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1.
Crit Care Med ; 48(6): e440-e469, 2020 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2152192

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The novel severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) is the cause of a rapidly spreading illness, Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19), affecting thousands of people around the world. Urgent guidance for clinicians caring for the sickest of these patients is needed. METHODS: We formed a panel of 36 experts from 12 countries. All panel members completed the World Health Organization conflict of interest disclosure form. The panel proposed 53 questions that are relevant to the management of COVID-19 in the ICU. We searched the literature for direct and indirect evidence on the management of COVID-19 in critically ill patients in the ICU. We identified relevant and recent systematic reviews on most questions relating to supportive care. We assessed the certainty in the evidence using the Grading of Recommendations, Assessment, Development and Evaluation (GRADE) approach, then generated recommendations based on the balance between benefit and harm, resource and cost implications, equity, and feasibility. Recommendations were either strong or weak, or in the form of best practice recommendations. RESULTS: The Surviving Sepsis Campaign COVID-19 panel issued 54 statements, of which four are best practice statements, nine are strong recommendations, and 35 are weak recommendations. No recommendation was provided for six questions. The topics were: 1) infection control, 2) laboratory diagnosis and specimens, 3) hemodynamic support, 4) ventilatory support, and 5) COVID-19 therapy. CONCLUSION: The Surviving Sepsis Campaign COVID-19 panel issued several recommendations to help support healthcare workers caring for critically ill ICU patients with COVID-19. When available, we will provide new evidence in further releases of these guidelines.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/therapy , Intensive Care Units/organization & administration , Pneumonia, Viral/therapy , Practice Guidelines as Topic/standards , Betacoronavirus , COVID-19 , Critical Illness , Diagnostic Techniques and Procedures/standards , Humans , Infection Control/methods , Infection Control/standards , Intensive Care Units/standards , Pandemics , Respiration, Artificial/methods , Respiration, Artificial/standards , SARS-CoV-2 , Shock/therapy
2.
Transplantation ; 105(1): 177-186, 2021 01 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2135857

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: A concern about the susceptibility of immunocompromised patients to the worldwide pandemic of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has been raised. We aimed at describing COVID-19 infections in the French cohort of lung transplant (LT) patients. METHODS: Multicenter nationwide cohort study of all LT recipients with COVID-19 diagnosed from March 1 to May 19, 2020. Recipient main characteristics and their management were retrieved. Hospitalization characteristics, occurrence of complications and survival were analyzed. RESULTS: Thirty-five LT patients with a COVID-19 infection were included. Median age was 50.4 (40.6-62.9) years, 16 (45.7%) were female, and 80% were double-LT recipients. Infection was community-acquired in 25 (71.4%). Thirty-one (88.6%) required hospitalization, including 13 (41.9%) in the intensive care unit. The main symptoms of COVID-19 were fever, cough, and diarrhea, present in 71.4%, 54.3%, and 31.4% of cases, respectively. Extension of pneumonia on chest CT was moderate to severe in 51.4% of cases. Among the 13 critically ill patients, 7 (53.9%) received invasive mechanical ventilation. Thrombotic events occurred in 4 patients. Overall survival rate was 85.7% after a median follow-up of 50 days (41.0-56.5). Four of 5 nonsurvivors had had bronchial complications or intensification of immunosuppression in the previous weeks. On univariate analysis, overweight was significantly associated with risk of death (odds ratio, 16.0; 95% confidence interval, 1.5-170.6; P = 0.02). CONCLUSIONS: For the 35 LT recipients with COVID-19, the presentation was severe, requiring hospitalization in most cases, with a survival rate of 85.7%.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , Lung Transplantation/adverse effects , SARS-CoV-2 , Adult , COVID-19/mortality , COVID-19/therapy , Female , Humans , Immunosuppressive Agents/therapeutic use , Intensive Care Units , Male , Middle Aged , Retrospective Studies , Transplant Recipients
3.
Circulation ; 141(20): 1648-1655, 2020 May 19.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2138307

