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1.
Am J Med Case Rep ; 8(9): 299-305, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2168692

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The COVID-19 infection which emerged in December 2019, is caused by the virus SARS-CoV-2. Infection with this virus can lead to severe respiratory illness, however, myocarditis has also been reported. The purpose of this study is to identify the clinical features of myocarditis in COVID-19 patients. METHODS: A systematic review was conducted to investigate characteristics of myocarditis in patients infected with COVID-19 using the search term "Coronavirus" or "COVID" and "myocarditis," "heart," or "retrospective." Case reports and retrospective studies were gathered by searching Medline/Pubmed, Google Scholar, CINAHL, Cochrane CENTRAL, and Web of Science databases. 11 articles were selected for review. RESULTS: COVID-19 myocarditis affected patients over the age of 50 and incidences among both genders were equally reported. Patients presented with dyspnea, cough, fever with hypotension and chest pain. Laboratory tests revealed leukocytosis with increased C-reactive protein, while arterial blood gas analysis demonstrated respiratory acidosis. All cardiac markers were elevated. Radiographic imaging of the chest showed bilateral ground glass opacities or bilateral infiltrates, while cardiac magnetic resonance imaging produced late gadolinium enhancements. Electrocardiography demonstrated ST-segment elevation or inverted T waves, while echocardiography revealed reduced left ventricular ejection fraction with cardiomegaly or increased wall thickness. Management with corticosteroids was favored in most cases, followed by antiviral medication. The majority of studies reported either recovery or no further clinical deterioration. CONCLUSION: Current available data on COVID-19 myocarditis is limited. Further research is needed to advance our understanding of COVID-19 myocarditis.

2.
Clin Ophthalmol ; 14: 2701-2708, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1793290

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: To assess SARS-CoV-2 virus in conjunctival tears and secretions of positive confirmed COVID-19 patients. METHODS: A case series study that included 28 positive COVID-19 patients confirmed with nasopharyngeal swab in the period 18-28 May 2020 at Sohag Tropical Medicine Hospital. Tears and conjunctival secretions of these confirmed positive cases were collected with disposable sampling swabs at interval of 3 days after admission due to respiratory symptoms. They were examined for the presence of SARS-CoV-2 by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) assay. RESULTS: Thirteen (46.43%) patients were stable, 4 (14.28%) patients suffered from dyspnea, 3 (10.72%) patients suffered from high fever, 5 (17.85%) patients suffered from cough, and 3 (10.72%) patients were on mechanical ventilation. Ten (35.71%) patients suffered from conjunctivitis. Tear and conjunctival swabs were positive in 8 (28.57%) patients, while other patients' swabs were negative (71.43%). Out of 10 patients with conjunctival manifestations, 3 patients had SARS-CoV-2 in their conjunctiva using (RT-PCR) test. Out of the 18 patients with no conjunctival manifestations, 5 patients had positive SARS-CoV-2 in their conjunctiva using (RT-PCR) test. CONCLUSION: The SARS-CoV-2 virus could be found in tears and conjunctival secretions in SARS-CoV-2 patients with or without conjunctivitis.

3.
Am J Med Case Rep ; 8(9): 299-305, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1790448

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The COVID-19 infection which emerged in December 2019, is caused by the virus SARS-CoV-2. Infection with this virus can lead to severe respiratory illness, however, myocarditis has also been reported. The purpose of this study is to identify the clinical features of myocarditis in COVID-19 patients. METHODS: A systematic review was conducted to investigate characteristics of myocarditis in patients infected with COVID-19 using the search term "Coronavirus" or "COVID" and "myocarditis," "heart," or "retrospective." Case reports and retrospective studies were gathered by searching Medline/Pubmed, Google Scholar, CINAHL, Cochrane CENTRAL, and Web of Science databases. 11 articles were selected for review. RESULTS: COVID-19 myocarditis affected patients over the age of 50 and incidences among both genders were equally reported. Patients presented with dyspnea, cough, fever with hypotension and chest pain. Laboratory tests revealed leukocytosis with increased C-reactive protein, while arterial blood gas analysis demonstrated respiratory acidosis. All cardiac markers were elevated. Radiographic imaging of the chest showed bilateral ground glass opacities or bilateral infiltrates, while cardiac magnetic resonance imaging produced late gadolinium enhancements. Electrocardiography demonstrated ST-segment elevation or inverted T waves, while echocardiography revealed reduced left ventricular ejection fraction with cardiomegaly or increased wall thickness. Management with corticosteroids was favored in most cases, followed by antiviral medication. The majority of studies reported either recovery or no further clinical deterioration. CONCLUSION: Current available data on COVID-19 myocarditis is limited. Further research is needed to advance our understanding of COVID-19 myocarditis.

