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1.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 10678, 2021 05 21.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1238016

ABSTRACT

With an urgent need for bedside imaging of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), this study's main goal was to assess inter- and intraobserver agreement in lung ultrasound (LUS) of COVID-19 patients. In this single-center study we prospectively acquired and evaluated 100 recorded ten-second cine-loops in confirmed COVID-19 intensive care unit (ICU) patients. All loops were rated by ten observers with different subspeciality backgrounds for four times by each observer (400 loops overall) in a random sequence using a web-based rating tool. We analyzed inter- and intraobserver variability for specific pathologies and a semiquantitative LUS score. Interobserver agreement for both, identification of specific pathologies and assignment of LUS scores was fair to moderate (e.g., LUS score 1 Fleiss' κ = 0.27; subpleural consolidations Fleiss' κ = 0.59). Intraobserver agreement was mostly moderate to substantial with generally higher agreement for more distinct findings (e.g., lowest LUS score 0 vs. highest LUS score 3 (median Fleiss' κ = 0.71 vs. 0.79) or air bronchograms (median Fleiss' κ = 0.72)). Intraobserver consistency was relatively low for intermediate LUS scores (e.g. LUS Score 1 median Fleiss' κ = 0.52). We therefore conclude that more distinct LUS findings (e.g., air bronchograms, subpleural consolidations) may be more suitable for disease monitoring, especially with more than one investigator and that training material used for LUS in point-of-care ultrasound (POCUS) should pay refined attention to areas such as B-line quantification and differentiation of intermediate LUS scores.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/diagnostic imaging , Lung/diagnostic imaging , Point-of-Care Systems , SARS-CoV-2 , COVID-19/therapy , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Monitoring, Physiologic , Observer Variation , Prospective Studies , Ultrasonography
2.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 7752, 2021 04 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1174703

ABSTRACT

To explore the clinical application value of chest CT quantitative pulmonary inflammation index (PII) in the evaluation of the course and treatment outcome of COVID-19 pneumonia. One hundred and eighteen patients with COVID-19 pneumonia diagnosed by RT-PCR were analyzed retrospectively. The correlation between chest CT PII, clinical symptoms and laboratory examinations during the entire hospitalization period was compared. The average age of the patients was 46.0 ± 15 (range: 1-74) years. Of the 118 patients, 62 are male (52.5%) and 56 are female (47.5%). Among them, 116 patients recovered and were discharged, 2 patients died, and the median length of hospital stay was 22 (range: 9-41) days. On admission, 76.3% of the patients presented with fever, and the laboratory studies showed a decrease in lymphocyte (LYM) count and an increase in lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) levels, C-reactive protein (CRP) levels, and erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR). Within the studies' chest CTs, the median number of involved lung lobes was 4 (range: 0-5) and the median number of involved lung segments was 9 (range 0-20). The left lower lobe and the right lower lobe were the most likely areas to be involved (89.0% and 83.9%), and 84.7% of the patients had inflammatory changes in both lungs. The main manifestations on chest CT were ground glass opacities (31.4%), ground glass opacities and consolidation (20.3%), ground glass opacities and reticular patterns (32.2%), mixed type (13.6%), and white lungs (1.7%); common accompanying signs included linear opacities (55.9%), air bronchograms (46.6%), thick small vessel shadows (36.4%), and pleural hypertrophy (13.6%). The chest CT at discharge showed complete absorption of lesions in 19 cases (16.1%), but not in the remaining 99 cases. Lesions remained in a median of 3 lung lobes (range: 0-5). Residual lesions remained in a median of 5 lung segments (range: 0-20). The residual lesions mainly presented as ground glass opacities (61.0%), and the main accompanying sign was linear opacities (59.3%). Based on chest CT, the median maximum PII of lungs was 30.0% (range: 0-97.5%), and the median PII after discharge in the patients excluding the two deaths was 12.5% (range: 0-53.0%). PII was significantly negatively correlated with the LYM count and significantly positively correlated with body temperature, LDH, CRP, and ESR. There was no significant correlation between the PII and the white blood cell count, but the grade of PII correlated well with the clinical classification. PII can be used to monitor the severity and the treatment outcome of COVID-19 pneumonia, provide help for clinical classification, assist in treatment plan adjustments and aid assessments for discharge.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/diagnostic imaging , Lung/diagnostic imaging , Thorax/diagnostic imaging , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , COVID-19/therapy , Child , Child, Preschool , Female , Humans , Infant , Male , Middle Aged , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Tomography, X-Ray Computed , Treatment Outcome , Young Adult
3.
Ghana Med J ; 54(4): 253-263, 2020 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1167955

