Your browser doesn't support javascript.
Show: 20 | 50 | 100
Results 1 - 15 de 15
Filter
1.
Bioinformatics ; 2021 May 27.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1246688

ABSTRACT

MOTIVATION: Since the first recognized case of COVID-19, more than 100 million people have been infected worldwide. Global efforts in drug and vaccine development to fight the disease have yielded vaccines and drug candidates to cure COVID-19. However, the spread of SARS-CoV-2 variants threatens the continued efficacy of these treatments. In order to address this, we interrogate the evolutionary history of the entire SARS-CoV-2 proteome to identify evolutionarily conserved functional sites that can inform the search for treatments with broader coverage across the coronavirus family. RESULTS: Combining coronavirus family sequence information with the mutations observed in the current COVID-19 outbreak, we systematically and comprehensively define evolutionarily stable sites that may provide useful drug and vaccine targets and which are less likely to be compromised by the emergence of new virus strains. Several experimentally-validated effective drugs interact with these proposed target sites. In addition, the same evolutionary information can prioritize cross reactive antigens that are useful in directing multi-epitope vaccine strategies to illicit broadly neutralizing immune responses to the betacoronavirus family. Although the results are focused on SARS-CoV-2, these approaches stem from evolutionary principles that are agnostic to the organism or infective agent. AVAILABILITY: The results of this work are made interactively available at http://cov.lichtargelab.org. SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online.

2.
Z Gesundh Wiss ; : 1-8, 2021 Apr 17.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1201092

ABSTRACT

AIM: The COVID-19 pandemic drove the Government of Bangladesh to shut down educational institutions, which had an enormous effect on the psychological health of students. This study aimed to assess the mental health status of Bangladeshi university students during the lockdown period. SUBJECT AND METHODS: Through an online-based questionnaire, information was collected from 509 university students of Bangladesh from June 19, 2020, to June 28, 2020, using convenient sampling. K-means clustering was applied to organize students according to their psychological health score, and confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) was also conducted to determine the association among the student's activities and their mental health during the pandemic. In addition, these associations were examined through chi-square test and ordinal logistic regression. RESULTS: Students were categorized into four categories where 4.32% had mild, 72.7% had moderate, 12.57% had moderately severe, and 10.41% suffered from severe mental health imbalance. The results showed that having family members affected by the coronavirus, facing insecurity, using social media, and smoking habits increased the mental health imbalances of students; in contrast, being worried about studying, future career, spending more time with family members, and participation in household chores reduced the mental health disturbances of students. On the other hand, the results of the ordinal logistic regression indicated that sleeping time and participation in household chores were preventive factors for students. CONCLUSION: This study reveals that a large proportion of University students of Bangladesh suffered from mental health disturbances during the lockdown period. Implementing mental health plans and providing job security, improved communication approaches toward family members, not flattening illusive news, and preoccupation in household activities may assist to enhance the mental health status of the university students. The authors believe that this study's findings will be helpful to expedite the rate of attaining the sustainable development goal associated with health status in Bangladesh.

3.
Comput Struct Biotechnol J ; 19: 1838-1847, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1147687

ABSTRACT

Short Linear Motifs (SLiMs) are functional protein microdomains that typically mediate interactions between a short linear region in one protein and a globular domain in another. Surface Plasmon Resonance assays have been performed to determine the binding affinity between PDZ domain of wild type human PALS1 protein and tetradecapeptides representing the SLiMs sequences of SARS-CoV-1 and SARS-CoV-2 E proteins (E-SLiMs). SARS-CoV-2 E-SLiM binds to the human target protein with a higher affinity compared to SARS-CoV-1, showing a difference significantly greater than previously reported using the F318W mutant of PALS1 protein and shorter target peptides. Moreover, molecular dynamics simulations have provided clear evidence of the structural determinants driving this binding process. Specifically, the Arginine 69 residue in the SARS-CoV-2 E-SLiM is the key residue able to both enhance the specific polar interaction with negatively charged pockets of the PALS1 PDZ domain and reduce significantly the mobility of the viral peptide. These experimental and computational data are reinforced by the comparison of the interaction between the PALS1 PDZ domain with the natural ligand CRB1, as well as the corresponding E-SLiMs of other coronavirus members such as MERS and OCF43. Our results provide a model at the molecular level of the strategies used to mimic the endogenous SLiM peptide in the binding of the tight junctions of the host cell, explaining one of the possible reasons of the severity of the infection and pulmonary inflammation by SARS-CoV-2.