4.
Chin Med J (Engl) ; 133(9): 1015-1024, 2020 May 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1722617

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Human infections with zoonotic coronaviruses (CoVs), including severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS)-CoV and Middle East respiratory syndrome (MERS)-CoV, have raised great public health concern globally. Here, we report a novel bat-origin CoV causing severe and fatal pneumonia in humans. METHODS: We collected clinical data and bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) specimens from five patients with severe pneumonia from Wuhan Jinyintan Hospital, Hubei province, China. Nucleic acids of the BAL were extracted and subjected to next-generation sequencing. Virus isolation was carried out, and maximum-likelihood phylogenetic trees were constructed. RESULTS: Five patients hospitalized from December 18 to December 29, 2019 presented with fever, cough, and dyspnea accompanied by complications of acute respiratory distress syndrome. Chest radiography revealed diffuse opacities and consolidation. One of these patients died. Sequence results revealed the presence of a previously unknown ß-CoV strain in all five patients, with 99.8% to 99.9% nucleotide identities among the isolates. These isolates showed 79.0% nucleotide identity with the sequence of SARS-CoV (GenBank NC_004718) and 51.8% identity with the sequence of MERS-CoV (GenBank NC_019843). The virus is phylogenetically closest to a bat SARS-like CoV (SL-ZC45, GenBank MG772933) with 87.6% to 87.7% nucleotide identity, but is in a separate clade. Moreover, these viruses have a single intact open reading frame gene 8, as a further indicator of bat-origin CoVs. However, the amino acid sequence of the tentative receptor-binding domain resembles that of SARS-CoV, indicating that these viruses might use the same receptor. CONCLUSION: A novel bat-borne CoV was identified that is associated with severe and fatal respiratory disease in humans.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Pneumonia, Viral/virology , Adult , Aged , Betacoronavirus/genetics , Betacoronavirus/isolation & purification , COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections/diagnostic imaging , Coronavirus Infections/therapy , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnostic imaging , Pneumonia, Viral/therapy , SARS-CoV-2 , Tomography, X-Ray , Treatment Outcome
5.
Cureus ; 13(4): e14480, 2021 Apr 14.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1389786

ABSTRACT

We present a 68-year-old male patient with persistent and complicated SARS-CoV-2 infection who was diagnosed with acute myeloid leukemia (AML). The patient suffered from fever, cough and progressive dyspnea for 10 days and he was admitted to the intensive care unit due to respiratory failure and cytokine release syndrome (CRS). Despite a transient improvement of CRS by the implementation of supportive care, including also the administration of recombinant tissue plasminogen activator (rt-PA) and tocilizumab, his clinical course worsened over time. Thus, a bone marrow aspiration was performed revealing the presence of myeloblasts in a proportion of 32% and flow cytometry confirmed the diagnosis of AML-M1 according to FAB classification. Re-evaluation of peripheral blood tests revealed that the patient was admitted with anemia and thrombocytopenia that were never recovered during hospitalization. Due to the patient's poor clinical condition, no chemotherapy was applied, and he died of sepsis and multi-organ failure two days later. This case suggests that in all patients with a persistent and/or complicated infection, even during pandemics, the presence of an underlying hematologic malignancy should always be taken into consideration.