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has since December 2019 become a problem of global concern. Due to the virus' novelty and high infectivity, early diagnosis is key to curtailing spread. The knowledge and identification of chest Computerized Tomography (CT) features in Patients Under Investigation (PUI) for the disease would help in its management and containment. OBJECTIVES: To describe the chest CT findings of PUI for COVID-19 pneumonia referred to the Department of Radiology of the Korle Bu Teaching Hospital; as well as to determine the relationship between symptom onset and severity of the chest CT findings. METHODS: The study was retrospective and included 63 PUI for COVID-19 referred to the Department between 11th April, 2020 and 10th June, 2020, for non-enhanced chest CT imaging. Clinical data were obtained from patients' records and Reverse Transcriptase-Polymerase Chain Reaction (RT-PCR) results were acquired after the CT evaluation. RESULTS: The mean age in years was 51.1±19.9 SD. More males (52.8%) than females (47.2%) tested positive for COVID-19 and the age range for positive cases was 7 months to 86 years, with a mean of 53.2±21 SD years. Common features of COVID-19 pneumonia were bilateral posterior basal consolidations, Ground Glass Opacities (GGO) and air bronchograms. Findings were worse in patients scanned 5-9 days after onset of symptoms. CONCLUSION: Adequate knowledge of chest CT features of COVID-19 pneumonia, proves a valuable resource in triaging of symptomatic patients and consequent containment of the disease in the hospital setting. FUNDING: None declared.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/diagnostic imaging , Lung/diagnostic imaging , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnostic imaging , Aged , COVID-19/complications , Female , Ghana , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Pneumonia, Viral/pathology , Pneumonia, Viral/virology , Radiography, Thoracic , Retrospective Studies , Tertiary Care Centers , Tomography, X-Ray Computed
4.
Radiol Cardiothorac Imaging ; 2(2): e200130, 2020 Apr.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1155979

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: To assess whether certain CT chest features of patients with confirmed coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) may have short-term prognostic value. MATERIALS AND METHODS: One hundred-twenty consecutive symptomatic patients with COVID-19 infection who had undergone chest CT were enrolled in this retrospective study. Patients were categorized into three groups: routine inward hospitalization, intensive care unit admission, and deceased based on a short-term follow-up. Detailed initial CT features and distributional evaluation were recorded. RESULTS: The mean age in the deceased group was 70.7 years, significantly higher than the other two groups (P < .05). Ninety-four percent (113/120) of the patients had ground-glass opacities (GGO). Peripheral and lower zone predilection was present in most patients. Subpleural sparing and pleural effusion were seen in approximately 23% (28/120) and 17% (20/120) of the patients, respectively. The combined intensive care unit group and deceased patients had significantly more consolidation, air bronchograms, crazy paving, and central involvement of the lungs compared with routinely hospitalized patients (all P < .05). CONCLUSION: This study supports the previously described typical CT appearance of COVID-19 pneumonia with bilateral GGO, in peripheral distribution and lower lung zone predilection. Subpleural sparing and pleural effusion were seen approximately in one-fifth and one-sixth of the patients with COVID-19, respectively. Consolidation, air bronchograms, central lung involvement, crazy paving and pleural effusion on initial CT chest have potential prognostic values, the features more commonly observed in critically ill patients.© RSNA, 2020.

5.
Radiol Cardiothorac Imaging ; 2(2): e200126, 2020 Apr.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1155978

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: To compare radiologic characteristics of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pneumonia at thin-section CT on admission between patients with mild and severe disease. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Seventy patients with COVID-19 pneumonia who were admitted to Zhongnan Hospital of Wuhan University between January 20, 2020 and January 27, 2020 were enrolled. On the basis of the World Health Organization guidelines, 50 patients were categorized with the mild form and 20 with the severe form based on clinical conditions. Imaging features, clinical, and laboratory data were reviewed and compared. RESULTS: Patients with the severe form (median age, 65 years; interquartile range [IQR]: 54.75-75.00 years) were older than those with the mild form of disease (median age, 42.5 years; IQR: 32.75-58.50 years) (P < .001). Patients with the severe form of disease had more lung segments involved (median number of segments: 17.5 vs 7.5, P ≤ .001) and also larger opacities (median number of segments with opacities measuring 3 cm to less than 50% of the lung segment: 5.5 vs 2.0, P = .006; ≥ 50% of lung segment: 7.5 vs 0.0, P < .001). They also had more interlobular septal thickening (75% vs 28%, P < .001), higher prevalence of air bronchograms (70% vs 32%, P = .004), and pleural effusions (40% vs 14%, P = .017). CONCLUSION: Ground-glass opacities with or without consolidation in a peripheral and basilar predominant distribution were the most common findings in COVID-19 pneumonia. Patients with the severe form of the disease had more extensive opacification of the lung parenchyma than did patients with mild disease. Interlobular septal thickening, air bronchograms, and pleural effusions were also more prevalent in severe COVID-19.© RSNA, 2020.