4.
Pathogens ; 10(3)2021 Mar 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1143550

ABSTRACT

The aim of our study was to define the spectrum of viral infections in pilgrims with acute respiratory tract illnesses presenting to healthcare facilities around the holy places in Makkah, Saudi Arabia during the 2019 Hajj pilgrimage. During the five days of Hajj, a total of 185 pilgrims were enrolled in the study. Nasopharyngeal swabs (NPSs) of 126/185 patients (68.11%) tested positive for one or more respiratory viruses by PCR. Among the 126 pilgrims whose NPS were PCR positive: (a) there were 93/126 (74%) with a single virus infection, (b) 33/126 (26%) with coinfection with more than one virus (up to four viruses): of these, 25/33 cases had coinfection with two viruses; 6/33 were infected with three viruses, while the remaining 2/33 patients had infection with four viruses. Human rhinovirus (HRV) was the most common detected viruses with 53 cases (42.06%), followed by 27 (21.43%) cases of influenza A (H1N1), and 23 (18.25%) cases of influenza A other than H1N1. Twenty-five cases of CoV-229E (19.84%) were detected more than other coronavirus members (5 CoV-OC43 (3.97%), 4 CoV-HKU1 (3.17%), and 1 CoV-NL63 (0.79%)). PIV-3 was detected in 8 cases (6.35%). A single case (0.79%) of PIV-1 and PIV-4 were found. HMPV represented 5 (3.97%), RSV and influenza B 4 (3.17%) for each, and Parechovirus 1 (0.79%). Enterovirus, Bocavirus, and M. pneumoniae were not detected. Whether identification of viral nucleic acid represents nasopharyngeal carriage or specific causal etiology of RTI remains to be defined. Large controlled cohort studies (pre-Hajj, during Hajj, and post-Hajj) are required to define the carriage rates and the specific etiology and causal roles of specific individual viruses or combination of viruses in the pathogenesis of respiratory tract infections in pilgrims participating in the annual Hajj. Studies of the specific microbial etiology of respiratory track infections (RTIs) at mass gathering religious events remain a priority, especially in light of the novel SARS-CoV-2 pandemic.

5.
Curr Microbiol ; 78(4): 1099-1114, 2021 Apr.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1103431

ABSTRACT

A novel coronavirus member was reported in Wuhan City, Hubei Province, China, at the end of the year 2019. Initially, the infection spread locally, affecting the Wuhan people, and then expanded rapidly throughout the world. On 11 March 2020, the World Health Organization (WHO) proclaimed it a global pandemic. The virus is a new strain most closely related to a bat coronavirus (RaTG13) which was not previously discovered in humans and is now formally known as the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is the disease syndrome that the SARS-CoV-2 virus triggers. It is suggested that SARS-CoV-2 can be transmitted through aerosols, direct/indirect contact, and also during medical procedures and specimen handling. The infection is characterized by isolated flu-like symptoms, but there may be specific signs of fever, fatigue, cough, and shortness of breath, as well as the loss of smell and breathing difficulty. Within this report, we tried to review the most current scientific literature published by January 2021 on various aspects of the outbreak, including virus structure, pathogenesis, clinical presentation, epidemiology, diagnostic approaches, potential therapeutics and vaccines, and prospects. We hope this article makes a beneficial impact on public education to better deal with the SARS-CoV-2 crisis and push a step forward in the near term towards its prevention and control.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Virus Replication/physiology , COVID-19/genetics , COVID-19/pathology , COVID-19/therapy , COVID-19/transmission , Genome, Viral/genetics , Humans , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/growth & development , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Virus Attachment , Virus Internalization
6.
Surgeon ; 19(5): e304-e309, 2021 Oct.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1080538

