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1.
Scientometrics ; : 1-27, 2020 Jun 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1906434

ABSTRACT

As of the middle of April 2020, the unprecedented COVID-19 pandemic has claimed more than 137,000 lives (https://coronavirus.jhu.edu/map.html). Because of its extremely fast spreading, the attention of the global scientific community is now focusing on slowing down, containing and finally stopping the spread of this disease. This requires the concerted action of researchers and practitioners of many related fields, raising, as always in such situations the question, of what kind of research has to be conducted, what are the priorities, how has research to be coordinated and who needs to be involved. In other words, what are the characteristics of the response of the global research community on the challenge? In the present paper, we attempt to characterise, quantify and measure the response of academia to international public health emergencies in a comparative bibliometric study of multiple outbreaks. In addition, we provide a preliminary review of the global research effort regarding the defeat of the COVID-19 pandemic. From our analysis of six infectious disease outbreaks since 2000, including COVID-19, we find that academia always responded quickly to public health emergencies with a sharp increase in the number of publications immediately following the declaration of an outbreak by the WHO. In general, countries/regions place emphasis on epidemics in their own region, but Europe and North America are also concerned with outbreaks in other, developed and less developed areas through conducting intensive collaborative research with the core countries/regions of the outbreak, such as in the case of Ebola in Africa. Researches in the fields of virology, infectious diseases and immunology are the most active, and we identified two characteristic patterns in global science distinguishing research in Europe and America that is more focused on public health from that conducted in China and Japan with more emphasis on biomedical research and clinical pharmacy, respectively. Universities contribute slightly less than half to the global research output, and the vast majority of research funding originates from the public sector. Our findings on how academia responds to emergencies could be beneficial to decision-makers in research and health policy in creating and adjusting anti-epidemic/-pandemic strategies.

2.
Policy Sci ; : 1-17, 2020 Apr 18.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1906381

ABSTRACT

The world is in the grip of a crisis that stands unprecedented in living memory. The COVID-19 pandemic is urgent, global in scale, and massive in impacts. Following Harold D. Lasswell's goal for the policy sciences to offer insights into unfolding phenomena, this commentary draws on the lessons of the policy sciences literature to understand the dynamics related to COVID-19. We explore the ways in which scientific and technical expertise, emotions, and narratives influence policy decisions and shape relationships among citizens, organizations, and governments. We discuss varied processes of adaptation and change, including learning, surges in policy responses, alterations in networks (locally and globally), implementing policies across transboundary issues, and assessing policy success and failure. We conclude by identifying understudied aspects of the policy sciences that deserve attention in the pandemic's aftermath.

3.
Hum Behav Emerg Technol ; 2020 Jun 18.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1898740

ABSTRACT

Since the outbreak in China in late 2019, the novel coronavirus (COVID-19) has spread around the world and has come to dominate online conversations. By linking 2.3 million Twitter users to locations within the United States, we study in aggregate how political characteristics of the locations affect the evolution of online discussions about COVID-19. We show that COVID-19 chatter in the US is largely shaped by political polarization. Partisanship correlates with sentiment toward government measures and the tendency to share health and prevention messaging. Cross-ideological interactions are modulated by user segregation and polarized network structure. We also observe a correlation between user engagement with topics related to public health and the varying impact of the disease outbreak in different US states. These findings may help inform policies both online and offline. Decision-makers may calibrate their use of online platforms to measure the effectiveness of public health campaigns, and to monitor the reception of national and state-level policies, by tracking in real-time discussions in a highly polarized social media ecosystem.

4.
Rev Panam Salud Publica ; 44: e154, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1893627

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To identify emerging mental health problems, strategies to address them, and opportunities to reform mental health systems during the COVID-19 pandemic in South America. METHODS: An online questionnaire was sent to mental health decision-makers of ministries of health in 10 South American countries in mid-April 2020. The semi-structured questionnaire had 12 questions clustered into three main sections: emerging challenges in mental health, current and potential strategies to face the pandemic, and key elements for mental health reform. We identified keywords and themes for each section through summative content analysis. RESULTS: Increasing mental health burden and needs were reported as direct and indirect consequences of the COVID-19 pandemic. National lockdowns challenge the delivery and access to mental health treatment and care. Strategies to meet mental health needs rely heavily on timely and adequate responses by strengthened mental health governance and systems, availability of services, virtual platforms, and appropriate capacity-building for service providers. Short- and medium-term strategies focused on bolstering community-based mental health networks and telemedicine for high-risk populations. Opportunities for long-term mental health reform entail strengthening legal frameworks, redistribution of financial resources, and collaboration with local and international partners. CONCLUSIONS: Mental health and psychosocial support have been identified as a priority area by South American countries in the COVID-19 response. The pandemic has generated specific needs that require appropriate actions, including implementing virtual interventions, orienting capacity-building toward protecting users and health providers, strengthening evidence-driven decision-making, and integrating mental health and psychosocial support in high-level mechanisms guiding the response to COVID-19.