6.
Transl Pediatr ; 10(1): 1-16, 2021 Jan.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1106651

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The confirmed coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) cases, caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), have exceeded 21 million (with more than 775,000 fatalities), and the number of children with COVID-19 is also increasing. This study aimed to summarize the chest imaging characteristics of pediatric COVID-19 cases and provide a reference for the diagnosis and control of pediatric COVID-19. METHODS: The study protocol was registered in PROSPERO, number CRD42020177391. Studies related to pediatric COVID-19 imaging manifestations were accessed from PubMed, Web of Science, and the Cochrane library databases, without language limitations. The publication date was limited to April 1, 2020, and it was updated on May 1 and May 27, 2020. Data normalization was determined with the Freeman-Tukey double arcsine transformation. Summarized incidences with 95% confidence intervals of various imaging manifestations were assessed by random-effects models. Heterogeneity was assessed with meta-regression and subgroup analyses, robustness with sensitivity analyses; and publication biases with Egger's test. RESULTS: Twenty-three with 517 cases were included in this study. The summarized incidence of chest computed tomography abnormalities in pediatric COVID-19 cases was 70%, which was lower than what has been seen in adults. The incidence of halo signs in pediatric COVID-19 cases was 26%, which is rarely seen in adult COVID-19 cases. The incidences of ground-glass opacities (GGOs), GGOs and consolidations, consolidations, reverse halo signs, crazy paving signs, pleural effusion, bronchopneumonia-like signs, air bronchograms, and increased lung markings were 40%, 25%, 10%, 2%, 4%, 1%, 15%, 12%, and 31%, respectively. Pericardial effusions were found in the computed tomography images of adult COVID-19 cases but were scarcely seen in the computed tomography images of pediatric COVID-19 cases. The incidences of bilateral lesions, unilateral lesions, and peripheral lesions were 35%, 22%, and 26%, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: Chest computed tomography imaging of pediatric COVID-19 cases resulted in various abnormalities that were milder than those of adults. This study will hopefully provide a reference to help identify pediatric COVID-19 cases.

7.
Int J Neurosci ; : 1-7, 2020 Dec 30.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-962252

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (Covid-19) can infect the respiratory system, as well as the central, peripheral nervous system, and muscles, leading to neurological symptoms and signs. The most common neurological symptoms are dizziness, headache, impaired consciousness, ataxia, hypogosis, hyposmia, neuralgia, and myalgia. The most common neurological diseases are acute cerebrovascular disease, epilepsy, acute hemorrhagic necrotizing encephalopathy, miyelitis, and Gullian-Barre syndrome. METHODS: In this case report, a patient infected with Covid-19 and diagnosed as neuromyelitis optica (NMO) with anamnesis, clinical and radiological findings is presented. RESULTS: A 50-year-old woman presented with weakness of both legs, urine retention, high fever, and cough. Spinal magnetic resonance imaging revealed expensive long-segment and centrally located demyelinating lesion extending from the cervical cord (at the level of C3) to the conus. Thoracic-computerized tomography revealed consolidation areas located on the lower segments of bilateral lungs and ground-glass density, air bronchograms, and peribronchial thickening surrounding these areas. Aquaporin-4 immune globulin-G was found to be positive. CONCLUSION: It was considered appropriate to present this case because of being the first case of parainfectious NMO considered to be induced by SARS-CoV-2.

8.
Insights Imaging ; 11(1): 118, 2020 Nov 23.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-940034

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), has rapidly spread worldwide since December 2019. Although the reference diagnostic test is a real-time reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), chest-computed tomography (CT) has been frequently used in diagnosis because of the low sensitivity rates of RT-PCR. CT findings of COVID-19 are well described in the literature and include predominantly peripheral, bilateral ground-glass opacities (GGOs), combination of GGOs with consolidations, and/or septal thickening creating a "crazy-paving" pattern. Longitudinal changes of typical CT findings and less reported findings (air bronchograms, CT halo sign, and reverse halo sign) may mimic a wide range of lung pathologies radiologically. Moreover, accompanying and underlying lung abnormalities may interfere with the CT findings of COVID-19 pneumonia. The diseases that COVID-19 pneumonia may mimic can be broadly classified as infectious or non-infectious diseases (pulmonary edema, hemorrhage, neoplasms, organizing pneumonia, pulmonary alveolar proteinosis, sarcoidosis, pulmonary infarction, interstitial lung diseases, and aspiration pneumonia). We summarize the imaging findings of COVID-19 and the aforementioned lung pathologies that COVID-19 pneumonia may mimic. We also discuss the features that may aid in the differential diagnosis, as the disease continues to spread and will be one of our main differential diagnoses some time more.

