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1.
Pediatr Emerg Care ; 38(1): e398-e403, 2022 Jan 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1767003

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) in pediatric patients has been associated with low risk of concomitant bacterial infection. However, in children with severe disease, it occurs in 22% to 50% of patients. As viral testing becomes routine, bacterial codetections are increasingly identified in patients with non-RSV viruses. We hypothesized, among patients intubated for respiratory failure secondary to suspected infection, there are similar rates of codetection between RSV and non-RSV viral detections. METHODS: This retrospective chart review, conducted over a 5-year period, included all patients younger than 2 years who required intubation secondary to respiratory failure from an infectious etiology in a single pediatric emergency department. Patients intubated for noninfectious causes were excluded. RESULTS: We reviewed 274 patients, of which 181 had positive viral testing. Of these, 48% were RSV-positive and 52% were positive for viruses other than RSV. Codetection of bacteria was found in 76% (n = 65; 95% confidence interval [CI], 66%, 84%) of RSV-positive patients and 66% (n = 63, 95% CI: 57%, 76%) of patients positive with non-RSV viruses. Among patients with negative viral testing, 33% had bacterial growth on lower respiratory culture. Male sex was the only patient-related factor associated with increased odds of codetection (odds ratio [OR], 2.2; 95% CI, 1.08-4.38). The odds of codetection between RSV-positive patients and non-RSV viruses were not significantly different (OR, 1.3; 95% CI, 0.62-2.71). CONCLUSIONS: Bacterial codetection is common and not associated with anticipated patient-related factors or with a specific virus. These results suggest consideration of empiric antibiotics in infants with respiratory illness requiring intubation.


Subject(s)
Bacterial Infections , Respiratory Syncytial Virus Infections , Respiratory Syncytial Virus, Human , Respiratory Tract Infections , Bacteria , Child , Humans , Infant , Male , Respiratory Syncytial Virus Infections/complications , Respiratory Syncytial Virus Infections/diagnosis , Respiratory Syncytial Virus Infections/epidemiology , Respiratory Tract Infections/diagnosis , Respiratory Tract Infections/epidemiology , Retrospective Studies
2.
Minerva Gastroenterol (Torino) ; 67(3): 283-288, 2021 Sep.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1485664

ABSTRACT

World Gastroenterology Organization define acute on chronic liver failure (ACLF) a syndrome in patients with chronic liver disease with or without previously diagnosed cirrhosis, characterized by acute hepatic decompensation resulting in liver failure and one or more extrahepatic organ failures, associated with increased mortality up to three months. A-56-year-old gentleman with alcohol related liver cirrhosis (ARLC) and history of variceal bleeding with insertion of transjugular intrahepatic porto-systemic stent shunt presented with two days history of fever, dry cough and worsening of the sensory. The severe acute respiratory coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) nasopharingeal C-reactive protein test was positive. X-ray showed multiple patchy ground glass opacities in both lungs. Despite the therapy, the clinical and laboratory picture deteriorated rapidly. The patient succumbed on day 14 with multi-organ-failure. SARS-Cov-2 infection can overlap with pre-existing chronic liver disease or induce liver damage directly or indirectly. From the data of the literature and from what is inferred from the case report it clearly emerges that alcohol related liver disease (ALD) patients are particularly vulnerable to SARS-Cov-2 infection. Thereafter, some considerations can be deduced from the analysis of the case report. In subjects with pre-existing cirrhosis hepatologists should play more attention to hepatic injury and monitor risk of hepatic failure caused by coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). It is appropriate to promptly define the alcoholic etiology and investigate whether the patient is actively consuming. In fact, withdrawal symptoms may be present, and the prognosis of these patients is also worse. Physicians should be alerted to the possibility of the development of ACLF in this population, hepatotoxic drugs should be avoided, it is recommended to use of hepatoprotective therapy to mitigate the negative impact of COVID-19, and it is mandatory to administer anti COVID-19 vaccine to patients with alcohol related liver cirrhosis.


