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1.
Pak J Med Sci ; 36(COVID19-S4): S67-S72, 2020 May.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1726831

ABSTRACT

Children are not indifferent to the significant psychological impact of the COVID-19 Pandemic. They experience fears, uncertainties, substantial changes to their routines, physical and social isolation alongside high level of parental stress. Understanding their emotions and responses is essential to properly address their needs during this pandemic. In this article, we highlight children's vulnerability, provide an overview of common symptoms of distress in different age groups, and summarize the interventions and resources available to promote child mental health and wellbeing during these challenging times. We advocate that prioritizing mental health including child & adolescent mental health is an essential component of any universal, community led response to COVID-19 Pandemic.

3.
Neurosurgery ; 87(2): E239-E240, 2020 08 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1526170
4.
Curr Opin Ophthalmol ; 31(5): 374-379, 2020 Sep.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1511065

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The use of slit lamp shields has been recommended by the American Academy of Ophthalmology as an infection control measure during the coronavirus disease 2019 pandemic. However, there is limited evidence regarding its efficacy to reduce viral transmission risks. We aim to provide an evidence-based approach to optimize the use of slit lamp shields during clinical examination. RECENT FINDINGS: Respiratory droplets from coughing and sneezing can travel up to 50 m/s and over a distance of 2 m, with a potential area of spread of 616 cm. Slit lamp shields confer added protection against large droplets but are limited against smaller particles. A larger shield curved toward the ophthalmologist and positioned closer to the patient increases protection against large droplets. A potential improvement to the design of such shields is the use of hydrophilic materials with antiviral properties which may help to minimize splashing of infectious droplets, reducing transmission risks. These include gold or silver nanoparticles and graphene oxide. SUMMARY: Slit lamp shields serve as a barrier for large droplets, but its protection against smaller droplets is undetermined. It should be large, positioned close to the patient, and used in tandem with routine basic disinfection practices.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus , Coronavirus Infections/transmission , Infection Control/instrumentation , Infectious Disease Transmission, Patient-to-Professional/prevention & control , Pneumonia, Viral/transmission , Protective Devices , Slit Lamp , COVID-19 , Humans , Infection Control/methods , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2
5.
Minerva Gastroenterol (Torino) ; 67(3): 283-288, 2021 Sep.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1485664

ABSTRACT

World Gastroenterology Organization define acute on chronic liver failure (ACLF) a syndrome in patients with chronic liver disease with or without previously diagnosed cirrhosis, characterized by acute hepatic decompensation resulting in liver failure and one or more extrahepatic organ failures, associated with increased mortality up to three months. A-56-year-old gentleman with alcohol related liver cirrhosis (ARLC) and history of variceal bleeding with insertion of transjugular intrahepatic porto-systemic stent shunt presented with two days history of fever, dry cough and worsening of the sensory. The severe acute respiratory coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) nasopharingeal C-reactive protein test was positive. X-ray showed multiple patchy ground glass opacities in both lungs. Despite the therapy, the clinical and laboratory picture deteriorated rapidly. The patient succumbed on day 14 with multi-organ-failure. SARS-Cov-2 infection can overlap with pre-existing chronic liver disease or induce liver damage directly or indirectly. From the data of the literature and from what is inferred from the case report it clearly emerges that alcohol related liver disease (ALD) patients are particularly vulnerable to SARS-Cov-2 infection. Thereafter, some considerations can be deduced from the analysis of the case report. In subjects with pre-existing cirrhosis hepatologists should play more attention to hepatic injury and monitor risk of hepatic failure caused by coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). It is appropriate to promptly define the alcoholic etiology and investigate whether the patient is actively consuming. In fact, withdrawal symptoms may be present, and the prognosis of these patients is also worse. Physicians should be alerted to the possibility of the development of ACLF in this population, hepatotoxic drugs should be avoided, it is recommended to use of hepatoprotective therapy to mitigate the negative impact of COVID-19, and it is mandatory to administer anti COVID-19 vaccine to patients with alcohol related liver cirrhosis.