9.
Eur J Radiol ; 132: 109298, 2020 Nov.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-778813

ABSTRACT

RATIONALE AND OBJECTIVES: Identifying CT predictors of mortality in nonelderly healthy patients with COVID-19 pneumonia will aid to distinguish the most vulnerable patients in this age group and thus alter the management. We aimed to evaluate the prognostic value of multiple CT features of COVID-19 pneumonia on initial presentation in nonelderly patients without underlying medical conditions. METHODS: In this retrospective case-control study, thirty laboratory-confirmed COVID-19 patients with no known major underlying disease who underwent a chest CT scan and expired of pneumonia within the following 30 days after admission, were included as case group. Sixty control subjects individually matched on their age, gender, without underlying medical conditions, who received same-criteria standard care and were discharged from the hospital in 30-day follow-up were included in the control group. A conditional logistic regression model was applied. RESULTS: Applying a univariate conditional logistic regression model, it was revealed that bilateral lung disease, anterior involvement, central extension, GGO, consolidation, air bronchograms, pleural effusion, BMI ≥ 25 kg/m² and CT severity score were the significant preliminary predictors (all p-values < 0.05). Next, by applying a multivariate conditional logistic regression model, it was determined that the CT severity score is the only statistically significant CT predictor of mortality (Odds Ratio = 1.99, Confidence Interval: 1.01-4.06, p-value < 0.05). The ROC curve analysis revealed a score of 7.5 as the cut-off point of CT severity score with the highest sensitivity (0.83) and specificity (0.87). CONCLUSION: Our study demonstrates that CT severity score is a reliable predictor factor of mortality in nonelderly previously healthy individuals with COVID-19 pneumonia. Assessment of disease extension in addition to the morphological pattern is necessary for CT reports of COVID-19 patients. This may alert the clinicians to alter the management for this specific group of patients, even when they are clinically silent or have a mild presentation.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus , Coronavirus Infections/diagnosis , Coronavirus Infections/mortality , Lung/diagnostic imaging , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnosis , Pneumonia, Viral/mortality , Tomography, X-Ray Computed/methods , Adult , COVID-19 , Case-Control Studies , Female , Humans , Image Interpretation, Computer-Assisted/methods , Iran/epidemiology , Male , Pandemics , Predictive Value of Tests , Prognosis , ROC Curve , Reproducibility of Results , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Sensitivity and Specificity , Severity of Illness Index , Time
10.
Infez Med ; 28(3): 295-301, 2020 Sep 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-757701

ABSTRACT

Most studies evaluating chest computed tomography (CT) features in coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) have been small-sized and have presented varied findings. We aim to systematically review these studies and to conduct a meta-analysis of their results to provide a well-powered assessment of chest CT findings in patients with COVID-19. PubMed and EMBASE databases were systematically searched to identify published studies that evaluated chest CT findings in COVID-19 patients. Data regarding study characteristics and CT findings, including distribution of lesions, the lobe of lung involved, lesion densities, and radiological patterns, were extracted. Arcsine transformed proportions from individual studies were pooled using a random-effects model to derive pooled proportions (PPs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs). A total of fifty-four studies (n=2693 confirmed COVID-19 patients) were included in the final review. Prevalence of different CT findings varied across studies; however, the most common findings were bilateral pulmonary involvement (PP: 74.1% [68.4%, 79.5%]; I2 = 85.76%), ground glass opacification (PP: 64.6% [57.6%, 71.4%]; I2 = 91.52%), involvement of the left lower lobe (PP: 71.2% [58.9%, 82.1%]; I2 = 90.91%), and subpleural distribution of lesions (PP: 57.2% [39.0%, 74.3%]; I2 = 93.08%). Multivariate meta-regression revealed a positive association between prevalence of air bronchograms and average age of the population (p=0.013). Bilateral ground glass opacification, a subpleural distribution of lesions, and involvement of the left lower lobe were the most notable chest CT findings in COVID-19 patients.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus , Clinical Laboratory Techniques/methods , Coronavirus Infections/diagnostic imaging , Lung/diagnostic imaging , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnostic imaging , COVID-19 , COVID-19 Testing , Confidence Intervals , Coronavirus Infections/diagnosis , Female , Hospitalization , Humans , Male , Medical Records/statistics & numerical data , Pandemics , Radiography, Thoracic/methods , Regression Analysis , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Tomography, X-Ray Computed
11.
Diagn Interv Radiol ; 27(2): 188-194, 2021 Mar.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-724033

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), was first reported in Wuhan, China. The infection rapidly spread to more than 200 countries around the world. The clinical presentation of the disease may vary from mild illness to severe pneumonia such as acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). The chest computed tomography (CT) has an important complementary role in diagnosis of the disease. The predominant CT findings of the disease are ground glass opacities and consolidations located in subpleural areas of lower lobes. Widespread ground-glass opacities, consolidation, air bronchograms, central involvement of lung parenchyma, mediastinal lymphadenopathy are more common in patients with the severe form of the disease. CT imaging also guides in differentiation of alternative diagnosis or in assessment of associated pulmonary embolism during the course of the disease. In this pictorial review we aim to review the CT features of COVID-19 pneumonia and mention the changes throughout the disease process.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/diagnostic imaging , Tomography, X-Ray Computed , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Thorax/diagnostic imaging , Young Adult
12.
Int J Med Sci ; 17(13): 1909-1915, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-707520

