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1.
Eur Heart J Cardiovasc Pharmacother ; 8(2): 149-156, 2022 02 16.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1706743

ABSTRACT

AIMS: Uncontrolled blood pressure (BP) increases the risk of developing heart failure (HF). The effect of spironolactone on BP of patients at risk of developing HF is yet to be determined. To evaluate the effect of spironolactone on the BP of patients at risk for HF and whether renin can predict spironolactone's effect. METHODS AND RESULTS: HOMAGE (Heart OMics in Aging) was a prospective multicentre randomized open-label blinded endpoint (PROBE) trial including 527 patients at risk for developing HF randomly assigned to either spironolactone (25-50 mg/day) or usual care alone for a maximum of 9 months. Sitting BP was assessed at baseline, Months 1 and 9 (or last visit). Analysis of covariance (ANCOVA), mixed effects models, and structural modelling equations was used. The median (percentile25-75) age was 73 (69-79) years, 26% were female, and >75% had history of hypertension. Overall, the baseline BP was 142/78 mmHg. Patients with higher BP were older, more likely to have diabetes and less likely to have coronary artery disease, had greater left ventricular mass (LVM), and left atrial volume (LAV). Compared with usual care, by last visit, spironolactone changed SBP by -10.3 (-13.0 to -7.5) mmHg and DBP by -3.2 (-4.8 to -1.7) mmHg (P < 0.001 for both). A higher proportion of patients on spironolactone had controlled BP <130/80 mmHg (36 vs. 26%; P = 0.014). Lower baseline renin levels predicted a greater response to spironolactone (interactionP = 0.041). CONCLUSION: Spironolactone had a clinically important BP-lowering effect. Spironolactone should be considered for lowering blood pressure in patients who are at risk of developing HF.


Subject(s)
Heart Failure , Spironolactone , Aged , Blood Pressure , Female , Heart Failure/diagnosis , Heart Failure/drug therapy , Heart Failure/epidemiology , Humans , Male , Mineralocorticoid Receptor Antagonists/adverse effects , Prospective Studies , Spironolactone/therapeutic use
2.
Adv Exp Med Biol ; 1318: 263-291, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1536207

ABSTRACT

We herein seek to expound on up-to-the-minute information regarding cardiovascular disease in the era of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) by highlighting acute myocardial injury caused by COVID-19 and probing into its pathophysiology, clinical signs, diagnostic tests, and treatment modalities. We aim to share the latest research findings vis-à-vis cardiovascular disease patients with confirmed or suspected COVID-19 on the association between hypertension and this infectious disease along with the relevant recommendations; describe the mechanism of coronary artery disease in such patients together with the necessary measures in the setting of non-ST-segment elevation acute coronary syndrome, ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction, and chronic coronary syndrome; discuss tachy- and bradyarrhythmias in the COVID-19 setting alongside their treatments; elucidate coagulopathies, venous thromboembolism, and its prophylactic measures in the context of this infection; set out the cardiopulmonary resuscitation protocol as well as the pertinent safety concerns during the current pandemic; and, finally, explicate drug-drug interactions between COVID-19 and cardiovascular medication in hypertension, acute coronary syndrome, heart failure, venous thromboembolism, and arrhythmias.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Cardiovascular Diseases , ST Elevation Myocardial Infarction , Cardiovascular Diseases/diagnosis , Cardiovascular Diseases/epidemiology , Humans , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2
3.
J Clin Med ; 10(11)2021 May 26.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1409881

ABSTRACT

Acetylsalicylic acid (ASA) is one of the most frequently used medications worldwide. Yet, the main indications for ASA are the atherosclerosis-based cardiovascular diseases, including coronary artery disease (CAD). Despite the increasing number of percutaneous procedures to treat CAD, coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) remains the treatment of choice in patients with multivessel CAD and intermediate or high anatomical lesion complexity. Taking into account that CABG is a potent activator of inflammation, ASA is an important part in the postoperative therapy, not only due to ASA antiplatelet action, but also as an anti-inflammatory agent. Additional benefits of ASA after CABG include anticancerogenic, hypotensive, antiproliferative, anti-osteoporotic, and neuroprotective effects, which are especially important in patients after CABG, prone to hypertension, graft occlusion, atherosclerosis progression, and cognitive impairment. Here, we discuss the pleiotropic effects of ASA after CABG and provide insights into the mechanisms underlying the benefits of treatment with ASA, beyond platelet inhibition. Since some of ASA pleiotropic effects seem to increase the risk of bleeding, it could be considered a starting point to investigate whether the increase of the intensity of the treatment with ASA after CABG is beneficial for the CABG group of patients.