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is a global pandemic affecting 185 countries and >3 000 000 patients worldwide as of April 28, 2020. COVID-19 is caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2, which invades cells through the angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 receptor. Among patients with COVID-19, there is a high prevalence of cardiovascular disease, and >7% of patients experience myocardial injury from the infection (22% of critically ill patients). Although angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 serves as the portal for infection, the role of angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors or angiotensin receptor blockers requires further investigation. COVID-19 poses a challenge for heart transplantation, affecting donor selection, immunosuppression, and posttransplant management. There are a number of promising therapies under active investigation to treat and prevent COVID-19.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus , Cardiovascular Diseases , Coronavirus Infections , Pandemics , Peptidyl-Dipeptidase A , Pneumonia, Viral , Angiotensin Receptor Antagonists/therapeutic use , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2 , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme Inhibitors/therapeutic use , COVID-19 , Cardiovascular Diseases/complications , Cardiovascular Diseases/enzymology , Coronavirus Infections/complications , Coronavirus Infections/drug therapy , Coronavirus Infections/enzymology , Coronavirus Infections/therapy , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Humans , Peptidyl-Dipeptidase A/metabolism , Pneumonia, Viral/complications , Pneumonia, Viral/enzymology , Pneumonia, Viral/therapy , Pneumonia, Viral/virology , Receptors, Virus/antagonists & inhibitors , Receptors, Virus/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2
4.
Ultrasound Med Biol ; 47(2): 214-221, 2021 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2096090

ABSTRACT

In this study, the utility of point-of-care lung ultrasound for clinical classification of coronavirus disease (COVID-19) was prospectively assessed. Twenty-seven adult patients with COVID-19 underwent bedside lung ultrasonography (LUS) examinations three times each within the first 2 wk of admission to the isolation ward. We divided the 81 exams into three groups (moderate, severe and critically ill). Lung scores were calculated as the sum of points. A rank sum test and bivariate correlation analysis were carried out to determine the correlation between LUS on admission and clinical classification of COVID-19. There were dramatic differences in LUS (p < 0.001) among the three groups, and LUS scores (r = 0.754) correlated positively with clinical severity (p < 0.01). In addition, moderate, severe and critically ill patients were more likely to have low (≤9), medium (9-15) and high scores (≥15), respectively. This study provides stratification criteria of LUS scores to assist in quantitatively evaluating COVID-19 patients.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/diagnostic imaging , Lung/diagnostic imaging , Point-of-Care Systems , Ultrasonography/instrumentation , Ultrasonography/methods , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Prospective Studies , Severity of Illness Index
5.
J Allergy Clin Immunol ; 147(1): 81-91, 2021 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2095538

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Severe immunopathology may drive the deleterious manifestations that are observed in the advanced stages of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) but are poorly understood. OBJECTIVE: Our aim was to phenotype leukocyte subpopulations and the cytokine milieu in the lungs and blood of critically ill patients with COVID-19 acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). METHODS: We consecutively included patients less than 72 hours after intubation following informed consent from their next of kin. Bronchoalveolar lavage fluid was evaluated by microscopy; bronchoalveolar lavage fluid and blood were assessed by 10-color flow cytometry and a multiplex cytokine panel. RESULTS: Four mechanically ventilated patients (aged 40-75 years) with moderate-to-severe COVID-19 ARDS were included. Immature neutrophils dominated in both blood and lungs, whereas CD4 and CD8 T-cell lymphopenia was observed in the 2 compartments. However, regulatory T cells and TH17 cells were found in higher fractions in the lung. Lung CD4 and CD8 T cells and macrophages expressed an even higher upregulation of activation markers than in blood. A wide range of cytokines were expressed at high levels both in the blood and in the lungs, most notably, IL-1RA, IL-6, IL-8, IP-10, and monocyte chemoattactant protein-1, consistent with hyperinflammation. CONCLUSION: COVID-19 ARDS exhibits a distinct immunologic profile in the lungs, with a depleted and exhausted CD4 and CD8 T-cell population that resides within a heavily hyperinflammatory milieu.


Subject(s)
CD8-Positive T-Lymphocytes/immunology , COVID-19/immunology , Lung/immunology , Lymphopenia/immunology , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Th17 Cells/immunology , Adult , Aged , CD8-Positive T-Lymphocytes/pathology , COVID-19/pathology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Cytokines/immunology , Female , Humans , Immunophenotyping , Lung/pathology , Lymphopenia/pathology , Male , Middle Aged , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/pathology , Th17 Cells/pathology
6.
Am J Med Case Rep ; 8(10): 337-340, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1989678