ABSTRACT

Objective: To retrospectively compare the clinical features and chest computed tomography (CT) characteristics of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) and pneumonia in lymphoma patients. Materials and Methods: Ten lymphoma patients with pneumonia and 12 patients with COVID-19 infections were enrolled from January 15 to March 14, 2020. The clinical features were recorded. All pulmonary lesions on chest CT were assessed for location, shape, density and diffusion degree. Other typical CT features were also evaluated. Results: The most commonly observed patchy lesions were ground-glass opacities (GGOs) and mixed GGOs in both groups. Regarding the diffusion degree, 82% (92/112) of the lesions in the COVID-19 group were relatively limited, while 69% (52/75) of those in the lymphoma group were diffuse (p < 0.001). The proportions of interlobular septal thickening, vascular thickening, pleural involvement and fibrous stripes observed in the lymphoma cases were statistically compatible with those observed in the COVID-19 cases (p > 0.05). Air bronchograms were observed more frequently in COVID-19 patients (45%, 50/112) than in lymphoma patients with pneumonia (5%, 4/75) (p < 0.001). Halo sign (6%) and reversed halo sign (1%) were observed in several COVID-19 patients but not in lymphoma-associated pneumonia patients. Conclusion: Both lymphoma-associated pneumonia and COVID-19 generally manifested as patchy GGOs and mixed GGOs in more than one lobe. Compared to COVID-19, lymphoma-associated pneumonia tended to be relatively diffuse, with fewer air bronchograms, and no halo or reversed halo signs observed on chest CT.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/diagnostic imaging , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnostic imaging , Pneumonia/diagnostic imaging , Adult , Aged , COVID-19 , Female , Humans , Lung/diagnostic imaging , Lung/pathology , Lung/virology , Lymphoma/complications , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Pleura/diagnostic imaging , Pneumonia/etiology , Retrospective Studies , Tomography, X-Ray Computed
13.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 99(28): e21240, 2020 Jul 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-646231

ABSTRACT

RATIONALE: Chest computed tomography (CT) scans play a key role in diagnosing and managing of COVID-19 pneumonia. The typical manifestations of COVID-19 pneumonia on a chest CT scan are ground glass opacities, consolidation, nodules, and linear opacities. It can be accompanied by a "crazy-paving" pattern, air bronchograms, pleural hypertrophy, and pleural effusion. However, no literature has reported a case with cavities in the lungs. PATIENT CONCERNS: A 34-year-old male patient complained of fever, cough, fatigue, myalgia, diarrhea, headache, and dizziness for 2 weeks. This patient is living in Xiaogan, a city around Wuhan, and he had contact with a patient with COVID-19 pneumonia from Wuhan <14 days before he had fever. DIAGNOSIS: A nucleic acid test by rRT-PCR returned positive on a pharyngeal swab, confirming the diagnosis of COVID-19 pneumonia. INTERVENTIONS: Isolation antiviral treatment. OUTCOMES: After 19 days of isolation and antiviral treatment, his temperature returned to normal and the symptoms were relieved. The laboratory results also were returning to normal levels. The chest CT scan showed that the acute inflammation had subsided significantly. With 2 consecutive novel coronavirus nucleic acid tests had returned negative, the patient was discharged from the hospital and sent to a government designated hotel for quarantine observation. The unique chest CT manifestation in this case was the small cavities in both lungs during the absorption phase of this disease. These small cavities developed into consolidated nodules with clear edges and gradually shrank or disappeared. LESSONS: Although 2 consecutive nucleic acid tests returned negative in this patient, the small cavity changes in the lungs were observed, so the patient was quarantined for 14 days. However, follow-up CT after the first 14 days' quarantine showed new small cavity changes on the lungs, a further 14 days of quarantine was recommended. Therefore, in some COVID-19 cases, even if the nucleic acid tests turns negative, the disappearance of lung lesions may take a long time. The repeated chest CT scan plays an important role in the diagnosis and evaluation of the recovery of COVID-19.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus/isolation & purification , Coronavirus Infections , Lung/diagnostic imaging , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnostic imaging , Radiography, Thoracic/methods , Tomography, X-Ray Computed/methods , Adult , COVID-19 , COVID-19 Testing , Clinical Laboratory Techniques/methods , Coronavirus Infections/diagnosis , Coronavirus Infections/physiopathology , Coronavirus Infections/surgery , Coronavirus Infections/therapy , Humans , Male , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnosis , Pneumonia, Viral/physiopathology , Pneumonia, Viral/surgery , Pneumonia, Viral/therapy , Quarantine/methods , Recovery of Function , SARS-CoV-2 , Symptom Assessment/methods , Treatment Outcome
14.
EClinicalMedicine ; 24: 100410, 2020 Jul.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-628334

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Patients with severe coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) have elevated levels of acute phase reactants and inflammatory cytokines, including interleukin-6, indicative of cytokine release syndrome (CRS). The interleukin-6 receptor inhibitor tocilizumab is used for the treatment of chimeric antigen receptor T-cell therapy-induced CRS. METHODS: Patients aged 18 years or older with laboratory-confirmed COVID-19 admitted to the Annunziata Hospital in Cosenza, Italy, through March 7, 2020, who received at least one dose of tocilizumab 162 mg subcutaneously for the treatment of COVID-19-related CRS in addition to standard care were included in this retrospective observational study. The primary observation was the incidence of grade 4 CRS after tocilizumab treatment. Chest computed tomography (CT) scans were evaluated to investigate lung manifestations. FINDINGS: Twelve patients were included; all had fever, cough, and fatigue at presentation, and all had at least one comorbidity (hypertension, six patients; diabetes, five patients; chronic obstructive lung disease, four patients). Seven patients received high-flow nasal cannula oxygen therapy and five received non-invasive mechanical ventilation for lung complications of COVID-19. No incidence of grade 4 CRS was observed within 1 week of tocilizumab administration in all 12 patients (100%) and within 2 days of tocilizumab administration in 5 patients (42%). The predominant pattern on chest CT scans at presentation was ground-glass opacity, air bronchograms, smooth or irregular interlobular or septal thickening, and thickening of the adjacent pleura. Follow-up CT scans 7 to 10 days after tocilizumab treatment showed improvement of lung manifestations in all patients. No adverse events or new safety concerns attributable to tocilizumab were reported. INTERPRETATION: Tocilizumab administered subcutaneously to patients with COVID-19 and CRS is a promising treatment for reduction in disease activity and improvement in lung function. The effect of tocilizumab should be confirmed in a randomised controlled trial.

