Your browser doesn't support javascript.
Show: 20 | 50 | 100
Results 1 - 12 de 12
Filter
1.
J Endocrinol Invest ; 44(12): 2675-2684, 2021 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1504521

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: Due to relevant repercussions on reproductive medicine, we aimed to evaluate feasibility of RT-PCR as a detection method of SARS-CoV-2 RNA in seminal fluid. METHODS: A qualitative determination of the RT-PCR assays in semen was performed through different approaches: (1) efficiency of RNA extraction from sperm and seminal plasma was determined using PRM1 and PRM2 mRNA and a heterologous system as control; (2) samples obtained by diluting viral preparation from a SARS-CoV-2 panel (virus cultured in Vero E6 cell lines) were tested; (3) viral presence in different fractions of seminal fluid (whole sample, seminal plasma and post-centrifugation pellet) was evaluated. Semen samples from mild and recovered COVID-19 subjects were collected by patients referring to the Infectious Disease Department of the Policlinico Umberto I Hospital - "Sapienza" University of Rome. Control subjects were recruited at the Laboratory of Seminology-Sperm Bank "Loredana Gandini'' of the same hospital. RESULTS: The control panel using viral preparations diluted in saline and seminal fluid showed the capability to detect viral RNA presence with Ct values depending on the initial viral concentration. All tested semen samples were negative for SARS-CoV-2, regardless of the nasopharyngeal swab result or seminal fluid fraction. CONCLUSION: These preliminary data show that RT-PCR for SARS-CoV-2 RNA testing appears to be a feasible method for the molecular diagnosis of SARS-CoV-2 in seminal fluid, supported by results of the control panel. The ability to detect SARS-CoV-2 in semen is extremely important for reproductive medicine, especially in assisted reproductive technology and sperm cryopreservation.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/diagnosis , Pathology, Molecular/methods , Semen/virology , Adult , Animals , Chlorocebus aethiops , Feasibility Studies , Humans , Male , RNA, Messenger/chemistry , RNA, Viral/chemistry , Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction , Reproductive Techniques , Vero Cells
2.
Biotechniques ; 71(1): 370-375, 2021 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1278249

ABSTRACT

Inactivation of SARS-CoV-2 virus is necessary to mitigate risk but may interfere with diagnostic assay performance. We examined the effect of heat inactivation on a prototype SARS-CoV-2 antigen immunoassay run on the ARCHITECT automated analyzer. Recombinant full-length SARS-CoV-2 nucleocapsid protein and virus lysate detection was reduced by 66 and 31%, respectively. Several nonionic detergents were assessed as inactivation alternatives based on infectivity in cultured Vero CCL81 cells. Incubation of SARS-CoV-2 in 0.1% Tergitol 15-S-9 for 10 min significantly reduced infectivity and increased the immunoassay signal for cultured lysate and patient specimens. Tergitol 15-S-9 can inactivate SARS-CoV-2 while preserving epitopes on the nucleocapsid protein for enhanced detection by immunoassay antibodies.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Testing/methods , Poloxalene/pharmacology , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Virus Inactivation/drug effects , Animals , Antibodies, Viral/drug effects , Antibodies, Viral/immunology , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19 Testing/standards , Cells, Cultured , Chlorocebus aethiops , Humans , Immunoassay/methods , Immunoassay/standards , Nucleocapsid/immunology , Surface-Active Agents/pharmacology , Vero Cells
3.
Viruses ; 13(6)2021 05 21.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1244140