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Staff and patient safety are of paramount importance while performing a surgical tracheostomy (ST) during the corona virus disease (COVID-19) pandemic. The aim was to assess the incidence of COVID-19 infection among the healthcare personnel (HCP) performing ST on COVID-19 patients. METHODS: One hundred and twenty-two HCP participating in 71 ST procedures performed at our institution between 26th March 2020 and 27th May 2020 were identified. A COVID-19 health questionnaire was distributed among staff with their consent. Data related to the presence of COVID-19 symptoms (new onset continuous cough, fever, loss of taste and/or loss of smell) among HCP involved in ST as well as patient related data were collected. RESULTS: Of the HCP who responded, eleven (15%,11/72) reported key COVID-19 symptoms and went into self-isolation. Ten members from this group underwent a COVID-19 swab test and three tested positive. Only one HCP attended hospital for symptomatic treatment, none required hospitalisation. Sixty percent (43/72) of the responders had a COVID-19 antibody test with a positive rate of 18.6% (8/43). Among the patients undergoing a ST, 67% (37/55) required a direct intensive care unit (ICU) admission; the mean age was 58 years (29-78) with a male preponderance (65.5%). The median time from intubation to ST was 15 days (range 5-33,IQR = 9). The overall mortality was 11% (6/55). CONCLUSIONS: ST can be carried out safely with strict adherence to both, personnel protective equipment and ST protocols which are vital to mitigate the potential transmission of COVID-19 to the HCP.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Infectious Disease Transmission, Patient-to-Professional/statistics & numerical data , Tracheostomy/adverse effects , Adult , Aged , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/transmission , Female , Hospitalization , Humans , Incidence , Infection Control , Male , Middle Aged , Retrospective Studies , Risk Assessment , Surveys and Questionnaires
7.
Anal Chem ; 93(8): 4126-4133, 2021 03 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1078274

ABSTRACT

The outbreak of the pandemic caused by the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) calls for an urgent unmet need for developing a facial and cost-effective detection method. The requirement of well-trained personnel and sophisticated instrument of current primary mean (reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction, RT-PCR) may hinder the practical application worldwide. In this regard, a reverse transcription recombinase polymerase amplification (RT-RPA) coupled with CRISPR-Cas12a colorimetric assay is proposed for the SARS-CoV-2 detection. The methodology we have described herein utilizes DNA-modified gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) as a universal colorimetric readout and can specifically target ORF1ab and N regions of the SARS-CoV-2 genome. After the virus genome is amplified through RT-RPA, the resulting abundant dsDNA will bind and activate Cas12a. Under trans-cleavage degradation, the capped DNA substrate will be hydrolyzed gradually from AuNPs, demonstrating a change in the surface plasmon resonance (SPR), which can be facially monitored by UV-vis absorbance spectroscopy and naked eye observation. The high amplification efficiency from RT-RPA and Cas12a trans-cleavage process bring the sensitivity of our method to 1 copy of viral genome sequence per test. Notably, under the dual variations inspecting from the isothermal amplification and Cas12a activation process, the false positive events from other beta coronavirus members can be effectively avoided and thus significantly improve the specificity. Furthermore, the reliability of this colorimetric assay is validated by standard clinical samples from the hospital laboratory department. Through integration of the inherently high sensitivity and specificity from an RPA-coupled Cas12a system with the intrinsic simplicity of AuNP-based colorimetric assay, our method increases the practical testing availability of SARS-CoV-2.


Subject(s)
CRISPR-Cas Systems , Colorimetry/methods , DNA/chemistry , Nucleic Acid Amplification Techniques/methods , RNA, Viral/analysis , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Bacterial Proteins , Base Sequence , COVID-19/diagnosis , CRISPR-Associated Proteins , Coronavirus Nucleocapsid Proteins/genetics , DNA/genetics , Endodeoxyribonucleases , Gold/chemistry , Humans , Metal Nanoparticles/chemistry , Phosphoproteins/genetics , Polyproteins/genetics , RNA, Viral/genetics , Reverse Transcription , SARS-CoV-2/chemistry , Surface Plasmon Resonance , Viral Proteins/genetics
8.
BMC Public Health ; 21(1): 275, 2021 02 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1063191