15.
Respiration ; 99(7): 617-624, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-610964

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Lung ultrasound (LUS) is an accurate, safe, and cheap tool assisting in the diagnosis of several acute respiratory diseases. The diagnostic value of LUS in the workup of coronavirus disease-19 (COVID-19) in the hospital setting is still uncertain. OBJECTIVES: The aim of this observational study was to explore correlations of the LUS appearance of COVID-19-related pneumonia with CT findings. METHODS: Twenty-six patients (14 males, age 64 ± 16 years) urgently hospitalized for COVID-19 pneumonia, who underwent chest CT and bedside LUS on the day of admission, were enrolled in this observational study. CT images were reviewed by expert chest radiologists, who calculated a visual CT score based on extension and distribution of ground-glass opacities and consolidations. LUS was performed by clinicians with certified competency in thoracic ultrasonography, blind to CT findings, following a systematic approach recommended by ultrasound guidelines. LUS score was calculated according to presence, distribution, and severity of abnormalities. RESULTS: All participants had CT findings suggestive of bilateral COVID-19 pneumonia, with an average visual scoring of 43 ± 24%. LUS identified 4 different possible -abnormalities, with bilateral distribution (average LUS score 15 ± 5): focal areas of nonconfluent B lines, diffuse confluent B lines, small subpleural microconsolidations with pleural line irregularities, and large parenchymal consolidations with air bronchograms. LUS score was significantly correlated with CT visual scoring (r = 0.65, p < 0.001) and oxygen saturation in room air (r = -0.66, p < 0.001). CONCLUSION: When integrated with clinical data, LUS could represent a valid diagnostic aid in patients with suspect COVID-19 pneumonia, which reflects CT findings.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus/isolation & purification , Coronavirus Infections , Lung/diagnostic imaging , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral , Tomography, X-Ray Computed/methods , Ultrasonography/methods , COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections/diagnosis , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/physiopathology , Correlation of Data , Diagnostic Tests, Routine/methods , Female , Humans , Italy/epidemiology , Male , Middle Aged , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnosis , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Pneumonia, Viral/etiology , Pneumonia, Viral/physiopathology , Point-of-Care Testing , Reproducibility of Results , SARS-CoV-2
16.
Eur Radiol ; 30(11): 6129-6138, 2020 Nov.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-436460

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: The objective of this systematic review was to evaluate the key imaging manifestations of COVID-19 on chest CT in adult patients by providing a comprehensive review of the published literature. METHODS: We performed a systematic literature search from the PubMed, Google Scholar, Embase, and WHO databases for studies mentioning the chest CT imaging findings of adult COVID-19 patients. RESULTS: A total of 45 studies comprising 4410 patients were included. Ground glass opacities (GGO), in isolation (50.2%) or coexisting with consolidations (44.2%), were the most common lesions. Distribution of GGOs was most commonly bilateral, peripheral/subpleural, and posterior with predilection for lower lobes. Common ancillary findings included pulmonary vascular enlargement (64%), intralobular septal thickening (60%), adjacent pleural thickening (41.7%), air bronchograms (41.2%), subpleural lines, crazy paving, bronchus distortion, bronchiectasis, and interlobular septal thickening. CT in early follow-up period generally showed an increase in size, number, and density of GGOs, with progression into mixed areas of GGOs plus consolidations and crazy paving, peaking at 10-11 days, before gradually resolving or persisting as patchy fibrosis. While younger adults more commonly had GGOs, extensive/multilobar involvement with consolidations was prevalent in the older population and those with severe disease. CONCLUSION: This review describes the imaging features for diagnosis, stratification, and follow-up of COVID-19 patients. The most common CT manifestations are bilateral, peripheral/subpleural, posterior GGOs with or without consolidations with a lower lobe predominance. It is pertinent to be familiar with the various imaging findings to positively impact the management of these patients. KEY POINTS: • Ground glass opacities (GGOs), whether isolated or coexisting with consolidations, in bilateral and subpleural distribution, are the most prevalent chest CT findings in adult COVID-19 patients. • Follow-up CT shows a progression of GGOs into a mixed pattern, reaching a peak at 10-11 days, before gradually resolving or persisting as patchy fibrosis. • Younger people tend to have more GGOs. Older or sicker people tend to have more extensive involvement with consolidations.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus , Coronavirus Infections/diagnostic imaging , Coronavirus Infections/pathology , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnostic imaging , Pneumonia, Viral/pathology , Tomography, X-Ray Computed/methods , Adult , COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections/physiopathology , Disease Progression , Female , Humans , Lung/diagnostic imaging , Lung/pathology , Lung/physiopathology , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/physiopathology , SARS-CoV-2 , Young Adult
17.
Br J Radiol ; 93(1112): 20200243, 2020 Aug.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-378118