ABSTRACT

Severe acute respiratory syndrome-related coronavirus (SARS-CoV-2), the causative agent of coronavirus disease 19 (COVID-19), enters cells through attachment to the human angiotensin converting enzyme 2 (hACE2) via the receptor-binding domain (RBD) in the surface/spike (S) protein. Several pseudotyped viruses expressing SARS-CoV-2 S proteins are available, but many of these can only infect hACE2-overexpressing cell lines. Here, we report the use of a simple, two-plasmid, pseudotyped virus system comprising a SARS-CoV-2 spike-expressing plasmid and an HIV vector with or without vpr to investigate the SARS-CoV-2 entry event in various cell lines. When an HIV vector without vpr was used, pseudotyped SARS-CoV-2 viruses produced in the presence of fetal bovine serum (FBS) were able to infect only engineered hACE2-overexpressing cell lines, whereas viruses produced under serum-free conditions were able to infect a broader range of cells, including cells without hACE2 overexpression. When an HIV vector containing vpr was used, pseudotyped viruses were able to infect a broad spectrum of cell types regardless of whether viruses were produced in the presence or absence of FBS. Infection sensitivities of various cell types did not correlate with mRNA abundance of hACE2, TMPRSS2, or TMPRSS4. Pseudotyped SARS-CoV-2 viruses and replication-competent SARS-CoV-2 virus were equally sensitive to neutralization by an anti-spike RBD antibody in cells with high abundance of hACE2. However, the anti-spike RBD antibody did not block pseudotyped viral entry into cell lines with low abundance of hACE2. We further found that CD147 was involved in viral entry in A549 cells with low abundance of hACE2. Thus, our assay is useful for drug and antibody screening as well as for investigating cellular receptors, including hACE2, CD147, and tyrosine-protein kinase receptor UFO (AXL), for the SARS-CoV-2 entry event in various cell lines.


Subject(s)
HIV/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/physiology , Virus Internalization , Caco-2 Cells , Cell Line , Genetic Vectors , HEK293 Cells , Humans , Plasmids , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/genetics , Transfection , vpr Gene Products, Human Immunodeficiency Virus/metabolism
4.
Cell Discov ; 7(1): 37, 2021 May 24.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1241945

ABSTRACT

Treatment options for COVID-19 remain limited, especially during the early or asymptomatic phase. Here, we report a novel SARS-CoV-2 viral replication mechanism mediated by interactions between ACE2 and the epigenetic eraser enzyme LSD1, and its interplay with the nuclear shuttling importin pathway. Recent studies have shown a critical role for the importin pathway in SARS-CoV-2 infection, and many RNA viruses hijack this axis to re-direct host cell transcription. LSD1 colocalized with ACE2 at the cell surface to maintain demethylated SARS-CoV-2 spike receptor-binding domain lysine 31 to promote virus-ACE2 interactions. Two newly developed peptide inhibitors competitively inhibited virus-ACE2 interactions, and demethylase access to significantly inhibit viral replication. Similar to some other predominantly plasma membrane proteins, ACE2 had a novel nuclear function: its cytoplasmic domain harbors a nuclear shuttling domain, which when demethylated by LSD1 promoted importin-α-dependent nuclear ACE2 entry following infection to regulate active transcription. A novel, cell permeable ACE2 peptide inhibitor prevented ACE2 nuclear entry, significantly inhibiting viral replication in SARS-CoV-2-infected cell lines, outperforming other LSD1 inhibitors. These data raise the prospect of post-exposure prophylaxis for SARS-CoV-2, either through repurposed LSD1 inhibitors or new, nuclear-specific ACE2 inhibitors.

5.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(6)2021 Mar 19.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1143519

