Your browser doesn't support javascript.
Show: 20 | 50 | 100
Results 1 - 6 de 6
Filter
1.
Viruses ; 13(3)2021 03 16.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1457709

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Efficacy for cervical cancer prevention of opportunistic HPV vaccination in post-pubertal girls is lower than in 11-year-olds. METHODS: Women born between 1986 and 1992 vaccinated at 15-25 years of age (at least one dose of 4-valent HPV vaccine) and screened at 24-27 years of age were included. Frequency of opportunistic vaccination, overall and by birth cohort, was calculated; screening outcomes were compared between vaccinated and unvaccinated women. RESULTS: Overall, 4718 (4.9%) HPV-vaccinated, and 91,512 unvaccinated, women were studied. The frequency of vaccination increased by birth cohort, ranging between 1.8% and 9.8%; age at vaccination decreased progressively by birth cohort (p < 0.0001). Participation in screening was 60.8% among vaccinated, and 56.6% among unvaccinated, women (p < 0.0001). Detection rates (DR) for high-grade lesions were lower in vaccinated women (2.11‰ vs. 3.85‰ in unvaccinated, for CIN3+, p = 0.24; 0.0‰ vs. 0.22‰ for cancer). The DR of CIN3+ increased with age at vaccination, scoring respectively 0.0‰, 0.83‰, and 4.68‰ for women vaccinated when they were 15-16, 17-20, and 21-25 years old (p = 0.17). CONCLUSIONS: In comparison to unvaccinated women, higher compliance with cervical cancer screening invitation and lower CIN3+ DR among vaccinated women was observed. Age at vaccination was inversely correlated to vaccination efficacy.


Subject(s)
Papillomavirus Infections/prevention & control , Papillomavirus Vaccines/administration & dosage , Uterine Cervical Neoplasms/prevention & control , Adolescent , Adult , Early Detection of Cancer , Female , Humans , Italy/epidemiology , Mass Screening , Retrospective Studies , Young Adult
2.
PLoS One ; 16(5): e0251694, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1225817

ABSTRACT

The main strategy for combatting SARS-CoV-2 infections in 2020 consisted of behavioural regulations including contact reduction, maintaining distance, hand hygiene, and mask wearing. COVID-19-related risk perception and knowledge may influence protective behaviour, and education could be an important determinant. The current study investigated differences by education level in risk perception, knowledge and protective behaviour regarding COVID-19 in Germany, exploring the development of the pandemic over time. The COVID-19 Snapshot Monitoring study is a repeated cross-sectional online survey conducted during the pandemic in Germany from 3 March 2020 (waves 1-28: 27,957 participants aged 18-74). Differences in risk perception, knowledge and protective behaviour according to education level (high versus low) were analysed using linear and logistic regression. Time trends were accounted for by interaction terms for education level and calendar week. Regarding protective behaviour, interaction terms were tested for all risk perception and knowledge variables with education level. The strongest associations with education level were evident for perceived and factual knowledge regarding COVID-19. Moreover, associations were found between low education level and higher perceived severity, and between low education level and lower perceived probability. Highly educated men were more worried about COVID-19 than those with low levels of education. No educational differences were observed for perceived susceptibility or fear. Higher compliance with hand washing was found in highly educated women, and higher compliance with maintaining distance was found in highly educated men. Regarding maintaining distance, the impact of perceived severity differed between education groups. In men, significant moderation effects of education level on the association between factual knowledge and all three protective behaviours were found. During the pandemic, risk perception and protective behaviour varied greatly over time. Overall, differences by education level were relatively small. For risk communication, reaching all population groups irrespective of education level is critical.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/psychology , Health Knowledge, Attitudes, Practice/ethnology , Risk Reduction Behavior , Adult , Aged , Anxiety/epidemiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Educational Status , Fear/psychology , Female , Germany/epidemiology , Hand Disinfection/trends , Hand Hygiene/methods , Hand Hygiene/trends , Health Risk Behaviors , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics/prevention & control , Perception , Risk Assessment/methods , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Surveys and Questionnaires
3.
Zdr Varst ; 60(1): 17-24, 2020 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1004608

ABSTRACT

Introduction: The first large outbreak of SARS-CoV-2 in Europe occurred in Northern Italy in February 2020. The relatively fast spread of the infection to Slovenia was expected, and preventive measures for its suppression were widely discussed. Methods: An online questionnaire was designed to evaluate adherence to preventive measures and the extent to which the taking of preventive measures was associated with people's anxiety level, psychological burden, their perceived vulnerability to disease, germ aversion and a number of demographic characteristics in the early stage of Covid-19 spread. The survey was active for 24 hours (13-14 March 2020). There were 12,307 responses and 7,764 questionnaires were completed in full. Results: Higher preventive behaviour was found in individuals who experienced greater psychological distress, were more anxious, and expressed greater perceived infectability and germ aversion. Greater compliance with preventive behaviour was found among women, those sharing a household with people aged over 65, the elderly and those who knew somebody who had been infected. These groups also showed higher anxiety levels, which appeared to be significantly increased in general as a result of the specific situation. Quarantine was evaluated as the most efficient preventive measure, and was respected relatively strictly even before it became an officially announced protective measure. Conclusion: This research reveals a strong association between preventive behaviour and anxiety. Anxiety, together with social distancing, may affect physical and psychological health in the population in the long term. Other aspects of public health might therefore be influenced by the measures currently being enforced to prevent the spread of SARS-CoV-2.