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus Disease-2019 (COVID-19) is currently a public health emergency and has been listed by the World Health Organization (WHO) as a pandemic. It has commonly been associated with pulmonary manifestations and there is a growing body of evidence of multisystem involvement of the virus. As evidenced by various case reports and cohort studies, COVID-19-associated coagulopathy has been a common manifestation amongst the critically ill and has been associated with increased mortality. The presence of venous thromboembolic events in patients who are critically ill due to COVID-19 has prompted the adoption of anticoagulation regimens aimed at preventing thromboembolic phenomena. Coagulation abnormalities have also been implicated in the progression and the severity of COVID-19 related acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) and disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC). There is strong evidence that D-dimer levels help predict which patients are at risk of thromboembolic events, progression to ARDS, DIC, immune dysregulation and mortality. We will review the utility of D-dimer as screening tool and in the risk stratification of COVID-19 patients prone to developing thromboembolic events, DIC, immune dysregulation and death. To date, the studies that have been published show the presence of elevated D-dimer levels in both the adult and pediatric populations and the measured level correlates with disease severity. Studies have also shown the relative increase of D-dimer levels in non-survivors compared to survivors. The elevation of D-dimer levels has shown to guide clinical decision making, namely the initiation of therapeutic anticoagulation and mortality benefit in patients with severe COVID-19 pneumonia compared to severe non COVID-19 pneumonia. Although the current body of literature suggested the use of D-dimer as a risk stratification tool and as a test to augment clinical judgement regarding the initiation of anticoagulation, randomized control trials are needed to fully understand the relationship between COVID-19 infection and the efficacy of D-dimer assays in clinical decision making.

7.
Curr Opin Anaesthesiol ; 34(2): 149-153, 2021 Apr 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1956587

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The ICU is a complex ecosystem in which intensive care physicians, advanced practice providers (APPs), pharmacists, and respiratory therapists work in concert to take care of critically ill patients. The SARS COV2 pandemic highlighted weaknesses in the American healthcare system. This article explores the ability of American healthcare to adapt to this challenge. RECENT FINDINGS: With the COVID-19 pandemic, intensivists, and ventilators have been identified as the most critical components leading to shortages in ICU capacity. Anesthesiologists play a unique role in being able to provide 'flex capacity' with critical care staffing, space, and equipment (post-anesthesia care units, operating rooms, and ventilators). With the advent of APPs, intensive care physician staffing ratios may potentially be increased to cover patients safely in a physician-led team model. Tele-medicine expands this further and can allow hospital coordination for optimizing ICU bed use. SUMMARY: Although intensivists have been able to take care of the increased ICU caseload during the COVID-19 pandemic through recruiting other specialties, the question of what is the appropriate staffing model for the future is yet to be elucidated. Creating stronger multidisciplinary care teams that have the capacity to flex up critical care capacity may be the most prudent longer-term solution.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Physicians , Critical Care , Humans , Intensive Care Units , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , United States , Workforce
8.
J Am Coll Emerg Physicians Open ; 1(6): 1542-1551, 2020 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1898690

ABSTRACT

Study objective: The impact of public health interventions during the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) pandemic on critical illness in children has not been studied. We seek to determine the impact of SARS-CoV-2 related public health interventions on emergency healthcare utilization and frequency of critical illness in children. Methods: This was an interrupted time series analysis conducted at a single tertiary pediatric emergency department (PED). All patients evaluated by a provider from December 31 through May 14 of 6 consecutive years (2015-2020) were included. Total patient visits (ED and urgent care), shock trauma suite (STS) volume, and measures of critical illness were compared between the SARS-CoV-2 period (December 31, 2019 to May 14, 2020) and the same period for the previous 5 years combined. A segmented regression model was used to explore differences in the 3 outcomes between the study and control period. Results: Total visits, STS volume, and volume of critical illness were all significantly lower during the SARS-CoV-2 period. During the height of public health interventions, per day there were 151 fewer total visits and 7 fewer patients evaluated in the STS. The odds of having a 24-hour period without a single critical patient were >5 times higher. Trends appeared to start before the statewide shelter-in-place order and lasted for at least 8 weeks. Conclusions: In a metropolitan area without significant SARS-CoV-2 seeding, the pandemic was associated with a marked reduction in PED visits for critical pediatric illness.

9.
Ren Fail ; 43(1): 830-839, 2021 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1882852

ABSTRACT

Loop diuretics are among the most widely used drugs worldwide and are commonly employed in the management of complications associated with acute kidney injury (AKI), namely volume overload and electrolyte management. The use of loop diuretics in critically ill patients with AKI is paramount to preventing or treating pulmonary edema. The naturetic response to a loop diuretic is based on its unique renal pharmacology. Our review article summarizes the pharmacology of furosemide in the intact nephron and discusses how this response might be altered by the presence of AKI. We discuss the increasing body of literature on the latest clinical utility of furosemide namely, it's challenge test, known as the furosemide stress test which has highlighted a new and novel role for furosemide over the past number of years. This test assists with the identification of AKI subjects at higher risk of AKI progression and the need for renal replacement therapy. The stress test can also predict cessation of continuous renal replacement therapy in patients with established AKI. On the basis of the evidence presented in this review, we propose future potential studies of furosemide in AKI.