4.
Cardiovasc Res ; 117(1): 224-239, 2021 01 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1387842

ABSTRACT

AIMS: To elucidate the prognostic role of monocytes in the immune response of patients with coronary artery disease (CAD) at risk for life-threatening heart and lung injury as major complications of SARS-CoV-2 infection. METHODS AND RESULTS: From February to April 2020, we prospectively studied a cohort of 96 participants comprising 47 consecutive patients with CAD and acute SARS-CoV-2 infection (CAD + SARS-CoV-2), 19 CAD patients without infections, and 30 healthy controls. Clinical assessment included blood sampling, echocardiography, and electrocardiography within 12 h of admission. Respiratory failure was stratified by the Horovitz Index (HI) as moderately/severely impaired when HI ≤200 mmHg. The clinical endpoint (EP) was defined as HI ≤200 mmHg with subsequent mechanical ventilation within a follow-up of 30 days. The numbers of CD14dimCD16+ non-classical monocytes in peripheral blood were remarkably low in CAD + SARS-CoV-2 compared with CAD patients without infection and healthy controls (P < 0.0001). Moreover, these CD14dimCD16 monocytes showed decreased expression of established markers of adhesion, migration, and T-cell activation (CD54, CD62L, CX3CR1, CD80, and HLA-DR). Decreased numbers of CD14dimCD16+ monocytes were associated with the occurrence of EP. Kaplan-Meier curves illustrate that CAD + SARS-CoV-2 patients with numbers below the median of CD14dimCD16+ monocytes (median 1443 cells/mL) reached EP significantly more often compared to patients with numbers above the median (log-rank 5.03, P = 0.025). CONCLUSION: Decreased numbers of CD14dimCD16+ monocytes are associated with rapidly progressive respiratory failure in CAD + SARS-CoV-2 patients. Intensified risk assessments comprising monocyte sub- and phenotypes may help to identify patients at risk for respiratory failure.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , Coronary Artery Disease/complications , Lipopolysaccharide Receptors/analysis , Monocytes/physiology , Receptors, IgG/analysis , SARS-CoV-2 , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , COVID-19/immunology , Coronary Artery Disease/immunology , Female , GPI-Linked Proteins/analysis , Humans , Immunohistochemistry , Male , Middle Aged , Monocytes/immunology , Phenotype , Retrospective Studies
5.
CJC Open ; 3(3): 311-317, 2021 Mar.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1385284

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: In this study, we aimed to report clinical characteristics and outcomes of patients with and without SARS-CoV-2 infection who were referred for acute coronary syndrome (ACS) during the peak of the pandemic in France. METHODS: We included all consecutive patients referred for ST-elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) or non-STEMI (NSTEMI) during the first 3 weeks of April 2020 in 5 university hospitals (Paris, south, and north of France), all performing primary percutaneous coronary intervention. RESULTS: The study included 237 patients (67 ± 14 years old; 69% male), 116 (49%) with STEMI and 121 (51%) with NSTEMI. The prevalence of SARS-CoV-2-associated ACS was 11% (n = 26) and 11 patients had severe hypoxemia on presentation (mechanical ventilation or nasal oxygen > 6 L/min). Patients were comparable regarding medical history and risk factors, except a higher prevalence of diabetes mellitus in SARS-CoV-2 patients (53.8% vs 25.6%; P = 0.003). In SARS-CoV-2 patients, cardiac arrest on admission was more frequent (26.9% vs 6.6%; P < 0.001). The presence of significant coronary artery disease and culprit artery occlusion in SARS-CoV-2 patients respectively, was 92% and 69.4% for those with STEMI, and 50% and 15.5% for those with NSTEMI. Percutaneous coronary intervention was performed in the same percentage of STEMI (84.6%) and NSTEMI (84.8%) patients, regardless of SARS-CoV-2 infection, but no-reflow (19.2% vs 3.3%; P < 0.001) was greater in SARS-CoV-2 patients. In-hospital death occurred in 7 SARS-CoV-2 patients (5 from cardiac cause) and was higher compared with noninfected patients (26.9% vs 6.2%; P < 0.001). CONCLUSIONS: In this registry, ACS in SARS-CoV-2 patients presented with high a percentage of cardiac arrest on admission, high incidence of no-reflow, and high in-hospital mortality.