Subject(s)
Acute-On-Chronic Liver Failure/etiology , Alcoholism/complications , COVID-19/complications , Liver Cirrhosis/complications , Humans , Male , Middle Aged
7.
Pharmacotherapy ; 40(5): 416-437, 2020 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1449937

ABSTRACT

The outbreak of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) has evolved into an emergent global pandemic. Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) can manifest on a spectrum of illness from mild disease to severe respiratory failure requiring intensive care unit admission. As the incidence continues to rise at a rapid pace, critical care teams are faced with challenging treatment decisions. There is currently no widely accepted standard of care in the pharmacologic management of patients with COVID-19. Urgent identification of potential treatment strategies is a priority. Therapies include novel agents available in clinical trials or through compassionate use, and other drugs, repurposed antiviral and immunomodulating therapies. Many have demonstrated in vitro or in vivo potential against other viruses that are similar to SARS-CoV-2. Critically ill patients with COVID-19 have additional considerations related to adjustments for organ impairment and renal replacement therapies, complex lists of concurrent medications, limitations with drug administration and compatibility, and unique toxicities that should be evaluated when utilizing these therapies. The purpose of this review is to summarize practical considerations for pharmacotherapy in patients with COVID-19, with the intent of serving as a resource for health care providers at the forefront of clinical care during this pandemic.


Subject(s)
Antiviral Agents/administration & dosage , Antiviral Agents/adverse effects , Coronavirus Infections/drug therapy , Immunomodulation , Pneumonia, Viral/drug therapy , Adenosine Monophosphate/administration & dosage , Adenosine Monophosphate/adverse effects , Adenosine Monophosphate/analogs & derivatives , Adrenal Cortex Hormones , Alanine/administration & dosage , Alanine/adverse effects , Alanine/analogs & derivatives , Antibodies, Monoclonal, Humanized/administration & dosage , Antibodies, Monoclonal, Humanized/adverse effects , Azetidines/administration & dosage , Azetidines/adverse effects , Betacoronavirus , COVID-19 , Chloroquine/administration & dosage , Chloroquine/adverse effects , Coronavirus Infections/therapy , Drug Combinations , Humans , Hydroxychloroquine/administration & dosage , Hydroxychloroquine/adverse effects , Immunization, Passive , Interferon-alpha/administration & dosage , Interferon-alpha/adverse effects , Lopinavir/administration & dosage , Lopinavir/adverse effects , Nelfinavir/administration & dosage , Nelfinavir/adverse effects , Nitro Compounds , Pandemics , Purines , Pyrazoles , Ribavirin/administration & dosage , Ribavirin/adverse effects , Ritonavir/administration & dosage , Ritonavir/adverse effects , SARS-CoV-2 , Sulfonamides/administration & dosage , Sulfonamides/adverse effects , Thiazoles/administration & dosage , Thiazoles/adverse effects
8.
Clin Dermatol ; 39(1): 104-106, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1300697

ABSTRACT

The clinical trials industry faces a number of challenges during the evolving coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic, for example, site closures, mandatory self-isolation, travel restrictions, interruptions to delivery of investigational product, or staff or participants becoming infected with severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2. These challenges can pose difficulties in adhering to visit schedules, performing laboratory testing, conducting protocol-specified procedures, and administration of investigational product. As a result, clinical trial sites, contract research organizations, and sponsors have had to act swiftly to ensure that trial patients are safe and systems are in place for continuing trials. Protocols should also be amended to reflect changes and approved by an ethics board. The authors provide practical considerations and recommendations for dermatology clinical trial operations during the COVID-19 pandemic.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/prevention & control , Clinical Trials as Topic/methods , Dermatology , Patient Safety , COVID-19/epidemiology , Humans , SARS-CoV-2
9.
Can Geriatr J ; 24(2): 151-153, 2021 Jun.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1273651

ABSTRACT

COVID-19 has had a profound impact on long-term care (LTC) homes in Canada. But the measures put in place to control infection within LTC homes have also had devastating impacts on the health and well-being of residents through the effects on social connection. Here, we offer guiding principles to enable social connection and promote health and quality of life for LTC residents during COVID-19 and beyond. These principles were generated by a working group of the COVID-19 and Dementia Task Force, convened by the Alzheimer Society of Canada to identify the urgent and emerging issues raised by COVID-19 for Canadians with dementia.