Subject(s)
Acute Kidney Injury/diagnosis , Furosemide , Critical Illness , Diuretics , Electrolytes , Exercise Test , Humans , Randomized Controlled Trials as Topic
10.
Exp Physiol ; 107(7): 665-673, 2022 Jul.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1807292

ABSTRACT

NEW FINDINGS: What is the topic of this review? Lactate is considered an important substrate for mitochondria in the muscles, heart and brain during exercise and is the main gluconeogenetic precursor in the liver and kidneys. In this light, we review the (patho)physiology of lactate metabolism in sepsis and coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). What advances does it highlight? Elevated blood lactate is strongly associated with mortality in septic patients. Lactate seems unrelated to tissue hypoxia but is likely to reflect mitochondrial dysfunction and high adrenergic stimulation. Patients with severe COVID-19 exhibit near-normal blood lactate, indicating preserved mitochondrial function, despite a systemic hyperinflammatory state similar to sepsis. ABSTRACT: In critically ill patients, elevated plasma lactate is often interpreted as a sign of organ hypoperfusion and/or tissue hypoxia. This view on lactate is likely to have been influenced by the pioneering exercise physiologists around 1920. August Krogh identified an oxygen deficit at the onset of exercise that was later related to an oxygen 'debt' and lactate accumulation by A. V. Hill. Lactate is considered to be the main gluconeogenetic precursor in the liver and kidneys during submaximal exercise, but hepatic elimination is attenuated by splanchnic vasoconstriction during high-intensity exercise, causing an exponential increase in blood lactate. With the development of stable isotope tracers, lactate has become established as an important energy source for muscle, brain and heart tissue, where it is used for mitochondrial respiration. Plasma lactate > 4 mM is strongly associated with mortality in septic shock, with no direct link between lactate release and tissue hypoxia. Herein, we provide evidence for mitochondrial dysfunction and adrenergic stimulation as explanations for the sepsis-induced hyperlactataemia. Despite profound hypoxaemia and intense work of breathing, patients with severe coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) rarely exhibit hyperlactataemia (> 2.5 mM), while presenting a systemic hyperinflammatory state much like sepsis. However, lactate dehydrogenase, which controls the formation of lactate, is markedly elevated in plasma and strongly associated with mortality in severe COVID-19. We briefly review the potential mechanisms of the lactate dehydrogenase elevation in COVID-19 and its relationship to lactate metabolism based on mechanisms established in contracting skeletal muscle and the acute respiratory distress syndrome.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Sepsis , Adrenergic Agents/metabolism , Humans , Hypoxia , Lactate Dehydrogenases/metabolism , Lactic Acid/metabolism , Muscle, Skeletal/metabolism , Oxygen/metabolism , Sepsis/complications , Sepsis/diagnosis
11.
Crit Care Explor ; 2(5): e0129, 2020 May.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1795102

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: A subset of patients with coronavirus disease 2019 develop renal failure and require continuous renal replacement therapy. We reviewed the available literature to understand the frequency of continuous renal replacement therapy use among patients with coronavirus disease 2019 who required intensive care. DATA SOURCES: The authors reviewed PubMed and Google Scholar for published studies and MedRxiv.com for unpublished studies. STUDY SELECTION: Observational and randomized studies that report the frequency of continuous renal replacement therapy use in adult patients with coronavirus disease 2019. DATA EXTRACTION: Data from the eligible studies were extracted independently by two authors into Microsoft Excel. DATA SYNTHESIS: We identified 12 eligible studies (eight published, four unpublished). We found that up to 20% of patients admitted to ICUs may require continuous renal replacement therapy. CONCLUSIONS: Given the high utilization of continuous renal replacement therapy by critically ill patients with coronavirus disease 2019, there may be an urgent need to mobilize inpatient dialysis resources to cope with the anticipated increase in the demand.