Subject(s)
Acute-On-Chronic Liver Failure/etiology , Alcoholism/complications , COVID-19/complications , Liver Cirrhosis/complications , Humans , Male , Middle Aged
3.
Pharmacotherapy ; 40(5): 416-437, 2020 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1449937

ABSTRACT

The outbreak of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) has evolved into an emergent global pandemic. Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) can manifest on a spectrum of illness from mild disease to severe respiratory failure requiring intensive care unit admission. As the incidence continues to rise at a rapid pace, critical care teams are faced with challenging treatment decisions. There is currently no widely accepted standard of care in the pharmacologic management of patients with COVID-19. Urgent identification of potential treatment strategies is a priority. Therapies include novel agents available in clinical trials or through compassionate use, and other drugs, repurposed antiviral and immunomodulating therapies. Many have demonstrated in vitro or in vivo potential against other viruses that are similar to SARS-CoV-2. Critically ill patients with COVID-19 have additional considerations related to adjustments for organ impairment and renal replacement therapies, complex lists of concurrent medications, limitations with drug administration and compatibility, and unique toxicities that should be evaluated when utilizing these therapies. The purpose of this review is to summarize practical considerations for pharmacotherapy in patients with COVID-19, with the intent of serving as a resource for health care providers at the forefront of clinical care during this pandemic.


Subject(s)
Antiviral Agents/administration & dosage , Antiviral Agents/adverse effects , Coronavirus Infections/drug therapy , Immunomodulation , Pneumonia, Viral/drug therapy , Adenosine Monophosphate/administration & dosage , Adenosine Monophosphate/adverse effects , Adenosine Monophosphate/analogs & derivatives , Adrenal Cortex Hormones , Alanine/administration & dosage , Alanine/adverse effects , Alanine/analogs & derivatives , Antibodies, Monoclonal, Humanized/administration & dosage , Antibodies, Monoclonal, Humanized/adverse effects , Azetidines/administration & dosage , Azetidines/adverse effects , Betacoronavirus , COVID-19 , Chloroquine/administration & dosage , Chloroquine/adverse effects , Coronavirus Infections/therapy , Drug Combinations , Humans , Hydroxychloroquine/administration & dosage , Hydroxychloroquine/adverse effects , Immunization, Passive , Interferon-alpha/administration & dosage , Interferon-alpha/adverse effects , Lopinavir/administration & dosage , Lopinavir/adverse effects , Nelfinavir/administration & dosage , Nelfinavir/adverse effects , Nitro Compounds , Pandemics , Purines , Pyrazoles , Ribavirin/administration & dosage , Ribavirin/adverse effects , Ritonavir/administration & dosage , Ritonavir/adverse effects , SARS-CoV-2 , Sulfonamides/administration & dosage , Sulfonamides/adverse effects , Thiazoles/administration & dosage , Thiazoles/adverse effects
5.
Res Sq ; 2021 Jun 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1270324

ABSTRACT

Background: While pre-existing cardiovascular disease (CVD) appears to be associated with poor outcomes in patients with Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19), data on patients with CVD and concomitant cancer is limited. Evaluate the effect of underlying CVD and CVD risk factors with cancer history on in-hospital mortality in those with COVID-19. Methods: Data from symptomatic adults hospitalized with COVID-19 at 86 hospitals in the US enrolled in the American Heart Association’s COVID-19 CVD Registry was analyzed. The primary exposure was cancer history. The primary outcome was in-hospital death. Multivariable logistic regression models were adjusted for demographics, CVD risk factors, and CVD. Interaction between history of cancer with concomitant CVD and CVD risk factors were tested. Results: Among 8222 patients, 892 (10.8%) had a history of cancer and 1501 (18.3%) died. Cancer history had significant interaction with CVD risk factors of age, body mass index (BMI), and smoking history, but not underlying CVD itself. History of cancer was significantly associated with increased in-hospital death (among average age and BMI patients, adjusted odds ratio [aOR]=3.60, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 2.07-6.24; p<0.0001 in those with a smoking history and aOR=1.33, 95%CI: 1.01 - 1.76; p=0.04 in non-smokers). Among the cancer subgroup, prior use of chemotherapy within 2 weeks of admission was associated with in-hospital death (aOR=1.72, 95%CI: 1.05-2.80; p=0.03). Underlying CVD demonstrated a numerical but statistically nonsignificant trend toward increased mortality (aOR=1.18, 95% CI: 0.99 - 1.41; p=0.07). Conclusion: Among hospitalized COVID-19 patients, cancer history was a predictor of in-hospital mortality. Notably, among cancer patients, recent use of chemotherapy, but not underlying CVD itself, was associated with worse survival. These findings have important implications in cancer therapy considerations and vaccine distribution in cancer patients with and without underlying CVD and CVD risk factors.