10.
Am J Phys Med Rehabil ; 100(7): 712-717, 2021 07 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1270769

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT: The field of physical medicine and rehabilitation should strive for a physician workforce that is ethnically/racially, sex, and ability diverse. Considering the recent realities of disparities in health outcomes related to COVID-19 and in racial injustice in the United States, we are called to be champions for antiracism and equity. The specialty of physical medicine and rehabilitation should be the leaders in fostering a culture of inclusion and pay special attention to the population of applicants who are underrepresented in medicine. The specialty needs tools to start addressing these disparities. This article aims to provide strategic and intentional evidence-based recommendations for programs to follow. Holistic review, implicit bias training, structured interviews, and targeted outreach for those underrepresented in medicine are some of the tools that will help students enter and become successful in our specialty. Furthermore, this article provides novel guidance and considerations for virtual interviews during the COVID-19 pandemic.


Subject(s)
Cultural Diversity , Disabled Persons , Education, Medical, Graduate/standards , Physical and Rehabilitation Medicine , Prejudice/prevention & control , Workforce , Humans , Physical and Rehabilitation Medicine/education , Physical and Rehabilitation Medicine/organization & administration , Physical and Rehabilitation Medicine/standards , Prejudice/ethnology , Socioeconomic Factors , United States , Workforce/organization & administration , Workforce/standards
11.
Res Sq ; 2021 Jun 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1270324

ABSTRACT

Background: While pre-existing cardiovascular disease (CVD) appears to be associated with poor outcomes in patients with Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19), data on patients with CVD and concomitant cancer is limited. Evaluate the effect of underlying CVD and CVD risk factors with cancer history on in-hospital mortality in those with COVID-19. Methods: Data from symptomatic adults hospitalized with COVID-19 at 86 hospitals in the US enrolled in the American Heart Association’s COVID-19 CVD Registry was analyzed. The primary exposure was cancer history. The primary outcome was in-hospital death. Multivariable logistic regression models were adjusted for demographics, CVD risk factors, and CVD. Interaction between history of cancer with concomitant CVD and CVD risk factors were tested. Results: Among 8222 patients, 892 (10.8%) had a history of cancer and 1501 (18.3%) died. Cancer history had significant interaction with CVD risk factors of age, body mass index (BMI), and smoking history, but not underlying CVD itself. History of cancer was significantly associated with increased in-hospital death (among average age and BMI patients, adjusted odds ratio [aOR]=3.60, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 2.07-6.24; p<0.0001 in those with a smoking history and aOR=1.33, 95%CI: 1.01 - 1.76; p=0.04 in non-smokers). Among the cancer subgroup, prior use of chemotherapy within 2 weeks of admission was associated with in-hospital death (aOR=1.72, 95%CI: 1.05-2.80; p=0.03). Underlying CVD demonstrated a numerical but statistically nonsignificant trend toward increased mortality (aOR=1.18, 95% CI: 0.99 - 1.41; p=0.07). Conclusion: Among hospitalized COVID-19 patients, cancer history was a predictor of in-hospital mortality. Notably, among cancer patients, recent use of chemotherapy, but not underlying CVD itself, was associated with worse survival. These findings have important implications in cancer therapy considerations and vaccine distribution in cancer patients with and without underlying CVD and CVD risk factors.

12.
Bull World Health Organ ; 99(2): 155-161, 2021 Feb 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1261337

ABSTRACT

Restrictive measures imposed because of the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic have resulted in severe social, economic and health effects. Some countries have considered the use of immunity certification as a strategy to relax these measures for people who have recovered from the infection by issuing these individuals a document, commonly called an immunity passport. This document certifies them as having protective immunity against severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2), the virus that causes COVID-19. The World Health Organization has advised against the implementation of immunity certification at present because of uncertainty about whether long-term immunity truly exists for those who have recovered from COVID-19 and concerns over the reliability of the proposed serological test method for determining immunity. Immunity certification can only be considered if scientific thresholds for assuring immunity are met, whether based on antibodies or other criteria. However, even if immunity certification became well supported by science, it has many ethical issues in terms of different restrictions on individual liberties and its implementation process. We examine the main considerations for the ethical acceptability of immunity certification to exempt individuals from restrictive measures during the COVID-19 pandemic. As well as needing to meet robust scientific criteria, the ethical acceptability of immunity certification depends on its uses and policy objectives and the measures in place to reduce potential harms, and prevent disproportionate burdens on non-certified individuals and violation of individual liberties and rights.