6.
Int J Infect Dis ; 108: 212-216, 2021 Jul.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1364082

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To determine if viable virus could be isolated from the air within a car driven by a patient infected with SARS-CoV-2, and to assess the size range of the infectious particles. METHODS: We used a Sioutas personal cascade impactor sampler (PCIS) to screen for SARS-CoV-2 in a car driven by a COVID-19 patient. The patient, who had only mild illness without fever or cough and was not wearing a mask, drove the car for 15 min with the air conditioning turned on and windows closed. The PCIS was clipped to the sun-visor above the front passenger seat and was retrieved from the car two hours after completion of the drive. RESULTS: SARS-CoV-2 was detectable at all PCIS stages by PCR and was cultured from the section of the sampler collecting particles in the 0.25-0.50 µm size range. CONCLUSIONS: Our data highlight the potential risk of SARS-CoV-2 transmission by minimally symptomatic persons in the closed space inside of a car and suggest that a substantial component of that risk is via aerosolized virus.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Aerosols , Automobiles , Cough , Humans
7.
J Neurol ; 268(6): 2007-2012, 2021 Jun.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1342967

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: The outbreak of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has become one of the most serious pandemics of the recent times. Since this pandemic began, there have been numerous reports about the COVID-19 involvement of the nervous system. There have been reports of both direct and indirect involvement of the central and peripheral nervous system by the virus. OBJECTIVE: To review the neuropsychiatric manifestations along with corresponding pathophysiologic mechanisms of nervous system involvement by the COVID-19. BACKGROUND: Since the beginning of the disease in humans in the later part of 2019, the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has rapidly spread across the world with over 2,719,000 reported cases in over 200 countries [World Health Organization. Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) situation report-96.,]. While patients typically present with fever, shortness of breath, sore throat, and cough, neurologic manifestations have been reported, as well. These include the ones with both direct and indirect involvement of the nervous system. The reported manifestations include anosmia, ageusia, central respiratory failure, stroke, acute inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy (AIDP), acute necrotizing hemorrhagic encephalopathy, toxic-metabolic encephalopathy, headache, myalgia, myelitis, ataxia, and various neuropsychiatric manifestations. These data were derived from the published clinical data in various journals and case reports. CONCLUSION: The neurological manifestations of the COVID-19 are varied and the data about this continue to evolve as the pandemic continues to progress.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Nervous System Diseases , Stroke , Humans , Nervous System Diseases/epidemiology , Nervous System Diseases/etiology , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , Stroke/epidemiology
8.
Int J Infect Dis ; 108: 382-390, 2021 Jul.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1297091

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: Our study aimed to compare symptoms day by day for non-hospitalized individuals testing positive and negative for severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). METHODS: In total, 210 positive-test and 630 negative-test healthcare workers in the Central Denmark Region were followed for up to 90 days after testing, between April and June, 2020. Their daily reported COVID-19-related symptoms were compared graphically and by logistic regression. RESULTS: Thirty per cent of the positive-test and close to 0% of the negative-test participants reported a reduced sense of taste and smell during all 90 days (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] 86.07, 95% CI 22.86-323). Dyspnea was reported by an initial 20% of positive-test participants, declining to 5% after 30 days, without ever reaching the level of the negative-test participants (aOR 6.88, 95% CI 2.41-19.63). Cough, headache, sore throat, muscle pain, and fever were temporarily more prevalent among the positive-test participants; after 30 days, no increases were seen. Women and older participants were more susceptible to long-lasting COVID-19 symptoms. CONCLUSION: The prevalence of long-lasting reduced sense of taste and smell is highly increased in mild COVID-19 patients. This pattern is also seen for dyspnea at a low level, but not for cough, sore throat, headache, muscle pain, or fever.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Female , Follow-Up Studies , Health Personnel , Humans , Polymerase Chain Reaction
9.
Int J Infect Dis ; 106: 128-133, 2021 May.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1279596