12.
Crit Care Explor ; 2(6): e0139, 2020 Jun.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1795099

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: The severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 pandemic has stretched ICU resources in an unprecedented fashion and outstripped personal protective equipment supplies. The combination of a novel disease, resource limitations, and risks to medical personnel health have created new barriers to implementing the ICU Liberation ("A" for Assessment, Prevention, and Manage pain; "B" for Both Spontaneous Awakening Trials and Spontaneous Breathing Trials; "C" for Choice of Analgesia and Sedation; "D" for Delirium Assess, Prevent, and Manage; "E" for Early Mobility and Exercise; and "F" for Family Engagement and Empowerment [ABCDEF]) Bundle, a proven ICU care approach that reduces delirium, shortens mechanical ventilation duration, prevents post-ICU syndrome, and reduces healthcare costs. This narrative review acknowledges barriers and offers strategies to optimize Bundle performance in coronavirus disease 2019 patients requiring mechanical ventilation. DATA SOURCES STUDY SELECTION AND DATA EXTRACTION: The most relevant literature, media reports, and author experiences were assessed for inclusion in this narrative review including PubMed, national newspapers, and critical care/pharmacology textbooks. DATA SYNTHESIS: Uncertainty regarding coronavirus disease 2019 clinical course, shifts in attitude, and changes in routine behavior have hindered Bundle use. A domino effect results from: 1) changes to critical care hierarchy, priorities, and ICU team composition; 2) significant personal protective equipment shortages cause; 3) reduced/restricted physical bedside presence favoring; 4) increased depth of sedation and use of neuromuscular blockade; 5) which exacerbate drug shortages; and 6) which require prolonged use of limited ventilator resources. Other identified barriers include manageable knowledge deficits among non-ICU clinicians unfamiliar with the Bundle or among PICU specialists deploying pediatric-based Bundle approaches who are unfamiliar with adult medicine. Both groups have been enlisted to augment the adult ICU work force to meet demand. Strategies were identified to facilitate Bundle performance to liberate patients from the ICU. CONCLUSIONS: We acknowledge current challenges that interfere with comprehensive management of critically ill patients during the coronavirus disease 2019 pandemic. Rapid response to new circumstances precisely requires established safety mechanisms and protocols like the ABCDEF Bundle to increase ICU and ventilator capacity and help survivors maximize recovery from coronavirus disease 2019 as early as possible.

13.
Crit Care Explor ; 2(6): e0155, 2020 Jun.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1795092

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: Renal replacement therapy in coronavirus disease 2019 patients is complicated by increased activation of the coagulation system. This may worsen the quality of hemodialysis and contribute to a shortage of dialysis machines as well as plastic disposables during the pandemic. This study describes a simple and safe protocol of anticoagulation with low-molecular-weight heparin in combination with bedside sustained low-efficiency hemodialysis in coronavirus disease 2019 patients. DESIGN: Monocentric observational cross-over trial investigating sustained low-efficiency hemodialysis with unfractionated heparin following sustained low-efficiency hemodialysis with low-molecular-weight heparin. SETTING: Coronavirus disease 2019-ICU in a German Tertiary Care University Hospital. PATIENTS: Three consecutive severe coronavirus disease 2019 patients receiving nine sustained low-efficiency hemodialysis therapies with unfractionated heparin followed by 18 sustained low-efficiency hemodialysis therapies with low-molecular-weight heparin. INTERVENTIONS: Switch from IV unfractionated heparin to subcutaneous low-molecular-weight heparin enoxaparin in therapeutic doses for patients receiving bedside sustained low-efficiency hemodialysis. MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS: Nine renal replacement therapy sessions in patients anticoagulated with high doses of unfractionated heparin had to be discontinuated prematurely because of clotting of tubes or membrane and poor quality of hemodialysis. In the same patients, the switch to anticoagulation with therapeutic doses of the low-molecular-weight heparin enoxaparin allowed undisturbed bedside sustained low-efficiency hemodialysis for at least 12 hours. Quality of hemodialysis was excellent, no bleeding event was observed. CONCLUSIONS: Systemic anticoagulation with subcutaneous enoxaparin provides an effective and safe renal replacement procedure in critically ill patients with coronavirus disease 2019 and hypercoagulability. The protocol reduces the risk of filter clotting, blood loss, and poor dialysis quality and may also prevent systemic thromboembolism.