Les restrictions imposées dans le cadre de la lutte contre la pandémie de maladie à coronavirus 2019 (COVID-19) ont eu de lourdes conséquences économiques, sociales et sanitaires. Certains pays ont envisagé la mise en place d'une stratégie visant à alléger ces restrictions pour les individus guéris en leur octroyant un document communément appelé «passeport d'immunité¼. Ce document atteste qu'ils ont développé une immunité protectrice contre le coronavirus 2 du syndrome respiratoire aigu sévère (SARS-CoV-2), le virus à l'origine de la COVID-19. L'Organisation mondiale de la Santé a déconseillé l'usage du certificat d'immunité pour l'instant, car l'incertitude demeure quant à l'existence réelle d'une immunité à long terme pour ceux qui se sont remis de la COVID-19. En outre, la fiabilité des tests sérologiques censés déterminer si l'individu est immunisé n'est pas avérée. Un tel certificat ne peut être instauré que si les seuils scientifiques en matière d'immunité sont respectés, qu'ils soient fondés sur les anticorps ou sur d'autres critères. Néanmoins, même si le certificat d'immunité est désormais bien accepté par la science, il s'accompagne de nombreuses questions d'ordre éthique en ce qui concerne la limitation des libertés individuelles et la mise en œuvre. Dans le présent document, nous examinons les principales considérations à prendre en compte pour garantir l'acceptabilité éthique du certificat d'immunité visant à lever les mesures de restriction pour certaines personnes durant la pandémie de COVID-19. Cette acceptabilité éthique dépend non seulement de son degré de conformité à des critères scientifiques stricts, mais aussi de son usage, des objectifs politiques ainsi que des mesures mises en place pour atténuer les préjudices potentiels et éviter d'imposer une charge disproportionnée sur les individus dépourvus de certificat, ou de bafouer les droits et libertés de tout un chacun.


Las medidas restrictivas impuestas a causa de la pandemia de la enfermedad coronavirus de 2019 (COVID-19) han tenido graves efectos sociales, económicos y sanitarios. Algunos países han considerado la posibilidad de utilizar la certificación de inmunidad como estrategia para flexibilizar dichas medidas para las personas que se han recuperado de la infección mediante la expedición a dichas personas de un documento, comúnmente denominado pasaporte de inmunidad. Este documento certifica que han desarrollado inmunidad protectora contra el coronavirus-2 del síndrome respiratorio agudo severo (SARS-CoV-2), el virus que causa la COVID-19. La Organización Mundial de la Salud ha desaconsejado la aplicación de la certificación de la inmunidad en la actualidad debido a la incertidumbre sobre si existe realmente una inmunidad a largo plazo para quienes se han recuperado de la COVID-19 y a las preocupaciones sobre la fiabilidad del método de prueba serológica propuesto para determinar la inmunidad. La certificación de la inmunidad solo puede considerarse si se cumplen los umbrales científicos para asegurar la inmunidad, ya sea que se basen en anticuerpos o en otros criterios. Sin embargo, incluso si la certificación de la inmunidad llegara a estar bien respaldada por la ciencia, tiene muchas cuestiones éticas en cuanto a las diferentes restricciones de las libertades individuales y su proceso de aplicación. Examinamos las principales consideraciones sobre la aceptabilidad ética de la certificación de la inmunidad para eximir a los individuos de las medidas restrictivas durante la pandemia de la COVID-19. Además de necesitar cumplir criterios científicos sólidos, la aceptabilidad ética de la certificación de inmunidad depende de sus usos y objetivos de política y de las medidas que se apliquen para reducir los posibles daños y evitar que se impongan cargas desproporcionadas a las personas que no cuenten con dicha certificación y se violen las libertades y derechos individuales.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Serological Testing/ethics , COVID-19/diagnosis , Certification/ethics , Pandemics , Public Health/ethics , Humans , Immunity, Humoral
14.
J Chem Inf Model ; 61(6): 2780-2787, 2021 06 28.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1246311