CONTEXTE: Notre étude avait pour but d'établir les caractéristiques cliniques et les résultats de patients infectés ou non par le SRAS-CoV-2 qui ont été orientés en raison d'un syndrome coronarien aigu (SCA) pendant la phase aiguë de la pandémie en France. MÉTHODOLOGIE: Nous avons inclus dans l'étude tous les patients consécutifs qui ont présenté un infarctus du myocarde avec sus-décalage du segment ST (STEMI) ou sans sus-décalage du segment ST (NSTEMI) au cours des 3 premières semaines d'avril 2020 et qui ont été orientés vers 5 hôpitaux universitaires (situés à Paris, ainsi que dans le sud et le nord de la France), tous en mesure de réaliser des interventions co-ronariennes percutanées primaires. RÉSULTATS: L'étude comprenait 237 patients (âge : 67 ± 14 ans; proportion d'hommes : 69 %); 116 (49 %) présentaient un STEMI et 121 (51 %), un NSTEMI. La prévalence d'un SCA associé à une infection par le SRAS-CoV-2 s'établissait à 11 % (n = 26), et 11 patients étaient en hypoxémie grave (nécessitant une ventilation artificielle ou l'administration d'oxygène par voie nasale à un débit de plus de 6 l/min) à leur arrivée. Les patients présentaient des antécédents médicaux et des facteurs de risque comparables, à l'exception du fait que la prévalence du diabète était plus élevée chez les patients infectés par le SRAS-CoV-2 (53,8 % vs 25,6 %; p = 0,003). Ces derniers avaient plus souvent subi un arrêt cardiaque à leur admission (26,9 % vs 6,6 %; p < 0,001). Chez les patients infectés par le SRAS-CoV-2, une coronaropathie importante et une occlusion de l'artère coupable ont été observées chez respectivement 92 % et 69,4 % des patients présentant un STEMI, et chez 50 % et 15,5 % des patients présentant un NSTEMI. Une intervention coronarienne percutanée a été effectuée dans les mêmes proportions chez les patients subissant un STEMI (84,6 %) que chez ceux présentant un NSTEMI (84,8 %), sans égard à la présence ou à l'absence d'une infection par le SRAS-CoV-2, mais les cas de non-reperfusion (no-reflow) ont été plus fréquents chez les patients infectés que chez les autres patients (19,2 % et 3,3 %, respectivement; p < 0,001). Sept patients infectés par le SRAS-CoV-2 sont morts à l'hôpital (5 de cause cardiaque), ce qui représente un taux de mortalité plus élevé que chez les patients non infectés (26,9 % vs 6,2 %; p < 0,001). CONCLUSIONS: Dans le cadre de cette étude, le SCA survenu chez les patients infectés par le SRAS-CoV-2 était associé à un fort pourcentage d'arrêt cardiaque à l'admission, à une fréquence élevée de cas de non-reperfusion et à un taux élevé de mortalité hospitalière.

6.
Rev Recent Clin Trials ; 16(3): 316-321, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1344220

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: We aimed to examine the differences in life-space mobility and quality of life (QoL) of patients with cardiovascular disease (CVD) between the pre- and postnationwide state of emergency initiated by the Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic in Japan and to show the factors associated with the decrease in life-space mobility and QoL in these patients. METHODS: We undertook a longitudinal study of 20 out of 51 consecutive CVD patients with coronary artery disease (CAD) who met the study criteria. We used the Life-Space Assessment (LSA) tool to evaluate Life-space mobility and assessed QoL with the five-level EuroQoL five-dimensional questionnaire (EQ-5D-5L) in Japanese. RESULTS: The LSA scores and EQ-5D-5L QoL score decreased significantly from the pre- to postnationwide state of emergency in Japan (p < 0.01). ΔLSA was significantly positively associated with body mass index and significantly negatively associated with knee extensor muscle strength and pre-LSA score (p < 0.05). There were no significant relationships between ΔLSA and ΔEQ- 5D-5L QoL scores and between ΔEQ-5D-5L QoL scores and patient characteristics. CONCLUSION: The policies promoted to address the state of emergency in Japan might affect life-space mobility and QoL of CAD patients. Moreover, CAD patients in Japan who were not obese and maintained their physical function and activity tended to refrain from activity during the period between the pre- and post-nationwide state of emergency. Clarification of the effects of the COVID-19 pandemic on the relationship between living space motility and QoL in CAD patients will require further study.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Cardiovascular Diseases/epidemiology , Body Mass Index , Health Policy , Humans , Japan/epidemiology , Longitudinal Studies , Mobility Limitation , Muscle Strength , Pandemics , Quality of Life
7.
Eur Heart J Case Rep ; 5(2): ytaa521, 2021 Feb.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1334208

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Since the first documented outbreak of a novel severe acute respiratory syndrome inducing Coronavirus in China at the end of 2019 the virus has spread to all continents, leading the WHO to declare a pandemic in March 2020. While this virus primarily targets the alveoli in the lungs, multiple authors have described an increased rate of thrombo-embolic events in affected patients. We present this case of a myocardial infarction with no obstructive coronary atherosclerosis in an otherwise healthy 48-year-old patient. CASE SUMMARY: A 48-year-old female, presenting with chest pain radiating to her left shoulder with no cardiovascular risk factors other than genetic predisposition, was screened for Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) and tested positive. Although computed tomography angiography excluded obstructive coronary heart disease, cardiac magnetic resonance imaging showed an acute myocardial infarction with no obstructive coronary arteries of the inferior wall. The patient was treated with dual anti-platelet therapy, an angiotensin-converting-enzyme inhibitor and a statin, and assigned to a cardiac rehabilitation program. CONCLUSION: We report a serious thrombo-embolic event during an oligosymptomatic SARS-CoV-2 infection in a healthy, young patient. While these two diseases may have occurred simultaneously, by chance, it is possible that the pro-thrombotic effects of the SARS-CoV-2 infection facilitated the infarction. This case further demonstrates the significant cardiovascular morbidity potentially caused by SARS-CoV-2.