14.
Crit Care Explor ; 2(8): e0188, 2020 Aug.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1795082

ABSTRACT

To explore demographics, comorbidities, transfers, and mortality in critically ill patients with confirmed severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2. DESIGN: Retrospective cohort study. SETTING: Data were collected from a large tertiary care public hospital ICU that is part of the largest public healthcare network in the United States. PATIENTS: One-hundred thirty-seven adult (≥ 18 yr old) ICU patients admitted between March 10, 2020, and April 7, 2020, with follow-up collected through May 18, 2020. INTERVENTIONS: None. MEASUREMENTS: Demographic, clinical, laboratory, treatment, and outcome data extracted from electronic medical records. MAIN RESULTS: The majority of patients were male (99/137; 72.3%) and older than 50 years old (108/137; 78.9%). The most reported ethnicity and race were Hispanic (61/137; 44.5%) and Black (23/137; 16.7%). One-hundred six of 137 patients had at least one comorbidity (77.4%). One-hundred twenty-one of 137 (78.1%) required mechanical ventilation of whom 30 (24.8%) moved to tracheostomy and 46 of 137 (33.6%) required new onset renal replacement therapy. Eighty-two of 137 patients (59.9%) died after a median of 8 days (interquartile range 5-15 d) in the ICU. Male sex had a trend toward a higher hazard of death (hazard ratio, 2.1 [1.1-4.0]) in the multivariable Cox model. CONCLUSIONS: We report a mortality rate of 59.9% in a predominantly Hispanic and Black patient population. A significant association between comorbidities and mortality was not found in multivariable regression, and further research is needed to study factors that impact mortality in critical coronavirus disease 2019 patients. We also describe how a public hospital developed innovative approaches to safely manage a large volume of interhospital transfers and admitted patients.

15.
Crit Care Explor ; 2(9): e0207, 2020 Sep.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1795073

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: To determine whether placental cell therapy PLacental eXpanded (PLX)-PAD (Pluristem Therapeutics, Haifa, Israel) may be beneficial to treating critically ill patients suffering from acute respiratory distress syndrome due to coronavirus disease 2019. DESIGN: Retrospective case report of critically ill coronavirus disease 2019 patients treated with PLacental eXpanded (PLX)-PAD from March 26, 2020, to April 4, 2020, with follow-up through May 2, 2020. SETTING: Four hospitals in Israel (Rambam Health Care Campus, Bnai Zion Medical Center, and Samson Assuta Ashdod University Hospital), and Holy Name Medical Center in New Jersey. PATIENTS: Eight critically ill patients on invasive mechanical ventilation, suffering from acute respiratory distress syndrome due to coronavirus disease 2019. INTERVENTIONS: Intramuscular injection of PLacental eXpanded (PLX)-PAD (300 × 106 cells) given as one to two treatments. MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS: Mortality, time to discharge, and changes in blood and respiratory variables were monitored during hospitalization to day 17 posttreatment. Of the eight patients treated (median age 55 yr, seven males and one female), five were discharged, two remained hospitalized, and one died. By day 3 postinjection, mean C-reactive protein fell 45% (240.3-131.3 mg/L; p = 0.0019) and fell to 77% by day 5 (56.0 mg/L; p < 0.0001). Pao2/Fio2 improved in 5:8 patients after 24-hour posttreatment, with similar effects 48-hour posttreatment. A decrease in positive end-expiratory pressure and increase in pH were statistically significant between days 0 and 14 (p = 0.0032 and p = 0.00072, respectively). A decrease in hemoglobin was statistically significant for days 0-5 and 0-14 (p = 0.015 and p = 0.0028, respectively), whereas for creatinine, it was statistically significant between days 0 and 14 (p = 0.032). CONCLUSIONS: Improvement in several variables such as C-reactive protein, positive end-expiratory pressure, and Pao2/Fio2 was observed following PLacental eXpanded (PLX)-PAD treatment, suggesting possible therapeutic effect. However, interpretation of the data is limited due to the small sample size, use of concomitant investigational therapies, and the uncontrolled study design. The efficacy of PLacental eXpanded (PLX)-PAD in coronavirus disease 2019 should be further evaluated in a controlled clinical trial.

16.
Can J Anaesth ; 67(10): 1405-1416, 2020 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1777848

ABSTRACT

During the coronavirus disease (COVID-19) global pandemic, urgent strategies to alleviate shortages are required. Evaluation of the feasibility, practicality, and value of drug conservation strategies and therapeutic alternatives requires a collaborative approach at the provincial level. The Ontario COVID-19 ICU Drug Task Force was directed to create recommendations suggesting drug conservation strategies and therapeutic alternatives for essential drugs at risk of shortage in the intensive care unit during the COVID-19 pandemic. Recommendations were rapidly developed using a modified Delphi method and evaluated on their ease of implementation, feasibility, and supportive evidence. This article describes the recommendations for drug conservation strategies and therapeutic alternatives for drugs at risk of shortage that are commonly used in the care of critically ill patients. Recommendations are identified as preferred and secondary ones that might be less desirable. Although the impetus for generating this document was the COVID-19 pandemic, recommendations should also be applicable for mitigating drug shortages outside of a pandemic. Proposed provincial strategies for drug conservation and therapeutic alternatives may not all be appropriate for every institution. Local implementation will require consultation from end-users and hospital administrators. Competing equipment shortages and available resources should be considered when evaluating the appropriateness of each strategy.