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: The study aimed to assess COVID-19 impact on the morbidity and mortality of vasooclusive crisis (VOC) in sickle cell anaemia (SCA) patients. METHODS: A prospective cohort study of 100 SCA patients; 50 with COVID-19 (COVID group) and 50 without (non-COVID group). All patients signed written informed consent. RESULTS: The COVID group had a significantly higher VOC episode median per year; 3 (IQR,1-6) vs 2 (IQR,2-12) (P < 0.05). The need for hospitalisation was similar in both groups. The non-COVID group had more history of culture-proven infection (P = 0.05). The COVID-group had more osteonecrosis (P < 0.05), splenic sequestration, splenomegaly and hepatic crisis (P = 0.05, 0.006, 0.02; respectively) and significantly higher (P < 0.05) symptoms of fever, cough, fatigue, abdominal pain and anosmia. Mean haemoglobin, lymphocyte subset, platelets, and reticulocytes were reduced in both groups, while lactate dehydrogenase and ferritin levels were significantly elevated. In the COVID group, the rise in white blood cell count, reticulocyte percentage, platelets and ferritin was subdued (P < 0.05). Two patients in the COVID group and 3 in the non-COVID group died; there was no statistically significant difference in mortality. CONCLUSIONS: Although COVID-19 may have triggered the onset of VOC, it did not significantly influence VOC-related morbidity or mortality in this SCA cohort.


Subject(s)
Acute Chest Syndrome/blood , Acute Chest Syndrome/epidemiology , Anemia, Sickle Cell/blood , Anemia, Sickle Cell/epidemiology , COVID-19/blood , COVID-19/epidemiology , SARS-CoV-2 , Acute Chest Syndrome/mortality , Adult , Anemia, Sickle Cell/mortality , COVID-19/mortality , Cohort Studies , Comorbidity , Female , Ferritins/blood , Hospitalization , Humans , L-Lactate Dehydrogenase/blood , Leukocyte Count , Lymphocyte Count , Male , Platelet Count , Prospective Studies , Reticulocytes
10.
Eur J Orthop Surg Traumatol ; 31(5): 989-993, 2021 Jul.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1263148

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Personal protective equipment (PPE) may protect health-care workers from COVID-19 infection and limit nosocomial spread to vulnerable hip fracture patients. METHODS: We performed a cross-sectional survey amongst orthopaedic trainees to explore PPE practice in 19 hospitals caring for hip fracture patients in the North West of England. RESULTS: During the second wave of the pandemic, 14/19 (74%) hospitals experienced an outbreak of COVID-19 amongst staff or patients on the orthopaedic wards. An FFP3 respirator mask was used by doctors in only 6/19 (32%) hospitals when seeing patients with COVID-19 and a cough and in 5/19 (26%) hospitals when seeing asymptomatic patients with COVID-19. A COVID-19 outbreak was reported in 11/13 (85%) orthopaedic units where staff wore fluid resistant surgical masks compared to 3/6 (50%) units using an FFP3 respirator mask (RR 1.69, 95% CI 0.74-3.89) when caring for symptomatic patients with COVID-19. Similarly, a COVID-19 outbreak was reported in more orthopaedic units caring for asymptomatic patients with COVID-19 where staff wore fluid resistant surgical masks (12/14 (86%)) as compared to an FFP3 respirator mask (2/5 (40%)) (RR 2.14, 95% CI 0.72-6.4). CONCLUSION: Urgent re-evaluation of PPE use is required to reduce nosocomial spread of COVID-19, amongst highly vulnerable patients with hip fracture.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/transmission , Cross Infection/transmission , Hip Fractures/complications , Orthopedics , Cross-Sectional Studies , England , Humans , Masks , Personal Protective Equipment , Ventilators, Mechanical
11.
J Infect Dev Ctries ; 15(5): 646-652, 2021 05 31.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1262630