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: The chest CT findings that can distinguish patients with corona virus disease 2019 (COVID-19) from those with clinically suspected COVID-19 but subsequently found to be COVID-19 negative have not previously been described in detail. The purpose of this study was to determine the distinctions among patients with COVID-19 by comparing the imaging findings of patients with suspected confirmed COVID-19 and those of patients initially suspected to have COVID-19 who were ultimately negative for the disease. METHODS: 28 isolated suspected in-patients with COVID-19 were enrolled in this retrospective study from January 22, 2020 to February 6, 2020. 12 patients were confirmed to have positive severe acute respiratory syndrome corona virus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) RNA results, and 16 patients had negative results. The thin-section CT imaging findings and clinical and laboratory data of all the patients were evaluated. RESULTS: There were no significant differences between the 12 confirmed COVID-19 (SARS-Cov-2-positive) patients and 16 SARS-CoV-2-negative patients in epidemiology and most of the clinical features or laboratory data. The CT images showed that the incidence of pure/mixed ground-glass opacities (GGOs) was not different between COVID-19 and SARS-CoV-2-negative patients [9/12 (75.0%) vs 10/16 (62.5%), p = 0.687], but pure/mixed GGOs in the peripheral were more common in patients with COVID-19 [11/12 (91.7%) vs 6/16 (37.5%), p = 0.006]. There were no significant differences in the number of lesions, bilateral lung involvement, large irregular/patchy opacities, rounded opacities, linear opacities, crazy-paving patterns, halo signs, interlobular septal thickening or air bronchograms. CONCLUSIONS: Although peripheral pure/mixed GGOs on CT may help distinguish patients with COVID-19 from clinically suspected but negative patients, CT cannot replace RT-PCR testing. ADVANCES IN KNOWLEDGE: Peripheral pure/mixed GGOs on-chest CT findings can be helpful in distinguishing patients with COVID-19 from those with clinically suspected COVID-19 but subsequently found to be COVID-19 negative.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/diagnostic imaging , Lung/diagnostic imaging , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnostic imaging , Tomography, X-Ray Computed , Adult , Betacoronavirus , COVID-19 , Diagnosis, Differential , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , RNA, Viral/analysis , Retrospective Studies , Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction , SARS-CoV-2
18.
Clin Imaging ; 65: 124-132, 2020 Sep.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-232544

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). This paper aims to examine the CT imaging characteristics of COVID-19. METHODS: We evaluated CT images obtained between 10 January 2019 and 16 February 2020 at Taihe Hospital. Scans were conducted 2-6 times per patient and the re-testing interval was 2-7 days. Ninety-five patients with positive SARS-CoV-2 nucleic acid test results were included in this study and we retrospectively analysed their CT imaging characteristics. RESULTS: Ninety-five patients underwent 2-3 SARS-CoV-2 nucleic acid tests and received a definitive diagnosis of COVID-19. Fifty-three were male and 42 were female, and their mean age was 42 ± 12 years (range: 10 months to 81 years). Sixty-nine patients (72.6%) experienced fever, fatigue, and dry cough, while 15 (15.8%) had poor appetite and fatigue, and 11 (11.6%) had a dry cough and no fever. On CT imaging, early stage patients (n = 53, 55.8%) showed peripheral subpleural ground-glass opacities; these were mainly local patches (22/53, 41.5%), while some lesions were accompanied by interlobular septal thickening. Thirty-four (35.8%) patients were classified in the 'progression stage' based on CT imaging; these patients typically showed lesions in multiple lung segments and lobes (21/34,61.8%), and an uneven increase in ground-glass opacity density accompanied by consolidation and grid-like or cord-like shadows(30.5%). Two patients (2.1%) showed a severe presentation on CT. These showed diffuse bilateral lung lesions, mixed ground-glass opacities and consolidation with cord-like interstitial thickening and air bronchograms, entire lung involvement with a "white lung" presentation, and mild pleural effusion. Six patients in remission (6.3%), visible lesion absorption, fibrotic lesions. Based on clinical signs, 71 (74.7%), 22 (23.2%), and 2 (2.1%) patients had mild or moderate, severe, and critical disease, respectively. Within the follow-up period, 93 patients recovered and were discharged, including the 53 early stage patients and 34 progression stage patients. The length of hospitalisation was 7-28 days (mean: 10 ± 3.5 days). On discharge, lesions were significantly reduced in area and had in many cases completely disappeared, while slight pulmonary fibrosis was present in some patients. One severe stage patient was still hospitalised at the end of the follow-up period and the other severe stage patient died. The overall mortality rate was 1.05%. CONCLUSIONS: Understanding the CT imaging characteristics of COVID-19 is important for early lesion detection, determining the nature of lesions, and assessing disease severity.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/diagnostic imaging , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnostic imaging , Tomography, X-Ray Computed , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Betacoronavirus , COVID-19 , Child , Child, Preschool , China , Cough/virology , Disease Progression , Female , Fever/virology , Humans , Infant , Length of Stay , Lung/diagnostic imaging , Lung/pathology , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Pleural Effusion/virology , Pulmonary Fibrosis/virology , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Young Adult
19.
J Am Coll Radiol ; 17(6): 701-709, 2020 Jun.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-56293