ABSTRACT

The development of effective antiviral drugs targeting the severe acute respiratory syndrome-related coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) is urgently needed to combat the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). We have previously studied the use of semi-synthetic derivatives of oxysterols, oxidized derivatives of cholesterol as drug candidates for the inhibition of cancer, fibrosis, and bone regeneration. In this study, we screened a panel of naturally occurring and semi-synthetic oxysterols for anti-SARS-CoV-2 activity using a cell culture infection assay. We show that the natural oxysterols, 7-ketocholesterol, 22(R)-hydroxycholesterol, 24(S)-hydroxycholesterol, and 27-hydroxycholesterol, substantially inhibited SARS-CoV-2 propagation in cultured cells. Among semi-synthetic oxysterols, Oxy210 and Oxy232 displayed more robust anti-SARS-CoV-2 activities, reducing viral replication more than 90% at 10 µM and 99% at 15 µM, respectively. When orally administered in mice, peak plasma concentrations of Oxy210 fell into a therapeutically relevant range (19 µM), based on the dose-dependent curve for antiviral activity in our cell-based assay. Mechanistic studies suggest that Oxy210 reduced replication of SARS-CoV-2 by disrupting the formation of double-membrane vesicles (DMVs); intracellular membrane compartments associated with viral replication. Our study warrants further evaluation of Oxy210 and Oxy232 as a safe and reliable oral medication, which could help protect vulnerable populations with increased risk of developing COVID-19.


Subject(s)
Antiviral Agents/chemistry , Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , Oxysterols/chemistry , Oxysterols/pharmacology , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects , Administration, Oral , Animals , Antiviral Agents/administration & dosage , Antiviral Agents/pharmacokinetics , COVID-19/drug therapy , Cell Survival/drug effects , Chlorocebus aethiops , Mice , Nucleocapsid Proteins/drug effects , Oxysterols/administration & dosage , Oxysterols/pharmacokinetics , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Vero Cells , Viral Replication Compartments/drug effects , Virus Replication/drug effects
6.
Jpn J Infect Dis ; 74(1): 48-53, 2021 Jan 22.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1116920

ABSTRACT

JC polyomavirus (JCPyV) causes progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy (PML), a demyelinating disease of the central nervous system affecting immunocompromised patients. The study of PML-type JCPyV in vitro has been limited owing to the inefficient propagation of the virus in cultured cells. In this study, we carried out long-term culture of COS-7 cells (designated as COS-IMRb cells) transfected with PML-type M1-IMRb, an adapted viral DNA with a rearranged non-coding control region (NCCR). The JCPyV derived from COS-IMRb cells were characterized by analyzing the viral replication, amount of virus by hemagglutination (HA), production of viral protein 1 (VP1), and structure of the NCCR. HA assays indicated the presence of high amounts of PML-type JCPyV in COS-IMRb cells. Immunostaining showed only a small population of JCPyV carrying COS-IMRb cells to be VP1-positive. Sequencing analysis of the NCCR of JCPyV after long-term culture revealed that the NCCR of M1-IMRb was conserved in COS-IMRb cells without any point mutation. The JCPyV genomic DNA derived from a clone of COS-IMRb-3 cells was detected, via Southern blotting, as a single band of approximately 5.1 kbp without deletion. These findings suggest the potential of using COS-IMRb-3 cells as a useful tool for screening anti-JCPyV drugs.


Subject(s)
JC Virus/growth & development , JC Virus/genetics , Leukoencephalopathy, Progressive Multifocal/virology , Virus Cultivation/methods , Animals , Blotting, Southern/methods , COS Cells , Chlorocebus aethiops , DNA Replication , DNA, Viral/isolation & purification , Hemagglutination , Humans , Transfection , Viral Proteins/genetics , Viral Proteins/metabolism , Virus Replication
7.
J Virol ; 2020 Nov 25.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-947807