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: The COVID-19 outbreak first occurred in China and has developed throughout the world, including Indonesia. The Indonesian government reports that up to May 22, 2020 there have been 21,430 confirmed cases. The purpose of this study is to describe the epidemiology, clinical symptoms and comorbidities of COVID-19 as well as the various government interventions to reduce the rate of incidence. METHODOLOGY: A retrospective cohort study was designed. The population in this study is based data from the official Indonesian government website run by the Task Force for the Acceleration of Handling COVID-19. The sample was observed b March 2 to April 24, 2020. The total sample included 8,211 cases of patients diagnosed with COVID-19, among these 1,002 recovered and 689 died. Data analysis used percentages from various recorded epidemiological variables. RESULTS: The results showed that COVID-19 epidemiological features were mostly observed in men (56.5%) and patients of productive age (31-59 of age) by 57.5%; most deaths were recorded in patients aged > 60 years (43.6%). The most recurrent clinical symptom was cough (77.8%), the most recurrent comorbidity was hypertension (52.4%), and the province with the highest COVID-19 incidence was DKI Jakarta (34.3%). CONCLUSIONS: The combination of common sources and propagated source was observed during the COVID-19 outbreak in Indonesia. Special attention should be given to protecting vulnerable populations such as children, health care providers, and the elderly. The community is expected to participate in preventing the transmission of COVID-19 by complying with health protocols.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Pandemics , Adult , Age Distribution , Aged , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19/transmission , Communicable Disease Control/methods , Female , Humans , Incidence , Indonesia/epidemiology , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics/statistics & numerical data , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Sex Distribution
12.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 11778, 2021 06 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1258598

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 pandemic has generated many concerns about cross-contamination risks, particularly in hospital settings and Intensive Care Units (ICU). Virus-laden aerosols produced by infected patients can propagate throughout ventilated rooms and put medical personnel entering them at risk. Experimental results found with a schlieren optical method have shown that the air flows generated by a cough and normal breathing were modified by the oxygenation technique used, especially when using High Flow Nasal Canulae, increasing the shedding of potentially infectious airborne particles. This study also uses a 3D Computational Fluid Dynamics model based on a Lattice Boltzmann Method to simulate the air flows as well as the movement of numerous airborne particles produced by a patient's cough within an ICU room under negative pressure. The effects of different mitigation scenarii on the amount of aerosols potentially containing SARS-CoV-2 that are extracted through the ventilation system are investigated. Numerical results indicate that adequate bed orientation and additional air treatment unit positioning can increase by 40% the number of particles extracted and decrease by 25% the amount of particles deposited on surfaces 45s after shedding. This approach could help lay the grounds for a more comprehensive way to tackle contamination risks in hospitals, as the model can be seen as a proof of concept and be adapted to any room configuration.


Subject(s)
Air Microbiology , COVID-19/transmission , Cough/virology , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/virology , Aerosols , Humans , Intensive Care Units , Models, Theoretical , Optical Imaging , Ventilation/methods
13.
Cureus ; 13(5): e14942, 2021 May 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1257002

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: The symptoms of coronavirus disease-19 (COVID-19) may range from mild to severe. Patients usually present with fever, cough, and other respiratory tract symptoms, but may also be asymptomatic. Some studies have also indicated the ocular involvement by the virus. This study aims to look deeply into all ophthalmic findings seen in COVID-19 patients and their clinical characteristics. METHODS: This longitudinal study was conducted in the COVID-19 unit of a tertiary care hospital, Pakistan. Data of patients hospitalized with COVID-19 infection between July 2020 and March 2021 were included in the study. Ophthalmological examination was done at the time of admission and was repeated every alternate day to look for any ophthalmological manifestation. RESULTS: Out of 441 (n= 441), 61 (13.8%) participants had ophthalmological findings on examination. Patients with ophthalmological findings were significantly younger compared to patients without ophthalmological findings (42 ± 6 years vs. 44 ± 7; p-value, 0.03). C-reactive protein (CRP) was also significantly higher in patients with ophthalmological findings (122.2 ± 16.2 vs. 112.8 ± 19.8; p-value, 0.005). The most common ophthalmological finding was conjunctival irritation (50.8%), followed by diplopia (27.8%) and cotton wool spots (27.8%). CONCLUSION: Ophthalmological findings are prevalent in patients with COVID-19. In this study, patients with higher CRP levels were associated with ophthalmological findings. It is important to conduct ophthalmological examinations in patients with COVID-19, as they may give a clue about other complications associated with COVID-19.