ABSTRACT

In the Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) genome, open reading frames (ORFs) encode for viral accessory proteins. Among these, Orf7a structurally resembles the members of the immunoglobulin (Ig) superfamily and intracellular adhesion molecules (ICAMs), in particular. ICAMs are involved in integrin binding through lymphocyte function-associated antigen 1 (LFA-1). Based on such considerations and on previous findings on SARS-CoV, it has been postulated that the formation of the LFA-1/Orf7a complex could contribute to SARS-CoV-2 infectivity and pathogenicity. With the current work, we aim at providing insight into this macromolecular assembly, taking advantage of the recently reported SARS-CoV-2 Orf7a structure. Protein-protein docking, molecular dynamics (MD) simulations, and a Molecular Mechanical-Generalized Born Surface Area (MM-GBSA)-based stage were enrolled to provide refined models.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Humans , Lymphocyte Function-Associated Antigen-1 , Molecular Docking Simulation , Viral Proteins
15.
J Health Psychol ; 27(6): 1462-1469, 2022 May.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1226843

ABSTRACT

This research investigated how implicit theories of health and consideration of future consequences influence people's engagement in health-protective behaviors during the COVID-19 pandemic in China. Three hundred and ninety Chinese completed the study during the peak period of COVID-19 pandemic in China. Gender, education level, implicit theories of health, and consideration of future consequences were significant predictors of people's engagement in health-protective behaviors. Consideration of future consequences mediated the effect of implicit (incremental) theories of health on people's engagement in health-protective behaviors. Implications of the current research for promoting engagement in health-protective behaviors during pandemics of infectious diseases and directions for future research are discussed.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , China/epidemiology , Health Behavior , Humans , Pandemics/prevention & control , SARS-CoV-2
16.
Asian Bioeth Rev ; 12(2): 85, 2020 Jun.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1225084

ABSTRACT

[This corrects the article DOI: 10.1007/s41649-020-00125-3.].

17.
Minerva Gastroenterol (Torino) ; 67(3): 283-288, 2021 Sep.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1224412

ABSTRACT

World Gastroenterology Organization define acute on chronic liver failure (ACLF) a syndrome in patients with chronic liver disease with or without previously diagnosed cirrhosis, characterized by acute hepatic decompensation resulting in liver failure and one or more extrahepatic organ failures, associated with increased mortality up to three months. A-56-year-old gentleman with alcohol related liver cirrhosis (ARLC) and history of variceal bleeding with insertion of transjugular intrahepatic porto-systemic stent shunt presented with two days history of fever, dry cough and worsening of the sensory. The severe acute respiratory coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) nasopharingeal C-reactive protein test was positive. X-ray showed multiple patchy ground glass opacities in both lungs. Despite the therapy, the clinical and laboratory picture deteriorated rapidly. The patient succumbed on day 14 with multi-organ-failure. SARS-Cov-2 infection can overlap with pre-existing chronic liver disease or induce liver damage directly or indirectly. From the data of the literature and from what is inferred from the case report it clearly emerges that alcohol related liver disease (ALD) patients are particularly vulnerable to SARS-Cov-2 infection. Thereafter, some considerations can be deduced from the analysis of the case report. In subjects with pre-existing cirrhosis hepatologists should play more attention to hepatic injury and monitor risk of hepatic failure caused by coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). It is appropriate to promptly define the alcoholic etiology and investigate whether the patient is actively consuming. In fact, withdrawal symptoms may be present, and the prognosis of these patients is also worse. Physicians should be alerted to the possibility of the development of ACLF in this population, hepatotoxic drugs should be avoided, it is recommended to use of hepatoprotective therapy to mitigate the negative impact of COVID-19, and it is mandatory to administer anti COVID-19 vaccine to patients with alcohol related liver cirrhosis.