6.
Saudi Med J ; 42(6): 589-611, 2021 Jun.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1257242

ABSTRACT

Extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) is considered as a supportive treatment that provides circulatory and ventilatory support and can be thought off as a bridge to organ recovery. Since 2009, it has been applied as a rescue treatment for patients with severe adult respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) mainly due to viral causes. In December 2019, several patients presented with a constellation of symptoms of viral pneumonia in China. A new strain of the corona virus family, called COVID-19, has been discovered to be the cause of this severe mysterious illness that was named severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS­CoV­2). This new virus continued to spread across the globe leading to the World Health Organization announcing it as a pandemic in the early 2020. By the end of March 2021, the number of COVID-19 cases worldwide exceeded 126 million cases. In Saudi Arabia, the first confirmed case of COVID-19 was reported in the 2nd March 2020. By the end of March 2021, the total number of confirmed COVID-19 cases in Saudi Arabia is just above 360,000. In anticipation of the need of ECMO for the treatment of patients with SARS­CoV­2 based on the previous Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus pandemic experience, the Saudi Extra-Corporeal Life Support (ECLS) chapter that is under the umbrella of the Saudi Critical Care Society (SCCS) convened a working group of ECMO experts. The mission of this group was to formulate a guidance for the use of ECMO as a last resort for patients with severe ARDS, especially with COVID-19 based on available evidence. The ECLS-SCCS chapter wanted to generate a document that can be used to simple guide, with a focus on safety, to provide ECMO service for patients with severe ARDS with a special focus on SARS­CoV­2.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/therapy , Extracorporeal Membrane Oxygenation/methods , Pneumonia, Viral/therapy , Pneumonia, Viral/virology , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/therapy , Adult , Animals , COVID-19/virology , Humans , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Saudi Arabia
7.
World J Gastrointest Oncol ; 13(5): 440-452, 2021 May 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1248324

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has made it more challenging for patients to undergo yttrium-90 (Y-90) radioembolization (RE). Same day Y-90 RE provides an opportunity to minimize logistical challenges and infection risk associated with COVID-19, thus improving patient access. AIM: To describe the use of same day Y-90 RE with routine single photon emission computed tomography/computed tomography (SPECT/CT) in order to optimize therapy. METHODS: All patients were selected for Y-90 RE through a multidisciplinary tumor board, and were screened and tested for COVID-19 infection per institutional protocol. A same day procedure was developed, consisting of angiography, imaging, and Y-90 resin particle delivery. Routine SPECT/CT after technetium-99m macroaggregated albumin (Tc-99m MAA) administration was performed for assessment of arterial supply, personalized dosimetry, and extrahepatic activity. Post-treatment Y-90 bremsstrahlung SPECT/CT was performed for confirmation of particle delivery, by utilization of energy windowing to limit signal from previously administered Tc-99m MAA particles. RESULTS: A total of 14 patients underwent same day Y-90 RE between March and June 2020. Mean lung shunt fraction was 6.13% (range 3.5%-13.1%). Y-90 RE was performed for a single lesion in 7 patients, while the remaining 7 patients had treatment of multifocal lesions. The largest lesion measured 8.3 cm. All patients tolerated the procedure well and were discharged the same day. CONCLUSION: Same day Y-90 RE with resin-based microspheres is feasible, and provides an opportunity to mitigate infection risk and logistical challenges associated with the COVID-19 pandemic and beyond. We recommend consideration of SPECT/CT, especially among patients with complex malignancies, for the potential to improve outcomes and eligibility of patients to undergo same day Y-90 RE.