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The COVID-19 (SARS-CoV-2) is an emerging epidemic caused by the new Coronavirus. It has affected more than 200 countries, infected 5,939,234 people, and killed 367,255 in the world until 1 June 2020. While the disease epidemic could affect population mental health, this study aimed to investigate stress, anxiety, and depression during the Corona pandemic in Iran. METHODS: An online survey was designed using the depression, anxiety, and stress scale (DASS-21) questionnaire. The questionnaire was available for all Iranian population from 18 to 28 April 2020. Finally, 1498 participants filled the questionnaire using snowball sampling. Data were analyzed using multivariate regression models. RESULTS: Findings showed that most participants had experienced a normal level of stress (36.6%), anxiety (57.9%) and depression (47.9%). About 2.5% of respondents report an extremely severe level of stress. This amount of anxiety and depression was 6.3 and 7.9%, respectively. Regression model showed being female (CI: - 1.299; - 0.248), living with a high risk family member (CI: 0.325; 1.400), health status (CI: - 0.857; - 0.595), economic status (CI: - 0.396; - 0.141), social capital (CI: - 0.475; - 0.244), risk of disease (CI: 0.081; 0.729), and following COVID-19 news (CI: 0.111; 0.551) have a relation with stress level. Education level (CI: - 0.252; - 0.017), living with a high risk family member (CI: 0.0301; 1.160), health status (CI: - 0.682; - 0.471), social capital (CI: - 0.236; - 0.048), risk of disease (CI: 0.154; 0.674), and following COVID-19 news (CI: 0.046; 0.401) have a relation with anxiety score. Depression score was in relation with education level (CI: - 0.263; - 0.022), having a high-risk family member (CI: 0.292; 1.155), health status (CI: - 0.687; - 0.476), social capital (CI: - 0.235; - 0.048), risk of disease (CI: 0.144; 0.667), and following Covid-19 news (CI: 0.053; 0.408). CONCLUSIONS: Most of the factors related to depression, anxiety, and stress are related to COVID-19, such as having a vulnerable person in the family, risk of disease, and following COVID-19 news. The findings suggest the factors that should be taken into consideration for improving population mental health during pandemics.


Subject(s)
Anxiety/epidemiology , COVID-19 , Depression/epidemiology , Stress, Psychological/epidemiology , Female , Humans , Iran/epidemiology , Male , Risk Factors , Surveys and Questionnaires
9.
Front Immunol ; 11: 595970, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-955298

ABSTRACT

The pandemic caused by emerging Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) presents a global public health threat. Illustrating human antibody responding to viral antigen could potentially provide valuable information for basic research and clinical diagnosis. The antibody can be used as a complement to the viral detection for the rapid diagnosis of infected patients. Compared with spike protein (SP), nucleocapsid protein (NP) is normally conserved and highly immunogenic in many coronavirus members. As a major antigen, NP is a potential target for the diagnosis of SARS-CoV-2 infection. Here, we constructed a combinatorial fragment of antigen-binding (Fab)antibody phage library based on peripheral blood-derived from five coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) infected donors. From the library, 159 Fab antibodies were obtained and identified by panning with NP. Among them, 16 antibodies were evaluated for their binding properties and epitopes recognition. Among these 16 antibodies, two well-paired antibodies were finally screened out for SARS-CoV-2 diagnosis by double-antibody sandwich enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) method. Our works may provide a potential resource for the clinical diagnosis of SARS-CoV-2 infection.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Monoclonal/immunology , COVID-19/diagnosis , Coronavirus Nucleocapsid Proteins/immunology , Peptide Library , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Antibodies, Monoclonal/biosynthesis , Antibody Affinity , COVID-19/immunology , Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay , Epitopes/immunology , Humans , Immunoglobulin Fab Fragments/immunology , Immunoglobulin G/immunology , Phosphoproteins/immunology , Sequence Analysis, Protein
10.
PLoS One ; 15(9): e0240014, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-808956