ABSTRACT

Coronaviruses have evolved a variety of strategies to optimize cellular microenvironment for efficient replication. In this study, we report the induction of AP-1 transcription factors by coronavirus infection based on genome-wide analyses of differentially expressed genes in cells infected with avian coronavirus infectious bronchitis virus (IBV). Most members of the AP-1 transcription factors were subsequently found to be upregulated during the course of IBV and porcine epidemic diarrhea virus (PEDV) infection of cultured cells as well as in IBV-infected chicken embryos. Further characterization of the induction kinetics and functional roles of cFOS in IBV replication demonstrated that upregulation of cFOS at early to intermediate phases of IBV replication cycles suppresses IBV-induced apoptosis and promotes viral replication. Blockage of nuclear translocation of cFOS by peptide inhibitor NLSP suppressed IBV replication and apoptosis, ruling out the involvement of the cytoplasmic functions of cFOS in the replication of IBV. Furthermore, knockdown of ERK1/2 and inhibition of JNK and p38 kinase activities reduced cFOS upregulation and IBV replication. This study reveals an important function of cFOS in the regulation of coronavirus-induced apoptosis, facilitating viral replication.IMPORTANCE The ongoing pandemic of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), caused by a newly emerged zoonotic coronavirus (SARS-CoV-2), highlights the importance of coronaviruses as human and animal pathogens and our knowledge gaps in understanding the cellular mechanisms, especially mechanisms shared among human and animal coronaviruses, exploited by coronaviruses for optimal replication and enhanced pathogenicity. This study reveals that upregulation of cFOS, along with other AP-1 transcription factors, as a cell-survival strategy is such a mechanism utilized by coronaviruses during their replication cycles. Through induction and regulation of apoptosis of the infected cells at early to intermediate phases of the replication cycles, subtle but appreciable differences in coronavirus replication efficiency were observed when the expression levels of cFOS were manipulated in the infected cells. As the AP-1 transcription factors are multi-functional, further studies of their regulatory roles in proinflammatory responses may provide new insights into the pathogenesis and virus-host interactions during coronavirus infection.

8.
Theranostics ; 10(26): 12223-12240, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-934619

ABSTRACT

Rationale: Many viral infections are known to activate the p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signaling pathway. However, the role of p38 activation in viral infection and the underlying mechanism remain unclear. The role of virus-hijacked p38 MAPK activation in viral infection was investigated in this study. Methods: The correlation of hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection and p38 activation was studied in patient tissues and primary human hepatocytes (PHHs) by immunohistochemistry and western blotting. Coimmunoprecipitation, GST pulldown and confocal microscopy were used to investigate the interaction of p38α and the HCV core protein. In vitro kinase assays and mass spectrometry were used to analyze the phosphorylation of the HCV core protein. Plaque assays, quantitative real time PCR (qRT-PCR), western blotting, siRNA and CRISPR/Cas9 were used to determine the effect of p38 activation on viral replication. Results: HCV infection was associated with p38 activation in clinical samples. HCV infection increased p38 phosphorylation by triggering the interaction of p38α and TGF-ß activated kinase 1 (MAP3K7) binding protein 1 (TAB1). TAB1-mediated p38α activation facilitated HCV replication, and pharmaceutical inhibition of p38α activation by SB203580 suppressed HCV infection at the viral assembly step. Activated p38α interacted with the N-terminal region of the HCV core protein and subsequently phosphorylated the HCV core protein, which promoted HCV core protein oligomerization, an essential step for viral assembly. As expected, SB203580 or the HCV core protein N-terminal peptide (CN-peptide) disrupted the p38α-HCV core protein interaction, efficiently impaired HCV assembly and impeded normal HCV replication in both cultured cells and primary human hepatocytes. Similarly, severe fever with thrombocytopenia syndrome virus (SFTSV), herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) or severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection also activated p38 MAPK. Most importantly, pharmacological blockage of p38 activation by SB203580 effectively inhibited SFTSV, HSV-1 and SARS-CoV-2. Conclusion: Our study shows that virus-hijacked p38 activation is a key event for viral replication and that pharmacological blockage of p38 activation is an antiviral strategy.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/metabolism , Hepacivirus/metabolism , Hepatitis C/metabolism , Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase 14/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2/metabolism , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/metabolism , A549 Cells , Adaptor Proteins, Signal Transducing/metabolism , Animals , COVID-19/virology , Chlorocebus aethiops , Enzyme Activation , HEK293 Cells , Hepatitis C/pathology , Hepatitis C/virology , Hepatocytes/metabolism , Humans , Imidazoles/pharmacology , MAP Kinase Kinase Kinases/metabolism , MAP Kinase Signaling System/drug effects , Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase 14/antagonists & inhibitors , Phosphorylation , Pyridines/pharmacology , Vero Cells , Viral Core Proteins/metabolism , Virus Replication/drug effects
9.
Med Hypotheses ; 144: 110267, 2020 Nov.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-753084