14.
Inform Med Unlocked ; 24: 100621, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1253043

ABSTRACT

Novel Coronavirus with its highly transmittable characteristics is rapidly spreading, endangering millions of human lives and the global economy. To expel the chain of alteration and subversive expansion, early and effective diagnosis of infected patients is immensely important. Unfortunately, there is a lack of testing equipment in many countries as compared with the number of infected patients. It would be desirable to have a swift diagnosis with identification of COVID-19 from disease genes or from CT or X-Ray images. COVID-19 causes flus, cough, pneumonia, and lung infection in patients, wherein massive alveolar damage and progressive respiratory failure can lead to death. This paper proposes two different detection methods - the first is a Gene-based screening method to detect Corona diseases (Middle East respiratory syndrome-related coronavirus, Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2, and Human coronavirus HKU1) and differentiate it from Pneumonia. This novel approach to healthcare utilizes disease genes to build functional semantic similarity among genes. Different machine learning algorithms - eXtreme Gradient Boosting, Naïve Bayes, Regularized Random Forest, Random Forest Rule-Based Model, Random Ferns, C5.0 and Multi-Layer Perceptron, are trained and tested on the semantic similarities to classify Corona and Pneumonia diseases. The best performing models are then ensembled, yielding an accuracy of nearly 93%. The second diagnosis technique proposed herein is an automated COVID-19 diagnostic method which uses chest X-ray images to classify Normal versus COVID-19 and Pneumonia versus COVID-19 images using the deep-CNN technique, achieving 99.87% and 99.48% test accuracy. Thus, this research can be an assistance for providing better treatment against COVID-19.

15.
BMJ Open ; 11(5): e044208, 2021 05 24.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1242203

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: Currently effective symptom-based screening of patients suspected of COVID-19 is limited. We aimed to investigate age-related differences in symptom presentations of patients tested positive and negative for SARS-CoV-2. DESIGN: SETTING: Calls to the medical helpline (1-8-1-3) and emergency number (1-1-2) in Copenhagen, Denmark. At both medical services all calls are recorded. PARTICIPANTS: We included calls for patients who called for help/guidance at the medical helpline or emergency number prior to receiving a test for SARS-CoV-2 between April 1st and 20th 2020 (8423 patients). Among these calls, we randomly sampled recorded calls from 350 patients who later tested positive and 250 patients tested negative and registered symptoms described in the call. OUTCOME: RESULTS: After exclusions, 544 calls (312 SARS-CoV-2 positive and 232 negative) were included in the analysis. Fever and cough remained the two most common of COVID-19 symptoms across all age groups and approximately 42% of SARS-CoV-2 positive and 20% of negative presented with both fever and cough. Symptoms including nasal congestion, irritation/pain in throat, muscle/joint pain, loss of taste and smell, and headache were common symptoms of COVID-19 for patients younger than 60 years; whereas loss of appetite and feeling unwell were more commonly seen among patients over 60 years. Headache and loss of taste and smell were rare symptoms of COVID-19 among patients over 60 years. CONCLUSION: Our study identified age-related differences in symptom presentations of SARS-CoV-2-positive patients calling for help or medical advice. The specific symptoms of loss of smell or taste almost exclusively reported by patients younger than 60 years. Differences in symptom presentation across age groups must be considered when screening for COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Emergency Medical Services , Case-Control Studies , Fever/epidemiology , Humans , SARS-CoV-2
16.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 10738, 2021 05 24.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1242046