8.
Ann Vasc Surg ; 73: 557-560, 2021 May.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1312937

ABSTRACT

Aneurysms and occlusive pathologies of the aorta are frequently associated with atherosclerosis; however, thoracoabdominal aortic aneurysm accompanied by Leriche syndrome is an extremely rare condition with challenging treatment strategy and without established surgical treatment protocols. In this report, we present our treatment strategy in a 64-year-old male patient with ischemic heart disease and type 5 thoracoabdominal aortic aneurysm accompanied by Leriche syndrome.


Subject(s)
Aortic Aneurysm, Thoracic/surgery , Blood Vessel Prosthesis Implantation , Coronary Artery Bypass , Coronary Artery Disease/surgery , Leriche Syndrome/surgery , Saphenous Vein/transplantation , Aortic Aneurysm, Thoracic/complications , Aortic Aneurysm, Thoracic/diagnostic imaging , Blood Vessel Prosthesis , Blood Vessel Prosthesis Implantation/instrumentation , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/diagnosis , Coronary Artery Disease/complications , Coronary Artery Disease/diagnostic imaging , Fatal Outcome , Humans , Leriche Syndrome/complications , Leriche Syndrome/diagnostic imaging , Male , Middle Aged , Polyethylene Terephthalates , Treatment Outcome
9.
Coron Artery Dis ; 32(5): 367-371, 2021 08 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1291432

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Recent studies have reported evidence that coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has disproportionately affected patients with underlying comorbidities. Our study aims to evaluate the impact of both cardiac and noncardiac comorbidities on a high-risk population with COVID-19 infection and coronary artery disease (CAD) compared to those without CAD. METHODS: This is a retrospective study of patients who tested COVID-19 positive via reverse transcriptase-PCR (RT-PCR) assay. We compared the characteristics and outcomes of patients with and without CAD. Population demographics, comorbidities and clinical outcomes were collected and analyzed. Multivariate logistic regression analysis was used to identify factors associated with inpatient mortality. RESULTS: A final sample population of 355 patients was identified, 77 of which had a known diagnosis of coronary artery disease. Our study population had a higher proportion of females, and those with CAD were significantly older. The rates of cardiovascular risk factors including hypertension, diabetes mellitus and chronic kidney disease, as well as heart failure and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease were significantly higher in the CAD population. Lactate dehydrogenase was the only inflammatory marker significantly lower in the CAD group, while troponin and brain natriuretic peptide were significantly higher in this population. Patients with CAD also had significantly higher inpatient mortality (31% vs 20%, P = 0.046) and need for renal replacement therapy (33% vs 11%, P < 0.0001) compared to the non-CAD group. However, only age [odds ratio 1.041 (1.017-1.066), P = 0.001] was significantly associated with mortality in the overall population after adjusting for demographics and comorbidities, while the presence of CAD was not independently associated with mortality. CONCLUSION: Patients with CAD and COVID-19 have higher rates of comorbidities, inpatient mortality and need for renal replacement therapy compared to their non-CAD counterparts. However, CAD in itself was not associated with mortality after adjusting for other covariates, suggesting that other factors may play a larger role in the increased mortality and poor outcomes in these patients.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/mortality , Coronary Artery Disease/mortality , Hospital Mortality , Age Factors , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/therapy , COVID-19 Nucleic Acid Testing , Comorbidity , Coronary Artery Disease/diagnostic imaging , Coronary Artery Disease/therapy , Female , Hospitalization , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Philadelphia , Predictive Value of Tests , Prognosis , Retrospective Studies , Risk Assessment , Risk Factors , Time Factors
10.
Eur J Case Rep Intern Med ; 8(5): 002559, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1268423

ABSTRACT

Current scientific evidence shows that SARS-CoV-2 infection is associated with an increased risk of thromboembolic events. In patients with ischaemic heart disease and heart failure, thrombi of the left ventricle can increase patient mortality, mainly due to the risk of systemic embolization. Given the hypercoagulable state associated with COVID-19, such events may be more likely. We describe a patient hospitalized for congestive heart failure and SARS-CoV-2 infection who was diagnosed with a thrombus in the left ventricle. After the thrombus was identified on echocardiography and treated with anticoagulation, it completely resolved and cardiac function improved. LEARNING POINTS: SARS-CoV-2 infection has been frequently associated with thromboembolic phenomena and intracardiac thrombi.Echocardiographic evaluation in patients with SARS-CoV-2 infection is important, especially in cases with known or new-onset cardiac pathology which predisposes to thromboembolic phenomena.The timely diagnosis and treatment of intracardiac thrombi can prevent complications and improve patient prognosis.