ABSTRACT

Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) is causing the current pandemic of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) that has killed nearly one million people so far. While this is a respiratory virus, surprisingly, it has been recognized that patients with cardiovascular disease are likely to be affected severely and die of COVID-19. This phenomenon cannot be explained by the generally accepted logic that the SARS-CoV-2 infection/replication is the sole determinant of the actions of the virus to define the fate of host cells. I herein propose the viral protein fragment theory of COVID-19 pathogenesis based on my observations in cultured human vascular cells that SARS-CoV-2 spike protein can activate cell signaling events without the rest of the viral components. It is generally thought that SARS-CoV-2 and other single-stranded RNA viruses attach to the host cells through the interactions between surface proteins of the viral capsid and the host cell receptors; the fusion and the entry of the viral components, resulting in the replication of the viruses; and the host cell responses are the consequence of these events. I hypothesize that, as humans are infected with SARS-CoV-2, the virus releases (a) fragment(s) of the spike protein that can target host cells for eliciting cell signaling without the rest of the viral components. Thus, COVID-19 patients are subjected to the intact virus infecting the host cells for the replication and amplification as well as the spike protein fragments that are capable of affecting the host cells. I propose that cell signaling elicited by the spike protein fragments that occur in cardiovascular cells would predispose infected individuals to develop complications that are seen in severe and fatal COVID-19 conditions. If this hypothesis is correct, then the strategies to treat COVID-19 should include, in addition to agents that inhibit the viral replication, therapeutics that inhibit the viral protein fragment-mediated cardiovascular cell signaling.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/virology , Capsid/physiology , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/physiology , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/physiology , Disease Susceptibility , Endothelium, Vascular/virology , Humans , Models, Theoretical , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Signal Transduction , Virus Internalization , Virus Replication
10.
FEBS Lett ; 594(20): 3363-3370, 2020 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-716193

ABSTRACT

We used transcriptomic (RNA-seq) analyses to determine whether patients suffering from all types and subtypes of mucopolysaccharidosis (MPS), a severe inherited metabolic disease, may be more susceptible to coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). The expression levels of genes encoding proteins potentially involved in SARS-CoV-2 development were estimated in MPS cell lines. Four genes (GTF2F2, RAB18, TMEM97, PDE4DIP) coding for proteins potentially facilitating virus development were down-regulated, while two genes (FBN1, MFGE8), the products of which potentially interfere with virus propagation, were up-regulated in most MPS types. Although narrowing of respiratory tract and occurrence of thick mucus, characteristic of MPS, are risk factors for COVID-19, transcriptomic analyses suggest that MPS cells might be less, rather than more, susceptible to SARS-CoV-2 infection.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/genetics , Mucopolysaccharidoses/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , Virus Internalization , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/genetics , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/metabolism , COVID-19/metabolism , COVID-19/pathology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Cells, Cultured , Fibroblasts/metabolism , Fibroblasts/pathology , Fibroblasts/virology , Gene Expression Profiling , Genetic Predisposition to Disease , Humans , Mucopolysaccharidoses/metabolism , Mucopolysaccharidoses/pathology , Mucopolysaccharidoses/virology , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Serine Endopeptidases/genetics , Serine Endopeptidases/metabolism , Transcriptome
11.
Euro Surveill ; 25(25)2020 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-649992

ABSTRACT

The advent of COVID-19, has posed a risk that human respiratory samples containing human influenza viruses may also contain SARS-CoV-2. This potential risk may lead to SARS-CoV-2 contaminating conventional influenza vaccine production platforms as respiratory samples are used to directly inoculate embryonated hen's eggs and continuous cell lines that are used to isolate and produce influenza vaccines. We investigated the ability of these substrates to propagate SARS-CoV-2 and found that neither could support SARS-CoV-2 replication.