ABSTRACT

Physicians taking care of patients with COVID-19 have described different changes in routine blood parameters. However, these changes hinder them from performing COVID-19 diagnoses. We constructed a machine learning model for COVID-19 diagnosis that was based and cross-validated on the routine blood tests of 5333 patients with various bacterial and viral infections, and 160 COVID-19-positive patients. We selected the operational ROC point at a sensitivity of 81.9% and a specificity of 97.9%. The cross-validated AUC was 0.97. The five most useful routine blood parameters for COVID-19 diagnosis according to the feature importance scoring of the XGBoost algorithm were: MCHC, eosinophil count, albumin, INR, and prothrombin activity percentage. t-SNE visualization showed that the blood parameters of the patients with a severe COVID-19 course are more like the parameters of a bacterial than a viral infection. The reported diagnostic accuracy is at least comparable and probably complementary to RT-PCR and chest CT studies. Patients with fever, cough, myalgia, and other symptoms can now have initial routine blood tests assessed by our diagnostic tool. All patients with a positive COVID-19 prediction would then undergo standard RT-PCR studies to confirm the diagnosis. We believe that our results represent a significant contribution to improvements in COVID-19 diagnosis.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/diagnosis , Machine Learning , Aged , Area Under Curve , Biomarkers/blood , COVID-19/pathology , COVID-19/virology , Eosinophils/cytology , Female , Hematologic Tests , Humans , Male , Prothrombin/metabolism , ROC Curve , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Sensitivity and Specificity , Serum Albumin/analysis , Severity of Illness Index , Thorax/diagnostic imaging , Tomography, X-Ray Computed
17.
Cureus ; 13(4): e14729, 2021 Apr 28.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1241336

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has swept the world with over hundred million of cases and millions of deaths. Upper respiratory tract symptoms including acute pharyngitis are the common symptoms of COVID-19, with a reported incidence of about 5%-17.4%. Group A Streptococcus (GAS) pharyngitis is a common cause of bacterial pharyngitis, with highest incidence between age 5 and 15, and it can still occur in adults with peak incidence at age 40. Herein, we report a case of co-occurrence of GAS and COVID-19 in a middle-aged man who presented with fever, sore throat, cough, and runny nose. To the best of our knowledge, we are the first to report this unique co-occurrence. Our case report aimed to raise the awareness among physician particularly in ambulatory and emergency department of not to have a singular focus on COVID-19 and forget to screen patient with acute pharyngitis for GAS.

18.
Cureus ; 13(4): e14705, 2021 Apr 26.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1239152

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is known to disturb liver function tests (LFTs). Not much literature is available regarding the effect of COVID-19 on LFTs in patients without preexisting liver disease. The study aimed to find the effect of COVID-19 in these patients. METHODS:  This was a single-center, observational study with 142 patients who were admitted with COVID-19 during three months. Seven patients were excluded due to the presence of chronic liver disease.  Results: A total of 135 patients were included in the study aged between 18 and 95 years (mean 57.7 ± 15.6); among them, 93 were males (68.9%). Hypertension was present in 74 patients (54.8%), and diabetes was present in 48 patients (35.6%). Fever was the chief complaint in 112 patients (83%), followed by dyspnea in 93 patients (68.9%) and cough in 79 patients (58.5%). Elevated aspartate aminotransferase (AST) was seen in 35 patients (26%), gamma-glutamyl transferase (GGT) in 43 patients (32%), alanine transaminase (ALT) in 18 patients (24%), alkaline phosphatase in 19 patients (14%), bilirubin in six patients (4%), and low albumin in 27 patients (20%). Severe COVID-19, when compared with mild to moderate disease, was associated with elevated AST > two-time upper limit normal (2ULN) (p = 0.002), GGT > 2ULN (0.026), and lower albumin (p = 0.020), higher systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS) (0.045), raised procalcitonin (p = 0.045), higher ferritin (p = 0.005), lower pO2 (p = 0.044), and higher Sequential Organ Failure Assessment score (SOFA) (p = 0.002) pointing to the inflammatory response as cause of liver injury. Factors predicting mortality with COVID-19 were assessed, which showed that direct bilirubin (p = 0.001), low albumin (p = 0.013), tachypnea (0.002), and leukocytosis (<0.001) were independently associated with increased COVID-19-related mortality. CONCLUSION:  Patients suffering from COVID-19 have evidence of liver injury, which appears to be secondary to an inflammatory response that correlates with the severity of COVID-19.