11.
Front Med (Lausanne) ; 8: 647023, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1268258

ABSTRACT

Acute kidney injury (AKI) is associated with high mortality in coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). However, it is unclear whether patients with COVID-19 with hospital-acquired AKI (HA-AKI) and community-acquired AKI (CA-AKI) differ in disease course and outcomes. This study investigated the clinical profiles of HA-AKI, CA-AKI, and no AKI in patients with COVID-19 at a large tertiary care hospital in the New York City area. The incidence of HA-AKI was 23.26%, and CA-AKI was 22.28%. Patients who developed HA-AKI were older and had more comorbidities compared to those with CA-AKI and those with no AKI (p < 0.05). A higher prevalence of coronary artery disease, heart failure, and chronic kidney disease was observed in those with HA-AKI compared to those with CA-AKI (p < 0.05). Patients with CA-AKI received more invasive and non-invasive mechanical ventilation, anticoagulants, and steroids compared to those with HA-AKI (p < 0.05), but patients with HA-AKI had significantly higher mortality compared to those with CA-AKI after adjusting for demographics and clinical comorbidities (adjusted odds ratio = 1.61, 95% confidence interval = 1.1-2.35, p < 0.014). In addition, those with HA-AKI had higher markers of inflammation and more liver injury (p < 0.05) compared to those with CA-AKI. These results suggest that HA-AKI is likely part of systemic multiorgan damage and that kidney injury contributes to worse outcomes. These findings provide insights that could lead to better management of COVID-19 patients in time-sensitive and potentially resource-constrained environments.

12.
Turk Kardiyol Dern Ars ; 49(4): 286-292, 2021 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1262654

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To compare the prevalence of hypertension and pre-existing use of renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system blockers in patients with coronavirus disease (COVID-19) and non-COVID-19 viral pneumonias. METHODS: Real-time polymerase chain reaction confirmed COVID-19 and non-COVID-19 pneumonia patients were retrospectively analyzed. The presence of hypertension, coronary artery disease (CAD), and pre-existing use of angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors (ACEIs) and angiotensin receptor blockers (ARBs) were compared between the groups. RESULTS: A total of 103 COVID-19 and 91 non-COVID-19 hospitalized viral pneumonia patients were enrolled. Hypertension and CAD were more common in patients with non-COVID-19 viral pneumonia than in patients with COVID-19 (39.6% vs 22.3%, respectively, p=0.012 and 24.2% vs 4.9%, respectively, p<0.001). In our study, 2.9% and 6.8% of patients with COVID-19 were on ACEIs and ARBs, respectively, whereas 13.2% and 19.8% of patients with non-COVID-19 viral pneumonia were on ACEIs and ARBs, respectively (p=0.009 and p=0.013). Neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio (p<0.001) was prominent in patients with non-COVID-19 viral pneumonia compared with patients with COVID-19. CONCLUSION: Our study results indicate that hypertension and CAD are more common among patients with non-COVID-19 viral pneumonia than patients with COVID-19. The prevalence of ACEIs and ARBs use was not higher in patients with COVID-19. Our results support that the use of ACEIs and ARBs do not play a specific role in patients with COVID-19.


Subject(s)
Angiotensin Receptor Antagonists/therapeutic use , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme Inhibitors/therapeutic use , COVID-19 , Hypertension , Adult , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/epidemiology , Coronary Artery Disease/complications , Coronary Artery Disease/epidemiology , Female , Humans , Hypertension/complications , Hypertension/drug therapy , Hypertension/epidemiology , Male , Middle Aged , Pneumonia, Viral/complications , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Prevalence , Retrospective Studies
13.
Med Clin (Engl Ed) ; 156(11): 547-554, 2021 Jun 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1261938