RéSUMé: Pendant la pandémie mondiale du coronavirus (COVID-19), des stratégies urgentes pour réduire les pénuries sont nécessaires. L'évaluation de la faisabilité, de l'aspect pratique et du mérite des stratégies de préservation des médicaments et des alternatives thérapeutiques nécessite une approche collaborative au niveau provincial. Le Groupe de travail ontarien sur les médicaments à l'USI pendant la COVID-19 a reçu comme mandat d'élaborer des recommandations proposant des stratégies de préservation des médicaments et des alternatives thérapeutiques pour les médicaments essentiels utilisés dans les unités de soins intensifs courant un risque de pénurie pendant la pandémie de COVID-19. Des recommandations ont été rapidement élaborées en utilisant une méthode Delphi modifiée, puis évaluées selon leur facilité de mise en œuvre, leur faisabilité et les données probantes les préconisant. Cet article décrit les recommandations quant aux stratégies de préservation des médicaments et aux alternatives thérapeutiques aux médicaments possiblement à risque de pénurie fréquemment utilisés pour les soins des patients en état critique. Les recommandations sont identifiées comme 'à privilégier' ou 'secondaires' si moins souhaitables. Bien que la pandémie de la COVID-19 ait été l'impulsion incitant la création de ce document, ces recommandations devraient également être applicables pour réduire les pénuries de médicaments en contexte normal. Les stratégies provinciales proposées pour la préservation des médicaments et les alternatives thérapeutiques pourraient ne pas être adaptées pour toutes les institutions. La mise en œuvre locale nécessitera la consultation des utilisateurs et des administrateurs hospitaliers. Il faudrait tenir compte des pénuries de matériel concurrentes et des ressources disponibles lors de l'évaluation de la faisabilité de chaque stratégie.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/drug therapy , Intensive Care Units , Pharmaceutical Preparations/supply & distribution , Pneumonia, Viral/drug therapy , Advisory Committees , COVID-19 , Critical Illness , Humans , Ontario , Pandemics
17.
Clin Infect Dis ; 74(2): 301-308, 2022 01 29.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1662108

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The medium- and long-term effects of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 infection on survivors are unknown. In the current study, we assessed the medium-term effects of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) on survivors of severe disease. METHODS: This is a retrospective, case series of 200 patients hospitalized across 3 large Birmingham hospitals with severe-to-critical COVID-19 infection 4-7 months from disease onset. Patients underwent comprehensive clinical, laboratory, imaging, lung function tests (LFTs), and quality of life and cognitive assessments. RESULTS: At 4-7 months after disease onset, 63.2% of patients reported persistent breathlessness; 53.5%, significant fatigue; 37.5%, reduced mobility; and 36.8% pain. Serum markers of inflammation and organ injuries that persisted at hospital discharge had normalized on follow-up, indicating no sustained immune response causing chronic maladaptive inflammation. Chest radiographs showed complete resolution in 82.8%, and significant improvement or no change in 17.2%. LFTs revealed gas transfer abnormalities in 80.0% and abnormal spirometric values in 37.6% of patients. Compared with patients who did not experience breathlessness, those who did had significantly higher incidences of comorbid conditions and residual chest radiographic and LFT abnormalities (P < .01 to all). For all parameters assessed and persisting symptoms there were no significant differences between patients in hospital wards and those in intensive treatment units. All patients reported a significantly reduced quality of life in all domains of the EQ-5D-5L quality-of-life measures. CONCLUSIONS: A significant proportion of severely ill patients with COVID-19 still experience symptoms of breathlessness, fatigue, pain, reduced mobility, depression and reduced quality of life 4-7 months after disease onset. Symptomatic patients tend to have more residual chest radiographic and LFT abnormalities.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Critical Illness , Humans , Quality of Life , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2
19.
Eur J Neurol ; 28(10): 3245-3253, 2021 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1604031