19.
Clin Exp Pediatr ; 64(7): 364-369, 2021 Jul.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1238861

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: As the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) outbreak continues to evolve, it is crucially important for pediatricians to be aware of the differences in demographic and clinical features between COVID-19 and influenza A and B infections. PURPOSE: This study analyzed and compared the clinical features and laboratory findings of COVID-19 and influenza A and B infections in children. METHODS: This retrospective study evaluated the medical data of 206 pediatric COVID-19 and 411 pediatric seasonal influenza A or B patients. RESULTS: COVID-19 patients were older than seasonal influenza patients (median [interquartile range], 7.75 [2-14] years vs. 4 [2-6] years). The frequency of fever and cough in COVID-19 patients was lower than that of seasonal influenza patients (80.6% vs. 94.4%, P<0.001 and 22.8 % vs. 71.5%, P<0.001, respectively). Ageusia (4.9%) and anosmia (3.4%) were present in only COVID-19 patients. Leukopenia, lymphopenia, and thrombocytopenia were encountered more frequently in influenza patients than in COVID-19 patients (22.1% vs. 8.5%, P=0.029; 17.6% vs. 5.6%, P=0.013; and 13.2% vs. 5.6%, P= 0.048, respectively). Both groups showed significantly elevated monocyte levels in the complete blood count (70.4% vs. 69.9%, P=0.511). Major chest x-ray findings in COVID-19 patients included mild diffuse ground-glass opacity and right lower lobe infiltrates. There were no statistically significant intergroup differences in hospitalization or mortality rates; however, the intensive care unit admission rate was higher among COVID-19 patients (2.4% vs. 0.5%, P=0.045). CONCLUSION: In this study, pediatric COVID-19 patients showed a wide range of clinical presentations ranging from asymptomatic/mild to severe illness. We found no intergroup differences in hospitalization rates, oxygen requirements, or hospital length of stay; however, the intensive care unit admission rate was higher among COVID-19 patients.

20.
Ann Clin Microbiol Antimicrob ; 20(1): 35, 2021 May 18.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1234561

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is the second pandemic of the twenty-first century, with over one-hundred million infections and over two million deaths to date. It is a novel strain from the Coronaviridae family, named Severe Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome Coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2); the 7th known member of the coronavirus family to cause disease in humans, notably following the Middle East Respiratory syndrome (MERS), and Severe Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome (SARS). The most characteristic feature of this single-stranded RNA molecule includes the spike glycoprotein on its surface. Most patients with COVID-19, of which the elderly and immunocompromised are most at risk, complain of flu-like symptoms, including dry cough and headache. The most common complications include pneumonia, acute respiratory distress syndrome, septic shock, and cardiovascular manifestations. Transmission of SARS-CoV-2 is mainly via respiratory droplets, either directly from the air when an infected patient coughs or sneezes, or in the form of fomites on surfaces. Maintaining hand-hygiene, social distancing, and personal protective equipment (i.e., masks) remain the most effective precautions. Patient management includes supportive care and anticoagulative measures, with a focus on maintaining respiratory function. Therapy with dexamethasone, remdesivir, and tocilizumab appear to be most promising to date, with hydroxychloroquine, lopinavir, ritonavir, and interferons falling out of favour. Additionally, accelerated vaccination efforts have taken place internationally, with several promising vaccinations being mass deployed. In response to the COVID-19 pandemic, countries and stakeholders have taken varying precautions to combat and contain the spread of the virus and dampen its collateral economic damage. This review paper aims to synthesize the impact of the virus on a global, micro to macro scale.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Global Health , SARS-CoV-2 , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19/therapy , COVID-19/transmission , COVID-19 Vaccines/immunology , Humans , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Virulence
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