8.
Ann Med ; 53(1): 777-785, 2021 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1246573

ABSTRACT

The coronavirus SARS-CoV-2, the aetiological agent of COVID-19 disease, is representing a worldwide threat for the medical community and the society at large so that it is being defined as "the twenty-first-century disease". Often associated with a severe cytokine storm, leading to more severe cases, it is mandatory to block such occurrence early in the disease course, to prevent the patients from having more severe, sometimes fatal, outcomes. In this framework, early detection of "danger signals", possibly represented by alarmins, can represent one of the most promising strategies to effectively tailor the disease and to better understand the underlying mechanisms eventually leading to death or severe consequences. In light of such considerations, the present article aims at evaluating the role of alarmins in patients affected by COVID-19 disease and the relationship of such compounds with the most commonly reported comorbidities. The conducted researches demonstrated yet poor literature on this specific topic, however preliminarily confirming a role for danger signals in the amplification of the inflammatory reaction associated with SARS-CoV-2 infection. As such, a number of chronic conditions, including metabolic syndrome, gastrointestinal and respiratory diseases, in turn, associated with higher levels of alarmins, both foster the infection and predispose to a worse prognosis. According to these preliminary data, prompt detection of high levels of alarmins in patients with COVID-19 and co-morbidities could suggest an immediate intense anti-inflammatory treatment.Key messageAlarmins have a role in the amplification of the inflammatory reaction associated with SARS-CoV-2 infectiona prompt detection of high levels of alarmins in patients with COVID-19 could suggest an immediate intense anti-inflammatory treatment.


Subject(s)
Alarmins/immunology , COVID-19/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Animals , COVID-19/virology , Comorbidity , Cytokine Release Syndrome/immunology , Cytokine Release Syndrome/virology , Humans , Inflammation/immunology , Inflammation/virology , Prognosis , Severity of Illness Index
9.
Minerva Gastroenterol (Torino) ; 67(3): 283-288, 2021 Sep.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1224412

ABSTRACT

World Gastroenterology Organization define acute on chronic liver failure (ACLF) a syndrome in patients with chronic liver disease with or without previously diagnosed cirrhosis, characterized by acute hepatic decompensation resulting in liver failure and one or more extrahepatic organ failures, associated with increased mortality up to three months. A-56-year-old gentleman with alcohol related liver cirrhosis (ARLC) and history of variceal bleeding with insertion of transjugular intrahepatic porto-systemic stent shunt presented with two days history of fever, dry cough and worsening of the sensory. The severe acute respiratory coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) nasopharingeal C-reactive protein test was positive. X-ray showed multiple patchy ground glass opacities in both lungs. Despite the therapy, the clinical and laboratory picture deteriorated rapidly. The patient succumbed on day 14 with multi-organ-failure. SARS-Cov-2 infection can overlap with pre-existing chronic liver disease or induce liver damage directly or indirectly. From the data of the literature and from what is inferred from the case report it clearly emerges that alcohol related liver disease (ALD) patients are particularly vulnerable to SARS-Cov-2 infection. Thereafter, some considerations can be deduced from the analysis of the case report. In subjects with pre-existing cirrhosis hepatologists should play more attention to hepatic injury and monitor risk of hepatic failure caused by coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). It is appropriate to promptly define the alcoholic etiology and investigate whether the patient is actively consuming. In fact, withdrawal symptoms may be present, and the prognosis of these patients is also worse. Physicians should be alerted to the possibility of the development of ACLF in this population, hepatotoxic drugs should be avoided, it is recommended to use of hepatoprotective therapy to mitigate the negative impact of COVID-19, and it is mandatory to administer anti COVID-19 vaccine to patients with alcohol related liver cirrhosis.


Subject(s)
Acute-On-Chronic Liver Failure/etiology , Alcoholism/complications , COVID-19/complications , Liver Cirrhosis/complications , Humans , Male , Middle Aged
10.
Aesthet Surg J ; 41(10): NP1347-NP1348, 2021 09 14.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1214479
11.
Ethique Sante ; 18(2): 134-141, 2021 Jun.
Article in French | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1201513

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: The current new SARS-CoV-2 pandemic has had a profound impact on medical practice. The objective was to analyse the ethical questions raised by the French ENT community during the first wave of COVID-19 infections. METHODS: Four open-ended questions concerning ethical considerations in ENT were sent out in April 2020: (i) difficulties to care for COVID-19 positive patients; (ii) impact of the health crisis on COVID-19 negative patients; (iii) communication within the healthcare teams and with hospital staff; and (iv) management of information by the press, or national ENT societies. A thematic analysis was carried out and crossed with the epidemiological data of each respondent. RESULTS: Thirty-one responses from 13 different French Departments, including 21 from public institutions and 10 from private practice, median age of 45 and 17 men for 14 women, were analysed. The main ethical considerations concerned the management by ENTs of COVID-19 positive patients, the modification of practices in consultation and in the operating room, the fear of loss of chance for COVID-19 negative patients, the appropriate use of teleconsultations and teleworking and the consequences of fake-news for the population. CONCLUSION: In preparation of possible future pandemic outbreaks, key ethical aspects are to adapt patient management to local resources and infection prevalence, and circulate clear institutional guidelines.