ABSTRACT

Data regarding safety of bedside surgical tracheostomy in novel coronavirus 2019 (COVID-19) mechanically ventilated patients admitted to the intensive care unit (ICU) are lacking. We performed this study to assess the safety of bedside surgical tracheostomy in COVID-19 patients admitted to ICU. This retrospective, single-center, cohort observational study (conducted between February, 23 and April, 30, 2020) was performed in our 45-bed dedicated COVID-19 ICU. Inclusion criteria were: a) age over 18 years; b) confirmed diagnosis of COVID-19 infection (with nasopharyngeal/oropharyngeal swab); c) invasive mechanical ventilation and d) clinical indication for tracheostomy. The objectives of this study were to describe: 1) perioperative complications, 2) perioperative alterations in respiratory gas exchange and 3) occurrence of COVID-19 infection among health-care providers involved into the procedure. A total of 125 COVID-19 patients were admitted to the ICU during the study period. Of those, 66 (53%) underwent tracheostomy. Tracheostomy was performed after a mean of 6.1 (± 2.1) days since ICU admission. Most of tracheostomies (47/66, 71%) were performed by intensivists and the mean time of the procedure was 22 (± 4.4) minutes. No intraprocedural complications was reported. Stoma infection and bleeding were reported in 2 patients and 7 patients, respectively, in the post-procedure period, without significant clinical consequences. The mean PaO2 / FiO2 was significantly lower at the end of tracheostomy (117.6 ± 35.4) then at the beginning (133.4 ± 39.2) or 24 hours before (135.8 ± 51.3) the procedure. However, PaO2/FiO2 progressively increased at 24 hours after tracheostomy (142 ± 50.7). None of the members involved in the tracheotomy procedures developed COVID-19 infection. Bedside surgical tracheostomy appears to be feasible and safe, both for patients and for health care workers, during COVID-19 pandemic in an experienced center.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/prevention & control , Pandemics/prevention & control , Pneumonia, Viral/prevention & control , Safety , Tracheostomy , Aged , Betacoronavirus , COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections/transmission , Female , Humans , Infectious Disease Transmission, Patient-to-Professional/prevention & control , Intensive Care Units , Male , Middle Aged , Pneumonia, Viral/transmission , Respiration, Artificial , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2
11.
Fam Process ; 59(3): 865-882, 2020 Sep.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-751729

ABSTRACT

The novel coronavirus has added new anxieties and forms of grieving to the myriad practical and emotional burdens already present in the lives of underserved and uninsured immigrant families and communities. In this article, we relate our experiences since the COVID-19 crisis to the lessons we have learned over time as mental health professionals working with families in no-cost, student-managed community comprehensive health clinics in academic-community partnerships. We compare and contrast the learnings of flexibility of time, space, procedures, or attendance we acquired in this clinical community setting during regular times, with the new challenges families and therapists face, and the adaptations needed to continue to work with our clients in culturally responsive and empowering ways during the COVID-19 pandemic. We describe families, students, professionals, promotoras (community links), and IT support staff joining together in solidarity as the creative problem solvers of new possibilities when families do not have access to Wi-Fi, smartphones, or computers, or suffer overcrowding and lack of privacy. We describe many anxieties related to economic insecurity or fear of facing death alone, but also how to visualize expanding possibilities in styles of parenting or types of emotional support among family members as elements of hope that may endure beyond these unprecedented tragic times of loss and uncertainty.


El novedoso coronavirus ha agregado nuevas ansiedades y formas de duelo a la infinidad de cargas emocionales y prácticas ya presentes en las vidas de las familias y las comunidades de inmigrantes marginados que no tienen seguro. En este artículo, relacionamos nuestras experiencias desde la crisis de la COVID-19 con las lecciones que hemos aprendido en el transcurso del tiempo como profesionales de salud mental que trabajamos con familias en clínicas comunitarias de atención integral de la salud gratuitas y administradas por estudiantes en asociaciones académico-comunitarias. Comparamos y contrastamos los conocimientos de flexibilidad del tiempo, del espacio, de los procedimientos o de la asistencia que adquirimos en este entorno clínico comunitario durante momentos habituales con los nuevos desafíos que enfrentan las familias y los terapeutas, y las adaptaciones necesarias para continuar trabajando con nuestros pacientes de maneras que respondan a sus necesidades culturales y los empoderen durante la pandemia de la COVID-19. Describimos a las familias, a los alumnos, a los profesionales, a las promotoras (vínculos comunitarios) y al personal de asistencia en tecnologías informáticas que se han unido en solidaridad como solucionadores creativos de problemas ofreciendo nuevas posibilidades cuando las familias no tienen acceso a wifi, a teléfonos inteligentes o a computadoras, o sufren el hacinamiento y la falta de privacidad. Describimos muchas ansiedades relacionadas con la inseguridad económica o con el miedo de enfrentar la muerte solos, y también cómo visualizar la ampliación de posibilidades en los estilos de crianza o los tipos de apoyo emocional entre familiares como elementos de esperanza que pueden perdurar luego de estos tiempos trágicos de pérdida e incertidumbre sin precedentes.