Subject(s)
Acute-On-Chronic Liver Failure/etiology , Alcoholism/complications , COVID-19/complications , Liver Cirrhosis/complications , Humans , Male , Middle Aged
18.
Cleve Clin J Med ; 2021 May 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1222247

ABSTRACT

Pregnant women are also affected by COVID-19, with infection rates similar to nonpregnant women. Labor and delivery by a women with COVID-19 presents unique challenges for ensuring the safety of the mother, fetus, and newborn as well as the safety of clinicians and other healthcare personnel. In this article, we present perinatal obstetric anesthetic management strategies derived from the best available evidence to provide guidance in caring for the obstetric patient with COVID-19.

19.
Front Public Health ; 9: 630449, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1207793

ABSTRACT

COVID-19 has disrupted everyday life worldwide and is the first disease event since the 1918 H1N1 Spanish influenza (flu) pandemic to demand an urgent global healthcare response. There has been much debate on whether the damage of COVID-19 is due predominantly to the pathogen itself or our response to it. We compare SARS-CoV-2 against three other major pandemics (1347 Black Death, 1520's new world smallpox outbreaks, and 1918 Spanish Flu pandemic) over the course of 700 years to unearth similarities and differences in pathogen, social and medical context, human response and behavior, and long-term social and economic impact that should be used to shape COVID-19 decision-making. We conclude that <100 years ago, pandemic disease events were still largely uncontrolled and unexplained. The extensive damage wreaked by historical pandemics on health, economy, and society was a function of pathogen characteristics and lack of public health resources. Though there remain many similarities in patterns of disease spread and response from 1300 onwards, the major risks posed by COVID-19 arise not from the pathogen, but from indirect effects of control measures on health and core societal activities. Our understanding of the epidemiology and effective treatment of this virus has rapidly improved and attention is shifting toward the identification of long-term control strategies that balance consideration of health in at risk populations, societal behavior, and economic impact. Policymakers should use lessons from previous pandemics to develop appropriate risk assessments and control plans for now-endemic COVID-19, and for future pandemics.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Influenza A Virus, H1N1 Subtype , Influenza Pandemic, 1918-1919 , Influenza, Human , History, 20th Century , Humans , Influenza, Human/epidemiology , SARS-CoV-2
20.
J Ethnobiol Ethnomed ; 17(1): 30, 2021 Apr 26.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1204095

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: COVID-19 has caused worldwide fear and uncertainty. Historically, the biomedical disease paradigm established its dominance in tackling emerging infectious illnesses mainly due to innovation in medication and advances in technology. Traditional and religious remedies have emerged as plausible options for prevention and treatment of COVID-19, especially in Africa and Asia. The appeal of religious and traditional therapies against COVID-19 in the African setting must be understood within the historical, social, and political context. This study explored how women and community members dealt with suspected symptoms of COVID-19 in Mwanza, Tanzania. METHODS: This study was conducted in Nyamagana and Ilemela districts of Mwanza, Tanzania, between July and August 2020. We conducted 18 mobile phone in-depth interviews with a purposively selected sample of women aged 27-57 years participating in an existing longitudinal study. For safety reasons, smart mobile phones were used to collect the data. Each interview was audio recorded after obtaining verbal consent from the participants. The audio files were transferred to computers for analysis. Four researchers conducted a multistage, inductive analysis of the data. RESULTS: Participants reported wide use and perceived high efficacy of traditional remedies and prayer to prevent and treat suspected symptoms of COVID-19. Use was either alone or combined with public health recommendations such as hand washing and crowd avoidance. Despite acknowledging that a pathogen causes COVID-19, participants attested to the relevance and power of traditional herbal medication and prayer to curb COVID-19. Four main factors underline the symbolic efficacy of the traditional and religious treatment paradigms: personal, communal, and official reinforcement of their efficacy; connection to local knowledge and belief systems; the failure of biomedicine to offer a quick and effective solution; and availability. CONCLUSIONS: In the context of emerging contagious illnesses, communities turn to resilient and trusted treatment paradigms to quell fear and embrace hope. To tackle emerging infections effectively, it is essential to engage the broader sociopolitical landscape, including communal considerations of therapeutic efficacy.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/therapy , Medicine, African Traditional , Adult , COVID-19/prevention & control , Complementary Therapies , Faith Healing , Female , Humans , Interviews as Topic , Longitudinal Studies , Middle Aged , Tanzania
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