12.
Am J Emerg Med ; 47: 192-197, 2021 Sep.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1193201

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA) accounts for a substantial proportion of sudden cardiac events globally, with hundreds of thousands of cases reported annually in the United States. The mortality rate of patients who suffer OHCA remains high despite extensive utilization of resources. OBJECTIVES: We aim to describe the current landscape of OHCA during the COVID-19 pandemic and provide an overview of the logistical challenges and resuscitation protocols amongst emergency medical service (EMS) personnel. DISCUSSION: Recent studies in Italy, New York City, and France characterized a significant increase in OHCA incidence in conjunction with the arrival of the 2019 coronavirus disease (COVID-19) pandemic. The presence of the pandemic challenged existing protocols for field resuscitation of cardiac arrest patients as the pandemic necessitated prioritization of EMS personnel and other healthcare providers' safety through stringent personal protective equipment (PPE) requirements. Studies also characterized difficulties encountered by the first responder system during COVID-19, such as dispatcher overload, increased response times, and adherence to PPE requirements, superimposed on PPE shortages. The lack of guidance by governmental agencies and specialty organizations to provide unified safety protocols for resuscitation led to the development of different resuscitative protocols globally. CONCLUSIONS: The ongoing COVID-19 pandemic modified the approach of first responders to OHCA. With the rise in OCHA during the pandemic in several geographic regions and the risks of disease transmission with superimposed equipment shortages, novel noninvasive, adjunct tools, such as point of care ultrasound, warrant consideration. Further prehospital studies should be considered to optimize OHCA and resource management while minimizing risk to personnel.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation/methods , Emergency Medical Services/statistics & numerical data , Out-of-Hospital Cardiac Arrest/mortality , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19/transmission , Emergency Responders , Humans , Incidence , Infection Control/methods , Internationality , Pandemics , Personal Protective Equipment/supply & distribution
13.
Anesth Analg ; 132(5): 1182-1190, 2021 05 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1190134

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) emerged as a public health crisis that disrupted normal patterns of health care in the New York City metropolitan area. In preparation for a large influx of critically ill patients, operating rooms (ORs) at NewYork-Presbyterian/Columbia University Irving Medical Center (NYP-Columbia) were converted into a novel intensive care unit (ICU) area, the operating room intensive care unit (ORICU). METHODS: Twenty-three ORs were converted into an 82-bed ORICU. Adaptations to the OR environment permitted the delivery of standard critical care therapies. Nonintensive-care-trained staff were educated on the basics of critical care and deployed in a hybrid staffing model. Anesthesia machines were repurposed as critical care ventilators, with accommodations to ensure reliable function and patient safety. To compare ORICU survivorship to outcomes in more traditional environments, we performed Kaplan-Meier survival analysis of all patients cared for in the ORICU, censoring data at the time of ORICU closure. We hypothesized that age, sex, and obesity may have influenced the risk of death. Thus, we estimated hazard ratios (HR) for death using Cox proportional hazard regression models with age, sex, and body mass index (BMI) as covariables and, separately, using older age (65 years and older) adjusted for sex and BMI. RESULTS: The ORICU cared for 133 patients from March 24 to May 14, 2020. Patients were transferred to the ORICU from other ICUs, inpatient wards, the emergency department, and other institutions. Patients remained in the ORICU until either transfer to another unit or death. As the hospital patient load decreased, patients were transferred out of the ORICU. This process was completed on May 14, 2020. At time of data censoring, 55 (41.4%) of patients had died. The estimated probability of survival 30 days after admission was 0.61 (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.52-0.69). Age was significantly associated with increased risk of mortality (HR = 1.05, 95% CI, 1.03-1.08, P < .001 for a 1-year increase in age). Patients who were ≥65 years were an estimated 3.17 times more likely to die than younger patients (95% CI, 1.78-5.63; P < .001) when adjusting for sex and BMI. CONCLUSIONS: A large number of critically ill COVID-19 patients were cared for in the ORICU, which substantially increased ICU capacity at NYP-Columbia. The estimated ORICU survival rate at 30 days was comparable to other reported rates, suggesting this was an effective approach to manage the influx of critically ill COVID-19 patients during a time of crisis.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/mortality , COVID-19/therapy , Hospital Mortality , Hospitals, Urban/organization & administration , Intensive Care Units/organization & administration , Operating Rooms/organization & administration , Aged , COVID-19/diagnosis , Critical Illness/therapy , Female , Hospital Mortality/trends , Hospitals, Urban/trends , Humans , Intensive Care Units/trends , Male , Middle Aged , New York City/epidemiology , Operating Rooms/trends , Organization and Administration , Survival Rate/trends , Treatment Outcome
14.
Adv Exp Med Biol ; 1308: 127-136, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1188049