Subject(s)
Community Mental Health Services/methods , Coronavirus Infections/psychology , Emigrants and Immigrants/psychology , Family Therapy/methods , Pneumonia, Viral/psychology , Quarantine/psychology , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Betacoronavirus , COVID-19 , Child , Coronavirus Infections/ethnology , Coronavirus Infections/prevention & control , Female , Health Personnel/psychology , Healthcare Disparities , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics/prevention & control , Pneumonia, Viral/ethnology , Pneumonia, Viral/prevention & control , SARS-CoV-2 , Vulnerable Populations/ethnology , Vulnerable Populations/psychology , Young Adult
12.
Eur Rev Med Pharmacol Sci ; 24(10): 5830-5841, 2020 May.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-547471

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: Recent worldwide outbreak of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), the causative agent of respiratory coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), is a current, ongoing life-threatening crisis, and international public health emergency. The early diagnosis and management of the disease remains a major challenge. In this review, we aim to summarize the updated epidemiology, causes, clinical manifestation and diagnosis, as well as prevention and control of the novel coronavirus SARS-CoV-2. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A broad search of the literature was performed in "PubMed" "Medline" "Web of Science", "Google Scholar" and "World Health Organization-WHO" using the keywords "severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus", "2019-nCoV", "COVID-19, "SARS", "SARS-CoV-2" "Epidemiology" "Transmission" "Pathogenesis" "Clinical Characteristics". We reviewed and documented the information obtained from literature on epidemiology, pathogenesis and clinical appearances of SARS-CoV-2 infection. RESULTS: The global cases of COVID-19 as of April 2, 2020, have risen to more than 900,000 and morbidity has reached more than 47,000. The incidence rate for COVID-19 has been predicted to be higher than the previous outbreaks of other coronavirus family members, including those of SARS-CoV and the Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus (MERS-CoV). The main clinical presentation of SARS-CoV-2 infection ranges from asymptomatic stages to severe lower respiratory infection in the form of pneumonia. Most of the patients also presented with fever, cough, sore throat, headache, fatigue, myalgia and breathlessness. Individuals at higher risk for severe illness include elderly people and patients with a weakened immune system or that are suffering from an underlying chronic medical condition like hypertension, diabetes mellitus, cancer, respiratory illness or cardiovascular diseases. CONCLUSIONS: SARS-Cov-2 has emerged as a worldwide threat, currently affecting 170 countries and territories across the globe. There is still much to be understood regarding SARS-CoV-2 about its virology, epidemiology and clinical management strategies; this knowledge will be essential to both manage the current pandemic and to conceive comprehensive measures to prevent such outbreaks in the future.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus/physiology , Coronavirus Infections/pathology , Pneumonia, Viral/pathology , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2 , Betacoronavirus/genetics , Betacoronavirus/isolation & purification , Bronchoalveolar Lavage Fluid/virology , COVID-19 , Comorbidity , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/transmission , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Humans , Lung Neoplasms/complications , Lung Neoplasms/pathology , Pandemics , Peptidyl-Dipeptidase A/metabolism , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Pneumonia, Viral/transmission , Pneumonia, Viral/virology , Quarantine , RNA, Viral/genetics , RNA, Viral/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2 , Sputum/virology
13.
J Renin Angiotensin Aldosterone Syst ; 21(2): 1470320320928872, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-543313