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: To date, considerable knowledge gaps remain regarding the chest CT imaging features of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). We performed a systematic review and meta-analysis of results from published studies to date to provide a summary of evidence on detection of COVID-19 by chest CT and the expected CT imaging manifestations. METHODS: Studies were identified by searching PubMed database for articles published between December 2019 and February 2020. Pooled CT positive rate of COVID-19 and pooled incidence of CT imaging findings were estimated using a random-effect model. RESULTS: A total of 13 studies met inclusion criteria. The pooled positive rate of the CT imaging was 89.76% and 90.35% when only including thin-section chest CT. Typical CT signs were ground glass opacities (83.31%), ground glass opacities with mixed consolidation (58.42%), adjacent pleura thickening (52.46%), interlobular septal thickening (48.46%), and air bronchograms (46.46%). Other CT signs included crazy paving pattern (14.81%), pleural effusion (5.88%), bronchiectasis (5.42%), pericardial effusion (4.55%), and lymphadenopathy (3.38%). The most anatomic distributions were bilateral lung infection (78.2%) and peripheral distribution (76.95%). The incidences were highest in the right lower lobe (87.21%), left lower lobe (81.41%), and bilateral lower lobes (65.22%). The right upper lobe (65.22%), right middle lobe (54.95%), and left upper lobe (69.43%) were also commonly involved. The incidence of bilateral upper lobes was 60.87%. A considerable proportion of patients had three or more lobes involved (70.81%). CONCLUSIONS: The detection of COVID-19 chest CT imaging is very high among symptomatic individuals at high risk, especially using thin-section chest CT. The most common CT features in patients affected by COVID-19 included ground glass opacities and consolidation involving the bilateral lungs in a peripheral distribution.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus , Coronavirus Infections/diagnostic imaging , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Pandemics/statistics & numerical data , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnostic imaging , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Tomography, X-Ray Computed/methods , COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections/pathology , Female , Humans , Male , Pneumonia, Viral/pathology , Radiography, Thoracic/methods , SARS-CoV-2 , Sensitivity and Specificity , Tomography, X-Ray Computed/statistics & numerical data
20.
Invest Radiol ; 55(6): 332-339, 2020 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-18137

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: In late December 2019, an outbreak of coronavirus disease (COVID-19) in Wuhan, China was caused by a novel coronavirus, newly named severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2. We aimed to quantify the severity of COVID-19 infection on high-resolution chest computed tomography (CT) and to determine its relationship with clinical parameters. MATERIALS AND METHODS: From January 11, 2020, to February 5, 2020, the clinical, laboratory, and high-resolution CT features of 42 patients (26-75 years, 25 males) with COVID-19 were analyzed. The initial and follow-up CT, obtained a mean of 4.5 days and 11.6 days from the illness onset were retrospectively assessed for the severity and progression of pneumonia. Correlations among clinical parameters, initial CT features, and progression of opacifications were evaluated with Spearman correlation and linear regression analysis. RESULTS: Thirty-five patients (83%) exhibited a progressive process according to CT features during the early stage from onset. Follow-up CT findings showed progressive opacifications, consolidation, interstitial thickening, fibrous strips, and air bronchograms, compared with initial CT (all P < 0.05). Before regular treatments, there was a moderate correlation between the days from onset and sum score of opacifications (R = 0.68, P < 0.01). The C-reactive protein, erythrocyte sedimentation rate, and lactate dehydrogenase showed significantly positive correlation with the severity of pneumonia assessed on initial CT (Rrange, 0.36-0.75; P < 0.05). The highest temperature and the severity of opacifications assessed on initial CT were significantly related to the progression of opacifications on follow-up CT (P = 0.001-0.04). CONCLUSIONS: Patients with the COVID-19 infection usually presented with typical ground glass opacities and other CT features, which showed significant correlations with some clinical and laboratory measurements. Follow-up CT images often demonstrated progressions during the early stage from illness onset.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/diagnostic imaging , Lung/diagnostic imaging , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnostic imaging , Adult , Betacoronavirus , COVID-19 , China , Coronavirus Infections/therapy , Disease Progression , Female , Follow-Up Studies , Humans , Linear Models , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/therapy , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Thorax/diagnostic imaging , Tomography, X-Ray Computed/methods
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