ABSTRACT

The novel coronavirus outbreak caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) was recognized in late 2019 in Wuhan, China. Subsequently, the World Health Organization declared coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) as a pandemic on 11 March 2020. The proportion of potentially fatal coronavirus infections may vary by location, age, and underlying risk factors. However, acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) is the most frequent complication and leading cause of death in critically ill patients. Immunomodulatory and anti-inflammatory agents have received great attention as therapeutic strategies against COVID-19. Here, we review potential mechanisms and special clinical considerations of supplementation with curcumin as an anti-inflammatory and antioxidant compound in the setting of COVID-19 clinical research.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Curcumin , China , Curcumin/therapeutic use , Dietary Supplements , Humans , SARS-CoV-2
16.
J Patient Saf ; 17(4): 256-263, 2021 06 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1165581

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: This study aimed to determine the strategies used and critical considerations among an international sample of hospital leaders when mobilizing human resources in response to the clinical demands associated with the COVID-19 pandemic surge. METHODS: This was a cross-sectional, qualitative research study designed to investigate strategies used by health system leaders from around the world when mobilizing human resources in response to the global COVD-19 pandemic. Prospective interviewees were identified through nonprobability and purposive sampling methods from May to July 2020. The primary outcomes were the critical considerations, as perceived by health system leaders, when redeploying health care workers during the COVID-19 pandemic determined through thematic analysis of transcribed notes. Redeployment was defined as reassigning personnel to a different location or retraining personnel for a different task. RESULTS: Nine hospital leaders from 9 hospitals in 8 health systems located in 5 countries (United States, United Kingdom, New Zealand, Singapore, and South Korea) were interviewed. Six hospitals in 5 health systems experienced a surge of critically ill patients with COVID-19, and the remaining 3 hospitals anticipated, but did not experience, a similar surge. Seven of 8 hospitals redeployed their health care workforce, and 1 had a redeployment plan in place but did not need to use it. Thematic analysis of the interview notes identified 3 themes representing effective practices and lessons learned when preparing and executing workforce redeployment: process, leadership, and communication. Critical considerations within each theme were identified. Because of the various expertise of redeployed personnel, retraining had to be customized and a decentralized flexible strategy was implemented. There were 3 concerns regarding redeployed personnel. These included the fear of becoming infected, the concern over their skills and patient safety, and concerns regarding professional loss (such as loss of education opportunities in their chosen profession). Transparency via multiple different types of communications is important to prevent the development of doubt and rumors. CONCLUSIONS: Redeployment strategies should critically consider the process of redeploying and supporting the health care workforce, decentralized leadership that encourages and supports local implementation of system-wide plans, and communication that is transparent, regular, consistent, and informed by data.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/therapy , Delivery of Health Care/organization & administration , Health Personnel/organization & administration , Leadership , Pandemics , COVID-19/epidemiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Humans , New Zealand/epidemiology , Qualitative Research , Republic of Korea/epidemiology , Singapore/epidemiology , United Kingdom/epidemiology , United States/epidemiology
17.
Clin Nurse Spec ; 35(3): 138-146, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1165570

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: The COVID-19 pandemic has significantly challenged healthcare organizations across the globe, forcing innovation, resourcefulness, and flexibility. The purpose of this article is to describe the impact of clinical nurse specialist practice on COVID-19 preparation at a military hospital. ENVIRONMENT OF CARE CHANGES: The pandemic required facilities to develop expansion plans to facilitate a potential surge of COVID-19 patients. Clinical nurse specialists collaborated to develop a plan to expand care capacity and streamline testing while designating specific critical care and medical-surgical areas for COVID-19 patients. STAFFING CONSIDERATIONS: To capitalize on the expanded bed capacity, clinical nurse specialists identified and trained outpatient nursing staff to serve as nurse extenders. DISCUSSION: Early in the pandemic, a lack of strong evidence-based interventions to mitigate transmission and treatment necessitated the development of innovative solutions. The clinical nurse specialist team established designated transport routes for COVID-19 patients, leveraged technology to improve methods of care, and cultivated a culture of innovation by providing on-the-spot meaningful recognition to staff. CONCLUSION: As leaders in healthcare, clinical nurse specialists are change agents that work to maintain high-quality, safe patient care even during a global pandemic.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/nursing , Hospitals, Military/organization & administration , Nurse Clinicians/organization & administration , COVID-19/epidemiology , Humans , Leadership , Nursing Evaluation Research , United States/epidemiology
18.
Mult Scler Relat Disord ; 52: 102922, 2021 Jul.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1157623