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: Since the World Health Organization (WHO) announced coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) had become a global pandemic on March 11, 2020, the number of infections has been increasing. The purpose of this meta-analysis was to investigate the prognosis of COVID-19 in patients with coronary heart disease. METHOD: Pubmed, Embase, and Cochrane Library databases were searched to collect the literature concerning coronary heart disease and COVID-19. The retrieval time was from inception to Nov 20, 2020, using Stata version 14.0 for meta-analysis. RESULTS: A total of 22,148 patients from 40 studies were included. The meta-analysis revealed that coronary heart disease was associated with poor prognosis of COVID-19 (OR=3.42, 95%CI [2.83, 4.13], P < 0.001). After subgroup analysis, coronary heart disease was found to be related to mortality (OR = 3.75, 95%CI [2.91, 4.82], P < 0.001), severe/critical COVID-19 (OR = 3.23, 95%CI [2.19, 4.77], P < 0.001), ICU admission (OR = 2.25, 95%CI [1.34, 3.79], P = 0.002), disease progression (OR = 3.01, 95%CI [1.46, 6.22], P = 0.003); Meta-regression showed that the association between coronary heart disease and poor prognosis of COVID-19 was affected by hypertension (P = 0.004), and subgroup analysis showed that compared with the proportion of hypertension >30% (OR = 2.85, 95%CI [2.33, 3.49]), the proportion of hypertension <30% (OR = 4.78, 95%CI [3.50, 6.51]) had a higher risk of poor prognosis. CONCLUSION: Coronary heart disease is a risk factor for poor prognosis in patients with COVID-19.


OBJETIVO: Desde que la Organización Mundial de la Salud (OMS) anunció que la enfermedad por coronavirus de 2019 (COVID-19) se había convertido en una pandemia global el 11 de marzo de 2020, se ha incrementado el número de infecciones. El objetivo de este metaanálisis fue investigar el pronóstico de la COVID-19 en pacientes con cardiopatía coronaria. MÉTODO: Se realizó una búsqueda en las bases de datos de Pubmed, Embase y Cochrane Library para reunir la literatura relativa a cardiopatía coronaria y COVID-19. El tiempo de recuperación de datos fue desde el inicio hasta el 20 de noviembre de 2020, utilizando la versión 14.0 de Stata® para el metaanálisis. RESULTADOS: Se incluyó un total de 22.148 pacientes de 40 estudios. El metaanálisis reveló que la cardiopatía coronaria estaba asociada a un mal pronóstico de COVID-19 (OR: 3,42; IC 95%: 2,83-4,13; p < 0,001). Tras el análisis de subgrupo, se encontró que la cardiopatía coronaria tenía relación con la mortalidad (OR: 3,75; IC 95%: 2,91-4,82; p < 0,001), COVID-19 grave/crítica (OR: 3,23; IC 95%: 2,19-4,77; p < 0,001), ingreso en la UCI (OR: 2,25; IC 95%: 1,34-3,79; p = 0,002), progresión de la enfermedad (OR: 3,01; IC 95%: 1,46-6,22; p = 0,003). La metarregresión reflejó que la asociación entre cardiopatía coronaria y mal pronóstico de la COVID-19 estaba influida por la hipertensión (p = 0,004), y el análisis de subgrupo mostró que comparada con la proporción de hipertensión > 30% (OR: 2,85; IC 95%: 2,33-3,49), la proporción de hipertensión < 30% (OR: 4,78; IC 95%: 3,50-6,51) tenía mayor riesgo de mal pronóstico. CONCLUSIÓN: La cardiopatía coronaria es un factor de riesgo de mal pronóstico en pacientes con COVID-19.

14.
J Cachexia Sarcopenia Muscle ; 12(4): 1056-1063, 2021 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1260553

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: There is limited information about the impact of coronavirus disease (COVID-19) on the muscular dysfunction, despite the generalized weakness and fatigue that patients report after overcoming the acute phase of the infection. This study aimed to detect impaired muscle efficiency by evaluating delta efficiency (DE) in patients with COVID-19 compared with subjects with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), ischaemic heart disease (IHD), and control group (CG). METHODS: A total of 60 participants were assigned to four experimental groups: COVID-19, COPD, IHD, and CG (n = 15 each group). Incremental exercise tests in a cycle ergometer were performed to obtain peak oxygen uptake (VO2 peak). DE was obtained from the end of the first workload to the power output where the respiratory exchange ratio was 1. RESULTS: A lower DE was detected in patients with COVID-19 and COPD compared with those in CG (P ≤ 0.033). However, no significant differences were observed among the experimental groups with diseases (P > 0.05). Lower VO2 peak, peak ventilation, peak power output, and total exercise time were observed in the groups with diseases than in the CG (P < 0.05). A higher VO2 , ventilation, and power output were detected in the CG compared with those in the groups with diseases at the first and second ventilatory threshold (P < 0.05). A higher power output was detected in the IHD group compared with those in the COVID-19 and COPD groups (P < 0.05) at the first and second ventilatory thresholds and when the respiratory exchange ratio was 1. A significant correlation (P < 0.001) was found between the VO2 peak and DE and between the peak power output and DE (P < 0.001). CONCLUSIONS: Patients with COVID-19 showed marked mechanical inefficiency similar to that observed in COPD and IHD patients. Patients with COVID-19 and COPD showed a significant decrease in power output compared to IHD during pedalling despite having similar response in VO2 at each intensity. Resistance training should be considered during the early phase of rehabilitation.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/physiopathology , Exercise Test/methods , Exercise/physiology , Lung/physiopathology , Oxygen Consumption/physiology , COVID-19/virology , Heart Diseases/physiopathology , Humans , Ischemia/physiopathology , Male , Middle Aged , Pulmonary Disease, Chronic Obstructive/physiopathology , Resistance Training/methods , Respiratory Function Tests/methods , SARS-CoV-2/physiology
15.
Eur J Ophthalmol ; 32(3): NP87-NP91, 2022 May.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1259130