4.
AJP Rep ; 10(3): e315-e318, 2020 Jul.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-834951

ABSTRACT

The transformation of our health care system in response to coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) provides a unique opportunity to examine the use of telehealth for postpartum care. The postpartum period can pose significant risks and challenges, particularly for women with hypertensive disorders of pregnancy. Remote blood pressure monitoring has proven feasible and acceptable among women and providers but has not been widely implemented or researched. Early studies have identified improved outcomes with use of telehealth, including increased compliance with care and decreased disparity in hypertension follow-up. Preliminary data make a compelling case for remote monitoring as a promising treatment strategy to manage postpartum hypertension. Remote monitoring technology should be incorporated as a standard component for the comprehensive management of postpartum hypertension during COVID-19. As a consequence of the pandemic, we now have an opportunity to research the impact of postpartum remote blood pressure monitoring on maternal outcome and disparities within these outcomes.

5.
Int J Hyg Environ Health ; 230: 113590, 2020 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-739329

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Hand hygiene is an efficacious behaviour to prevent community-associated infections. Estimates of the proportion of populations who wash their hands have indicated limited compliance. While biases of self-report items for hand hygiene, such as the tendency to overestimate one's behaviour, represent a limitation, direct survey questions remain important. This study aims to compare indices of handwashing compliance based on single vs. combined handwashing attributes, i.e., its frequency, technique, and duration. METHODS: Data of a representative survey on hygiene and infection control by the German Federal Centre for Health Education were analysed. In a cross-sectional, computer-assisted telephone interview design, the resident population in Germany aged 16-85 years was surveyed in 2012. For handwashing, duration, frequency in different situations, and technique (use of soap, washing interdigital spaces, and drying hands) were self-reported. Self-reports were rated as (non-)compliant based on national recommendations and combined into single- and multi-attribute indices. Use of hand disinfectants, recall of handwashing instruction plates in public restrooms, and socio-demographics were also assessed. In total, N = 4483 persons participated (response rate: 49.7%). Data were weighted to compensate for sampling bias and analysed by cross-tabulation and multiple logistic regression. Primarily due to missing data, the analysis was confined to N = 4093 respondents (i.e., 91%). RESULTS: Among women, the proportion of those who reported to wash hands "almost always" in at least seven of nine situations was 30.8% (men: 20.3%). In contrast, 51% of men reported always using soap, drying hands, and washing interdigital spaces (women: 43.5%; p < 0.001). Compliance based on indices that included "frequency" was higher in women by 5.2% for "frequency + technique" (17.6% vs. 12.4%), and 2.5% for "frequency + duration" (13.1% vs. 10.6%) and "frequency + duration + technique" (8.8% vs. 6.3%; p < 0.02). Socio-demographic differences were most consistent regarding higher compliance among healthcare workers. Finally, especially men recalling handwashing instruction plates in public restrooms had higher compliance than those with no recall, namely, for "frequency + technique" (15.4% vs. 10.6%; OR: 1.9), all three attributes (7.6% vs. 5.3%; OR = 1.7), and "technique" (56.9% vs. 47.7%; OR = 1.6). The highest odds ratio was noted for disinfectant use among men (OR = 2.5; 12.2% vs. 4.9%). DISCUSSION: While being representative for Germany, limitations include the survey's cross-sectionality, response rate, and the study representing the situation in 2012. Nonetheless, indices based on combined attributes allow better comparison to scarce compliance estimates for Germany based on observation. Socio-demographic differences add to existing evidence, e.g., higher compliance by healthcare workers. Finally, although reverse causation is possible, it is notable that although handwashing instruction plates in public restrooms focus on duration and technique, women recalling them reported higher frequency, and men more often report hand disinfectant use, suggesting possible carry-over effects. CONCLUSION: Self-reported handwashing compliance assessment may be improved by partitioning the behavioural domain into different attributes and using indices based on combinations of these.

6.
Tidsskr Nor Laegeforen ; 140(10)2020 06 30.
Article in English, Norwegian | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-622715

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Effective infection control is crucial for combatting the COVID-19 pandemic. We investigated whether adolescents in Oslo reported compliance with the Norwegian infection control rules during the pandemic and whether compliance with the rules was associated with sociodemographic characteristics, trust in the authorities and acceptance of the infection control rules. MATERIAL AND METHOD: Students in lower and upper secondary schools completed an electronic questionnaire (N = 12 686, 37 % response rate) during a period with strict infection control measures in force. We used self-reporting of compliance with the infection control rules, sociodemographic characteristics, trust in the authorities and people in general, and acceptance of the infection control rules. We used logistic regression analysis. RESULTS: The majority reported that they always or to a large extent complied with the rules for hand washing (n = 9 915, 84 %), refrained from shaking hands/hugging (n = 8 730, 74 %) and avoided large groups (n = 8 565, 73 %). Fewer reported to maintain physical distance (n = 5 859, 50 %). The level of trust in the government (n = 8 742, 80 %) and health authorities (n = 9 962, 92 %) was high. The highest compliance with the rules was among girls, adolescents from immigrant backgrounds, those with a high level of trust in the authorities and people in general, and those who showed acceptance of the infection control rules. INTERPRETATION: A large proportion reported to comply with the infection control rules. Adolescents from immigrant backgrounds and those who were living in the outer eastern suburbs of Oslo also more frequently reported to comply with the rules. Trust and acceptance of the rules were also important factors.


Subject(s)
Communicable Disease Control , Coronavirus Infections/prevention & control , Pandemics/prevention & control , Patient Compliance , Pneumonia, Viral/prevention & control , Adolescent , Betacoronavirus , COVID-19 , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , Humans , Male , Norway , SARS-CoV-2 , Surveys and Questionnaires
SELECTION OF CITATIONS
SEARCH DETAIL
...