ABSTRACT

A 32-year-old woman with highly active MS was infected with SARS-CoV-2 while on treatment with rituximab. She recovered and was symptom-free for 21 days before receiving rituximab and IVIg for comorbid hypogammaglobulinemia. Three days after the infusion she redeveloped respiratory symptoms and required admission. Three SARS-CoV-2 nasopharyngeal swabs and antibody testing was negative; however, bronchial alveolar lavage detected SARS-CoV-2. Reactivation of SARS-CoV-2 after rituximab for MS has not been reported but is a known risk in other conditions. The timing of anti-CD20 treatment after SARS-CoV-2 infection requires further investigation and individual consideration to reduce the risk of reactivation.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Multiple Sclerosis , Adult , Antigens, CD20 , Female , Humans , Rituximab , SARS-CoV-2
19.
J Clin Med ; 10(5)2021 Mar 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1136508

ABSTRACT

The COronaVIrus Disease 19 (COVID-19) pandemic is an emerging reality in nephrology. In a continuously changing scenario, we need to assess our patients' additional risk in terms of attending hemodialysis treatments, follow-up peritoneal dialysis, and kidney transplant visits. The prevalence of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-20 infection in the general population plays a pivotal role in estimating the additional COVID-19 risk in chronic kidney disease (CKD) patients. Unfortunately, local prevalence is often obscure, and when we have an estimation, we neglect the number of asymptomatic subjects in the same area and, consequently, the risk of infection in CKD patients. Furthermore, we still have the problem of managing COVID-19 diagnosis and the test's accuracy. Currently, the gold standard for SARS-CoV-2 detection is a real-time reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (rRT-PCR) on respiratory tract samples. rRT-PCR presents some vulnerability related to pre-analytic and analytic problems and could impact strongly on its diagnostic accuracy. Specifically, the operative proceedings to obtain the samples and the different types of diagnostic assay could affect the results of the test. In this scenario, knowing the local prevalence and the local screening test accuracy helps the clinician to perform preventive measures to limit the diffusion of COVID-19 in the CKD population.

20.
Front Physiol ; 12: 624052, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1127997

ABSTRACT

Since December 2019, the coronavirus 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has rapidly spread and overwhelmed healthcare systems worldwide, urging physicians to understand how to manage this novel infection. Early in the pandemic, more severe forms of COVID-19 have been observed in patients with cardiovascular comorbidities, who are often treated with renin-angiotensin aldosterone system (RAAS)-blockers, such as angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors (ACEIs) or angiotensin receptor blockers (ARBs), but whether these are indeed independent risk factors is unknown. The cellular receptor for the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) is the membrane-bound angiotensin converting enzyme 2 (ACE2), as for SARS-CoV(-1). Experimental data suggest that expression of ACE2 may be increased by RAAS-blockers, raising concerns that these drugs may facilitate viral cell entry. On the other hand, ACE2 is a key counter-regulator of the RAAS, by degrading angiotensin II into angiotensin (1-7), and may thereby mediate beneficial effects in COVID-19. These considerations have raised concerns about the management of these drugs, and early comments shed vivid controversy among physicians. This review will describe the homeostatic balance between ACE-angiotensin II and ACE2-angiotensin (1-7) and summarize the pathophysiological rationale underlying the debated role of the RAAS and its modulators in the context of the pandemic. In addition, we will review available evidence investigating the impact of RAAS blockers on the course and prognosis of COVID-19 and discuss why retrospective observational studies should be interpreted with caution. These considerations highlight the importance of solid evidence-based data in order to guide physicians in the management of RAAS-interfering drugs in the general population as well as in patients with more or less severe forms of SARS-CoV-2 infection.

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