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: To report a case of multiple superior quadrant intraretinal haemorrhages in post-COVID-19 patient. CASE DESCRIPTION: A 58-year-old male with a history of coronary artery disease and hypertension, presented with multiple superior quadrant intraretinal haemorrhages in the superonasal quadrant of the left eye 1 month after hospitalization for COVID-19. The right eye was normal. During his 10-day stay, he was treated with hydroxychloroquine, lopinavir + ritonavir, ceftriaxone, and his pre-existing antiplatelet therapy. During hospitalization, a complete medical work up showed an anomalous increase in D-dimer. He did not require intensive care support. CONCLUSIONS: In this report, we focused on the origin of retinal bleeding in a post COVID-19 patient, likely due to a focal occlusion of a vessel. Considering the nature of SARS-CoV-2 infection, we hypothesize that retinal haemorrhages were caused by a combination of factors including the patient's antiplatelet therapy and the thrombotic microvascular injury caused by the virus.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Platelet Aggregation Inhibitors/therapeutic use , Precision Medicine , Retinal Hemorrhage/diagnosis , Retinal Hemorrhage/drug therapy , Retinal Hemorrhage/etiology , SARS-CoV-2
16.
Int J Clin Pract ; 75(9): e14434, 2021 Sep.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1255410

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: Considering the anti-inflammatory effect of atorvastatin and the role of medical comorbidities such as hypertension and coronary artery disease on the prognosis of the COVID-19 patients, we aimed to assess the effect of atorvastatin add-on therapy on mortality caused by COVID-19. METHODS: We conducted a retrospective cohort study, including patients who were hospitalised with confirmed diagnosis of severe COVID-19. Baseline characteristics and related clinical data of patients were recorded. Clinical outcomes consist of in-hospital mortality, need for invasive mechanical ventilation and hospital length of stay. COX regression analysis models were used to assess the association of independent factors to outcomes. RESULTS: Atorvastatin was administered for 421 of 991 patients. The mean age was 61.640 ± 17.003 years. Older age, higher prevalence of hypertension and coronary artery disease reported in patients who received atorvastatin. These patients have shorter hospital length of stay (P = .001). Based on COX proportional hazard model, in-hospital use of atorvastatin was associated with decrease in mortality (HR = 0.679, P = .005) and lower need for invasive mechanical ventilation (HR = 0.602, P = .014). CONCLUSIONS: Atorvastatin add-on therapy in patient with severe COVID-19 was associated with lower in-hospital mortality and reduced the risk of need for invasive mechanical ventilation which supports to continue the prescription of the medication.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Respiration, Artificial , Adult , Aged , Atorvastatin/therapeutic use , Hospital Mortality , Humans , Middle Aged , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2
17.
Front Pediatr ; 9: 665350, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1247891

ABSTRACT

Objective: The ongoing coronavirus 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic is disproportionally impacting the adult population. This study describes the experiences after repurposing a PICU and its staff for adult critical care within a state mandated COVID-19 hospital and compares the outcomes to adult patients admitted to the institution's MICU during the same period. Design: A retrospective chart review was performed to analyze outcomes for the adults admitted to the PICU and MICU during the 27-day period the PICU was incorporated into the institution's adult critical care surge plan. Setting: Tertiary care state University hospital. Patients: Critically ill adult patients with proven or suspected COVID-19. Interventions: To select the most ideal adult patients for PICU admission a tiered approach that incorporated older patients with more comorbidities at each stage was implemented. Measurements and Main Results: There were 140 patients admitted to the MICU and 9 patients admitted to the PICU during this period. The mean age of the adult patients admitted to the PICU was lower (49.1 vs. 63.2 p = 0.017). There was no statistically significant difference in the number of comorbidities, intubation rates, days of ventilation, dialysis or LOS. Patients selected for PICU care did not have coronary artery disease, CHF, cerebrovascular disease or COPD. Mean admission Sequential Organ Failure Assessment (SOFA) score was lower in patients admitted to the PICU (4 vs. 6.4, p = 0.017) with similar rates of survival to discharge (66.7 vs. 44.4%, p = 0.64). Conclusion: Outcomes for the adult patients who received care in the PICU did not appear to be worse than those who were admitted to the MICU during this time. While limited by a small sample size, this single center cohort study revealed that careful assessment of critical illness considering age and type of co-morbidities may be a safe and effective approach in determining which critically ill adult patients with known or suspected COVID-19 are the most appropriate for PICU admission in general hospitals with primary management by its physicians and nurses.

