ≤93% on room air on admission is a predictive factor of death. Geriatr Gerontol Int 2021; 21: 60-65.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Adolescent , Adult , Age Factors , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Comorbidity , Cough , Female , Fever , Hospital Mortality , Hospitalization/statistics & numerical data , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2 , Spain/epidemiology , Young Adult
20.
J Am Pharm Assoc (2003) ; 61(2): e65-e67, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-943268

ABSTRACT

Warfarin therapy requires maintenance of a therapeutic international normalized ratio (INR) and thus requires routine monitoring to ensure benefits of anticoagulation, while avoiding complications. As the pharmacist's role evolves from traditional medication dispensing towards direct patient care, many anticoagulation management services are pharmacist-managed. Due to the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic, healthcare providers were faced with re-evaluating anticoagulation management practices to minimize person-to-person exposure risk. Although being anticoagulated is not considered high risk for illness from the coronavirus, these patients are often of advanced age and frequently have multiple comorbidities, putting them at increased risk. Consequently, two hospital-based, pharmacist-managed outpatient anticoagulation management services developed drive-thru curbside clinics to continue providing care to warfarin patients. The services utilized universal COVID-19 precautions to conduct curbside appointments where pharmacists determined patient's warfarin therapy plan, scheduled timely follow-up, and provided dosing instructions. With the unexpected coronavirus outbreak, this immediate change to traditional anticoagulation management was essential for safe and effective anticoagulation therapy. Implementing a curbside clinic allowed for safe distancing while managing warfarin appropriately.


Subject(s)
Anticoagulants/administration & dosage , COVID-19 , Health Services Accessibility , Pharmaceutical Services/organization & administration , SARS-CoV-2 , Humans , International Normalized Ratio , Pandemics
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