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1.
Minerva Med ; 113(2): 281-290, 2022 Apr.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1847990

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The efficacy and safety of continuous positive airway pressure and respiratory physiotherapy outside the Intensive Care Unit during a pandemic. METHODS: In this cohort study performed in February-May 2020 in a large teaching hospital in Milan, COVID-19 patients with adult respiratory distress syndrome receiving continuous positive airway pressure (positive end-expiratory pressure =10 cm H2O, FiO2=0.6, daily treatment duration: 4×3h-cycles) and respiratory physiotherapy including pronation outside the Intensive Care Unit were followed-up. RESULTS: Of 90 acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) patients treated with continuous positive airway pressure (45/90, 50% pronated at least once) outside the Intensive Care Unit and with a median (interquartile) follow-up of 37 (11-46) days, 45 (50%) were discharged at home, 28 (31%) were still hospitalized, and 17 (19%) died. Continuous positive airway pressure failure was recorded for 35 (39%) patients. Patient mobilization was associated with reduced failure rates (P=0.033). No safety issues were observed. CONCLUSIONS: Continuous positive airway pressure with patient mobilization (including pronation) was effective and safe in patients with ARDS due to COVID-19 managed outside the Intensive Care Unit setting during the pandemic.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Respiratory Distress Syndrome , Adult , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/therapy , Cohort Studies , Continuous Positive Airway Pressure , Humans , Intensive Care Units , Pronation , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/therapy
2.
J Crit Care ; 62: 289-291, 2021 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1053518

ABSTRACT

It remains unclear if intubation and ventilation earlier in the disease course confers a survival advantage in acute respiratory distress syndrome. Our objective was to determine whether patients with COVID-19 who died following mechanical ventilation were more advanced in their disease compared to survivors. Forty-seven patients admitted directly to our centre received ventilation, of who 26 (57%) patients died. The rate of fall in SpO2:FiO2 ratio (p = 0.478) and increasing respiratory rate (p = 0.948) prior to IMV were similar between survivors and non-survivors. Our data support a trial of continuous positive airway pressure prior to IMV in patients with moderate-to-severe COVID-19 ARDS.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/mortality , COVID-19/physiopathology , Intubation, Intratracheal , Respiration, Artificial , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/mortality , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/physiopathology , COVID-19/therapy , Cohort Studies , Continuous Positive Airway Pressure , Disease Progression , Hospitalization , Humans , London , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/therapy , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2
3.
Expert Rev Respir Med ; 15(6): 853-857, 2021 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-990448

ABSTRACT

Objectives: In the present single-centered, retrospective, observational study, we reported findings from 78 consecutive laboratory-confirmed COVID-19 patients with moderate-to-severe acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) hospitalized in an intermediate Respiratory Intensive Care Unit, subdividing the patients into two groups according to their clinical outcome, dead patients and discharged patients.Methods: We further subdivided patients depending on the noninvasive respiratory support used during hospitalization.Results: In those patients who died, we found significant older age and higher multimorbidity and higher values of serum lactate dehydrogenase, C-reactive protein, and D-dimer. Among patients who were submitted to bilevel positive airway pressure (BPAP), those who died had a significant shorter number of days in overall length of stay and lower values of arterial oxygen partial pressure to fractional inspired oxygen ratio (PaO2/FiO2 ratio) compared to those who survived. No difference in all-cause mortality was observed between the two different noninvasive respiratory support groups [48% for continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) and 52% for BPAP].Conclusion: In COVID-19 patients with moderate-to-severe ARDS using BPAP in an intermediate level of hospital care had more factors associated to all-cause mortality (shorter length of stay and lower baseline PaO2/FiO2 ratio) compared to those who underwent CPAP.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/mortality , COVID-19/therapy , Continuous Positive Airway Pressure/methods , Intensive Care Units/statistics & numerical data , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , COVID-19/etiology , COVID-19/pathology , Cause of Death , Comorbidity , Critical Care/statistics & numerical data , Female , Hospital Mortality , Hospitalization/statistics & numerical data , Humans , Italy/epidemiology , Male , Middle Aged , Oxygen/therapeutic use , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/mortality , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/therapy , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/virology , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2/physiology
4.
Respir Physiol Neurobiol ; 280: 103489, 2020 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-626482

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: During the COVID-19 outbreak, a very high number of infected patients developed pneumonia and many of them complicated with acute respiratory distress syndrome. The optimal management of respiratory failure and the role of lung ultrasound imaging in the evaluation of efficacy of treatment are unknown. METHODS: In March 2020 we treated 18 patients with mild and moderate ARDS secondary to SARS-CoV-2 with non-invasive continuous positive airway pressure therapy (NI-CPAP). All patients underwent lung ultrasound imaging to verify the entity of lung recruitment after NI-CPAP initiation. RESULTS: After one hour of treatment we observed a significant improvement in PaO2/FiO2 ratio in 10 patients. Notably, only 50 % of them reached an effective improvement in lung aeration detectable with lung ultrasound. In the other 50 % or patients the improvement in PaO2/FiO2 might be related to blood redistribution and reverse of hypoxic vasoconstriction. CONCLUSION: NI- CPAP is a valid therapeutic option in mild and moderate ARDS secondary SARS-CoV-2. Lung recruitment detected by means of lung ultrasound is a relevant but not the exclusive mechanism that underlies the therapeutic efficacy of NI-CPAP in this clinical setting.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus , Continuous Positive Airway Pressure/methods , Coronavirus Infections/complications , Coronavirus Infections/therapy , Pneumonia, Viral/complications , Pneumonia, Viral/therapy , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/etiology , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/therapy , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections/diagnostic imaging , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnostic imaging , Prospective Studies , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/diagnostic imaging , SARS-CoV-2
5.
J Clin Med ; 9(4)2020 Apr 22.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-102095

ABSTRACT

Since the beginning of March 2020, the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has caused more than 13,000 deaths in Europe, almost 54% of which has occurred in Italy. The Italian healthcare system is experiencing a stressful burden, especially in terms of intensive care assistance. In fact, the main clinical manifestation of COVID-19 patients is represented by an acute hypoxic respiratory failure secondary to bilateral pulmonary infiltrates, that in many cases, results in an acute respiratory distress syndrome and requires an invasive ventilator support. A precocious respiratory support with non-invasive ventilation or high flow oxygen should be avoided to limit the droplets' air-dispersion and the healthcare workers' contamination. The application of a continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) by means of a helmet can represent an effective alternative to recruit diseased alveolar units and improve hypoxemia. It can also limit the room contamination, improve comfort for the patients, and allow for better clinical assistance with long-term tolerability. However, the initiation of a CPAP is not free from pitfalls. It requires a careful titration and monitoring to avoid a delayed intubation. Here, we discuss the rationale and some important considerations about timing, criteria, and monitoring requirements for patients with COVID-19 respiratory failure requiring a CPAP treatment.

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