Subject(s)
Chickens/immunology , Coronavirus/physiology , Influenza Vaccines/immunology , Influenza, Human/prevention & control , Madin Darby Canine Kidney Cells , Receptors, Virus/metabolism , Virus Cultivation/methods , Virus Replication , Animals , Betacoronavirus , COVID-19 , Cell Line , Chickens/virology , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Dogs , Eggs , Humans , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral , SARS-CoV-2 , Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome
12.
J Virol ; 94(11)2020 05 18.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-10361

ABSTRACT

Coronaviruses express a multifunctional papain-like protease, termed papain-like protease 2 (PLP2). PLP2 acts as a protease that cleaves the viral replicase polyprotein and as a deubiquitinating (DUB) enzyme which removes ubiquitin (Ub) moieties from ubiquitin-conjugated proteins. Previous in vitro studies implicated PLP2/DUB activity as a negative regulator of the host interferon (IFN) response, but the role of DUB activity during virus infection was unknown. Here, we used X-ray structure-guided mutagenesis and functional studies to identify amino acid substitutions within the ubiquitin-binding surface of PLP2 that reduced DUB activity without affecting polyprotein processing activity. We engineered a DUB mutation (Asp1772 to Ala) into a murine coronavirus and evaluated the replication and pathogenesis of the DUB mutant virus (DUBmut) in cultured macrophages and in mice. We found that the DUBmut virus replicates similarly to the wild-type (WT) virus in cultured cells, but the DUBmut virus activates an IFN response at earlier times compared to the wild-type virus infection in macrophages, consistent with DUB activity negatively regulating the IFN response. We compared the pathogenesis of the DUBmut virus to that of the wild-type virus and found that the DUBmut-infected mice had a statistically significant reduction (P < 0.05) in viral titer in liver and spleen at day 5 postinfection (d p.i.), although both wild-type and DUBmut virus infections resulted in similar liver pathology. Overall, this study demonstrates that structure-guided mutagenesis aids the identification of critical determinants of the PLP2-ubiquitin complex and that PLP2/DUB activity plays a role as an interferon antagonist in coronavirus pathogenesis.IMPORTANCE Coronaviruses employ a genetic economy by encoding multifunctional proteins that function in viral replication and also modify the host environment to disarm the innate immune response. The coronavirus papain-like protease 2 (PLP2) domain possesses protease activity, which cleaves the viral replicase polyprotein, and also DUB activity (deconjugating ubiquitin/ubiquitin-like molecules from modified substrates) using identical catalytic residues. To separate the DUB activity from the protease activity, we employed a structure-guided mutagenesis approach and identified residues that are important for ubiquitin binding. We found that mutating the ubiquitin-binding residues results in a PLP2 that has reduced DUB activity but retains protease activity. We engineered a recombinant murine coronavirus to express the DUB mutant and showed that the DUB mutant virus activated an earlier type I interferon response in macrophages and exhibited reduced replication in mice. The results of this study demonstrate that PLP2/DUB is an interferon antagonist and a virulence trait of coronaviruses.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/virology , Murine hepatitis virus/physiology , Viral Proteins/genetics , Viral Proteins/metabolism , Amino Acid Sequence , Animals , Host-Pathogen Interactions , Interferon Type I/metabolism , Macrophages/immunology , Macrophages/metabolism , Macrophages/virology , Mice , Models, Molecular , Murine hepatitis virus/pathogenicity , Mutagenesis , Protein Conformation , Structure-Activity Relationship , Ubiquitination , Viral Proteins/chemistry , Virulence , Virus Replication
SELECTION OF CITATIONS
SEARCH DETAIL