18.
Psychol Health Med ; 27(2): 409-420, 2022 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1242079

ABSTRACT

At present, coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has become a global public health emergency, bringing a great threat to human health. This study aims to evaluate and analyze the factors that influence the quality of life (QOL) of patients with coronary heart disease (CHD) during COVID-19 to provide a realistic basis for improving their QOL. A total of 70 patients with CHD were selected through convenience sampling from three heart rehabilitation centers. The cross-sectional survey of the study cases were carried out using an online survey platform. All of the participants completed a general situation questionnaire, and QOL was assessed through the 36-item Short Form Health Survey. Results showed that the overall QOL of patients with CHD during COVID-19 was poor, having an average score of 65.99 ± 10.97. Moreover, multivariate linear regression analysis showed that worry about COVID-19 (P < 0.05) and different exercise intervention types (P < 0.05) were the main factors affecting the QOL of patients. On the one hand, positive measures should be taken to provide psychological counseling to ease their sense of concern. On the other hand, engaging in exercise is more important for these patients to improve physical function, particularly Tai Chi exercises.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Coronary Disease , COVID-19/epidemiology , Coronary Disease/epidemiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Humans , Quality of Life/psychology , SARS-CoV-2
19.
Cardiovasc Drugs Ther ; 36(4): 705-712, 2022 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1227866

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: The clinical course of COVID-19 may be complicated by acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) and thromboembolic events, which are associated with high risk of mortality. Although previous studies reported a lower rate of death in patients treated with heparin, the potential benefit of chronic oral anticoagulation therapy (OAT) remains unknown. We aimed to investigate the association between OAT with the risk of ARDS and mortality in hospitalized patients with COVID-19. METHODS: This is a multicenter retrospective Italian study including consecutive patients hospitalized for COVID-19 from March 1 to April 22, 2020, at six Italian hospitals. Patients were divided into two groups according to the chronic assumption of oral anticoagulants. RESULTS: Overall, 427 patients were included; 87 patients (19%) were in the OAT group. Of them, 54 patients (13%) were on treatment with non-vitamin k oral anticoagulants (NOACs) and 33 (8%) with vitamin-K antagonists (VKAs). OAT patients were older and had a higher rate of hypertension, diabetes, and coronary artery disease compared to No-OAT group. The rate of ARDS at admission (26% vs 28%, P=0.834), or developed during the hospitalization (9% vs 10%, P=0.915), was similar between study groups; in-hospital mortality (22% vs 26%, P=0.395) was also comparable. After balancing for potential confounders by using the propensity score matching technique, no differences were found in term of clinical outcome between OAT and No-OAT patients CONCLUSION: Oral anticoagulation therapy, either NOACs or VKAs, did not influence the risk of ARDS or death in patients hospitalized with COVID-19.


Subject(s)
Atrial Fibrillation , COVID-19 , Respiratory Distress Syndrome , Administration, Oral , Anticoagulants , Atrial Fibrillation/drug therapy , Fibrinolytic Agents/therapeutic use , Humans , Retrospective Studies , Vitamin K
20.
Eur J Intern Med ; 89: 81-86, 2021 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1209445

ABSTRACT

AIMS: heart failure (HF) and coronary artery disease (CAD) are independent predictors of death in patients with COVID-19. The adverse prognostic impact of the combination of HF and CAD in these patients is unclear. METHODS AND RESULTS: we analysed data from 954 consecutive patients hospitalized for SARS-CoV-2 in five Italian Hospitals from February 23 to May 22, 2020. The study was a systematic prospective data collection according to a pre-specified protocol. All-cause mortality during hospitalization was the outcome measure. Mean duration of hospitalization was 33 days. Mortality was 11% in the total population and 7.4% in the group without evidence of HF or CAD (reference group). Mortality was 11.6% in the group with CAD and without HF (odds ratio [OR]: 1.6, p = 0.120), 15.5% in the group with HF and without CAD (OR: 2.3, p = 0.032), and 35.6% in the group with CAD and HF (OR: 6.9, p<0.0001). The risk of mortality in patients with CAD and HF combined was consistently higher than the sum of risks related to either disorder, resulting in a significant synergistic effect (p<0.0001) of the two conditions. Age-adjusted attributable proportion due to interaction was 64%. Adjusting for the simultaneous effects of age, hypotension, and lymphocyte count did not significantly lower attributable proportion which persisted statistically significant (p = 0.0360). CONCLUSION: The combination of HF and CAD exerts a marked detrimental impact on the risk of mortality in hospitalized patients with COVID-19, which is independent on other adverse prognostic markers.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Coronary Artery Disease , Heart Failure , Hospitalization , Humans , Italy/epidemiology , Prospective Studies , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2
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