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Neurological complications of SARS-CoV-2 infection are noticed among critically ill patients soon after disease onset. Information on delayed neurological sequelae of SARS-CoV-2 infection is nil. Following a longitudinal study design, the occurrence of cognitive decline among individuals with a history of mild symptomatic SARS-CoV-2 infection was assessed. METHODS: Stroke- and seizure-free Atahualpa residents aged ≥40 years, who had pre-pandemic cognitive assessments as well as normal brain magnetic resonance imaging and electroencephalogram recordings, underwent repeated evaluations 6 months after a SARS-CoV-2 outbreak infection in Atahualpa. Patients requiring oxygen therapy, hospitalization, and those who had initial neurological manifestations were excluded. Cognitive decline was defined as a reduction in the Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA) score between the post-pandemic and pre-pandemic assessments that was ≥4 points greater than the reduction observed between two pre-pandemic MoCAs. The relationship between SARS-CoV-2 infection and cognitive decline was assessed by fitting logistic mixed models for longitudinal data as well as exposure-effect models. RESULTS: Of 93 included individuals (mean age 62.6 ± 11 years), 52 (56%) had a history of mild symptomatic SARS-CoV-2 infection. Post-pandemic MoCA decay was worse in seropositive individuals. Cognitive decline was recognized in 11/52 (21%) seropositive and 1/41 (2%) seronegative individuals. In multivariate analyses, the odds for developing cognitive decline were 18.1 times higher among SARS-CoV-2 seropositive individuals (95% confidence interval 1.75-188; p = 0.015). Exposure-effect models confirmed this association (ß = 0.24; 95% confidence interval 0.07-0.41; p = 0.006). CONCLUSIONS: This study provides evidence of cognitive decline among individuals with mild symptomatic SARS-CoV-2 infection. The pathogenesis of this complication remains unknown.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Cognitive Dysfunction , Aged , Cognitive Dysfunction/epidemiology , Cognitive Dysfunction/etiology , Humans , Longitudinal Studies , Middle Aged , Prospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2
20.
PLoS One ; 16(3): e0248675, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1574573

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: In December 2019, a new disease named coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) was occurred. Patients who are critically ill with COVID-19 are more likely to die, especially elderly patients. We aimed to describe the effect of age on the clinical and immune characteristics of critically ill patients with COVID-19. METHODS: We retrospectively included 32 patients with COVID-19 who were confirmed to have COVID-19 by the local health authority and who were admitted to the first affiliated hospital of Zhengzhou University in Zhengzhou, China between January 3 and March 20, 2020. Clinical information and experimental test data were retrospectively collected for the patients. The 32 patients in this study were all in a critical condition and were classified as severe, according to the guidelines of 2019-nCoV infection from the National Health Commission of the People's Republic of China. Data were compared between those <60 years old and ≥60 years old. RESULTS: Of 32 patients, 13 were under 60 years old, and 19 patients were ≥60 years old. The most common symptom among all patients upon admission was fever (93.8%, 30/32). Compared to younger patients, older patients exhibited increased comorbidities. Among patients who were 60 years and older, platelet count, direct bilirubin (DBIL), indirect bilirubin(IBIL), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), B-type natriuretic peptide (BNP), C-reactive protein (CRP), procalcitonin (PCT), and interleukin-10 (IL-10) were significantly higher than in younger patients who were less than 60 years old. CD4+ T lymphocytes, CD8+ T lymphocytes, and NKT lymphocytes were decreased, CD4+/CD8+ T lymphocytes were significantly increased in all 32 patients, while there were no evident differences between younger and older patients. The CURB-65 (confusion, urea, respiratory, rate, blood pressure plus age ≥65 years), Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation (APACHE) II and pH value were significantly higher in older patients than in patients who were under 60 years old. However, the PaO2 and PaO2:FiO2 were lower in older patients than the younger. Compared to patients under 60 years old, patients who were 60 years and older tended to develop ARDS (15 [78.9%] vs 5 [38.5%]), septic shock (7 [36.8%] vs 0 [0.0%]) and were more likely to receive mechanical ventilation (13 [68.4%] vs 3[23.1%]). Dynamic trajectories of seven laboratory parameters were tracked on days 1, 3, 5 and 7, and significant differences in lymphocyte count (P = 0.026), D-dimer (P = 0.010), lactate dehydrogenase (P = 0.000) and C-reactive protein (P = 0.000) were observed between the two age groups. CONCLUSIONS: A high proportion of critically ill patients were 60 or older. Furthermore, rapid disease progression was noted in elderly patients. Therefore, close monitoring and timely treatment should be performed in elderly COVID-19 patients.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Age Factors , Aged , CD4-CD8 Ratio , COVID-19/blood , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/immunology , Critical Illness , Female , Humans , Immunity , Lymphocyte Count , Male , Middle Aged , Preliminary Data , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Severity of Illness Index
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