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) is a recently identified coronavirus family member that triggers a respiratory disease similar to severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (SARS-CoV). SARS-CoV and SARS-CoV-2 are very similar to each other in many respects, such as structure, genetics, and pathobiology. We hypothesized that coronaviruses could affect pulmonary tissues via integration with the critical immune genes after their interaction with renin-angiotensin system (RAS) elements. The aim of the present bioinformatics study was to assess expression changes of the RAS and non-RAS genes, particularly immune response genes, in the lung epithelial cells after infection with SARS-CoV. METHODS: Linear regression, hierarchical clustering, pathway analysis, and network analysis were performed using the E-GEOD-17400 data set. RESULTS: The whole-genome expression data of the lung epithelial cells infected with SARS-CoV for 12, 24, and 48 hours were analyzed, and a total of 15 RAS family and 29 immune genes were found to be highly correlated with the exposure time to the virus in the studied groups. CONCLUSION: RAS genes are important at the initiation of the infections caused by coronavirus family members and may have a strong relationship with the exchange of immune genes in due course following the infection.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus/physiology , Bronchi/pathology , Coronavirus Infections/genetics , Epithelial Cells/metabolism , Epithelial Cells/virology , Inflammation/genetics , Pneumonia, Viral/genetics , Renin-Angiotensin System/genetics , COVID-19 , Cluster Analysis , Gene Expression Regulation , Gene Regulatory Networks , Genome, Human , Humans , Inflammation/pathology , Linear Models , Pandemics , RNA, Messenger/genetics , RNA, Messenger/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2
14.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 2601, 2020 05 20.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-326048

ABSTRACT

The coronavirus family member, SARS-CoV-2 has been identified as the causal agent for the pandemic viral pneumonia disease, COVID-19. At this time, no vaccine is available to control further dissemination of the disease. We have previously engineered a synthetic DNA vaccine targeting the MERS coronavirus Spike (S) protein, the major surface antigen of coronaviruses, which is currently in clinical study. Here we build on this prior experience to generate a synthetic DNA-based vaccine candidate targeting SARS-CoV-2 S protein. The engineered construct, INO-4800, results in robust expression of the S protein in vitro. Following immunization of mice and guinea pigs with INO-4800 we measure antigen-specific T cell responses, functional antibodies which neutralize the SARS-CoV-2 infection and block Spike protein binding to the ACE2 receptor, and biodistribution of SARS-CoV-2 targeting antibodies to the lungs. This preliminary dataset identifies INO-4800 as a potential COVID-19 vaccine candidate, supporting further translational study.


Subject(s)
Antigens, Viral/immunology , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/immunology , Vaccines, DNA/immunology , Viral Vaccines/immunology , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2 , Animals , Antibodies, Neutralizing/immunology , Antigens, Viral/chemistry , COVID-19 Vaccines , Coronavirus Infections/immunology , Coronavirus Infections/prevention & control , Epitope Mapping , Guinea Pigs , Immunity, Humoral , Immunoglobulin G/immunology , Lung/immunology , Mice , Mice, Inbred BALB C , Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus , Models, Animal , Peptidyl-Dipeptidase A/metabolism , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/chemistry , Viral Vaccines/chemistry
15.
Chem ; 6(6): 1283-1295, 2020 Jun 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-324493

ABSTRACT

SARS-CoV-2 (previously 2019-nCoV or Wuhan coronavirus) caused an unprecedented fast-spreading worldwide pandemic. Although currently with a rather low mortality rate, the virus spread rapidly over the world using the modern world's traffic highways. The coronavirus (CoV) family members were responsible for several deadly outbreaks and epidemics during the last decade. Not only governments but also the scientific community reacted promptly to the outbreak, and information is shared quickly. For example, the genetic fingerprint was shared, and the 3D structure of key proteins was rapidly solved, which can be used for the discovery of potential treatments. An overview is given on the current knowledge of the spread, disease course, and molecular biology of SARS-CoV-2. We discuss potential treatment developments in the context of recent outbreaks, drug repurposing, and development timelines.

SELECTION OF CITATIONS
SEARCH DETAIL