5.
Gastroenterol Hepatol Bed Bench ; 13(Suppl1): S134-S138, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1801572

ABSTRACT

AIM: To estimate the epidemiological parameters related to the Covid-19 outbreak in Iran. BACKGROUND: Estimating the epidemiological parameters of new public health threat (COVID-19) is essential to support and inform public health decision-making in different communities including Iran. METHODS: We established a mathematical model to estimate the epidemiological parameters from 19 Feb to 15 March based on daily COVID-19 confirmed cases in Iran. Then, we estimated the effect of early traffic restriction on our estimation. RESULTS: We estimated the R0 at 2.11 (95% CI, 1.87-2.50) and the infected number at 92,260 (95% CI: 59,263 -152,212) by 15 March. Our estimate for the ascertainment rate was about 1.2% (95% CI: 1.1-1.4). The latent period estimation was 4.24 (95% CI: 2.84-6.65). We observed a decline in our estimate after considering the traffic restriction. CONCLUSION: Our results suggest that health authorities in Iran must take impactful strategies to control the COVID-19 outbreak to reach R0<1. Therefore, the establishment of complementary, multilateral, and cost-effective measures for the treatment of symptomatic and early diagnosis and isolation of asymptomatic cases/contacts are strongly recommended because of low ascertainment rate and large number of infected cases. We additionally recommend that traffic restriction be combined with other controlling measures.

6.
BMC Pediatr ; 21(1): 176, 2021 04 16.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1793973

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Malnutrition is still a global public health problem contributing for under-five morbidity and mortality. The case is similar in Ethiopia in which severe acute malnutrition is the major contributor to mortality being an underlying cause for nearly 45% of under-five deaths. However, there is no recent evidence that shows the time to death and public health importance of oxygen saturation and chest in drawing in the study area. Therefore, estimated time to death and its predictors can provide an input for program planners and decision-makers. METHODS: A facility -based retrospective cohort study was conducted among 488 severe acute malnourished under-five children admitted from the 1st of January 2016 to the 30th of December 2019. The study participants were selected by using simple random sampling technique. Data were entered in to Epi-Data version 3.1 and exported to STATA version15 statistical software for further analysis. The Kaplan Meier was used to estimate cumulative survival probability and a log-rank test was used to compare the survival time between different categories of explanatory variables. The Cox-proportional hazard regression model was fitted to identify predictors of mortality. P-value< 0.05 was used to declare statistical significance. RESULTS: Out of the total 488 randomly selected charts of children with severe acute malnutrition, 476 records were included in the final analysis. A total of 54(11.34%) children died with an incidence rate of 9.1death /1000 person- days. Failed appetite test (AHR: 2.4; 95%CI: 1.26, 4.67), altered consciousness level at admission (AHR: 2.4; 95%CI: 1.08, 4.67), oxygen saturation below 90% (AHR: 3.3; 95%CI: 1.40, 7.87), edema (AHR 2.9; 95%CI: 1.45, 5.66) and HIV infection (AHR: 2.8; 95%CI: 1.24, 6.36) were predictors of mortality for children diagnosed with severe acute malnutrition. CONCLUSION: The overall survival status of severe acute malnourished children was low as compared to national sphere standards and previous reports in the literature. The major predictors of mortality were oxygen saturation below 90%, altered consciousness, HIV infection, edema and failed appetite test. Therefore, early screening of complications, close follow up and regular monitoring of sever acute malnourished children might improve child survival rate.


Subject(s)
HIV Infections , Severe Acute Malnutrition , Child , Ethiopia/epidemiology , Hospitals , Humans , Retrospective Studies
7.
Environ Dev Sustain ; 23(5): 6681-6697, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1681222

ABSTRACT

COVID-19 is a highly infectious disease caused by SARS-CoV-2, first identified in China and spread globally, resulting into pandemic. Transmission of virus takes place either directly through close contact with infected individual (symptomatic/asymptomatic) or indirectly by touching contaminated surfaces. Virus survives on the surfaces from few hours to days. It enters the human body through nose, eyes or mouth. Other sources of contamination are faeces, blood, food, water, semen etc. Parameters such as temperature/relative humidity also play an important role in transmission. As the disease is evolving, so are the number of cases. Proper planning and restriction are helping in influencing the trajectory of the transmission. Various measures are undertaken to prevent infection such as maintaining hygiene, using facemasks, isolation/quarantine, social/physical distancing, in extreme cases lockdown (restricted movement except essential services) in hot spot areas or throughout the country. Countries that introduced various mitigation measures had experienced control in transmission of COVID-19. Python programming is conducted for change point analysis (CPA) using Bayesian probability approach for understanding the impact of restrictions and mitigation methods in terms of either increase or stagnation in number of COVID-19 cases for eight countries. From analysis it is concluded that countries which acted late in bringing in the social distancing measures are suffering in terms of high number of cases with USA, leading among eight countries analysed. The CPA week in comparison with date of lockdown and first reported case strongly correlates (Pearson's r = - 0.86 to - 0.97) to cases, cases per unit area and cases per unit population, indicating earlier the mitigation strategy, lesser the number of cases. The overall paper will help the decision makers in understanding the possible steps for mitigation, more so in developing countries where the fight against COVID-19 seems to have just begun.

8.
Simul Healthc ; 17(1): e141-e148, 2022 Feb 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1672454

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: COVID-19 has prompted the extensive use of computational models to understand the trajectory of the pandemic. This article surveys the kinds of dynamic simulation models that have been used as decision support tools and to forecast the potential impacts of nonpharmaceutical interventions (NPIs). We developed the Values in Viral Dispersion model, which emphasizes the role of human factors and social networks in viral spread and presents scenarios to guide policy responses. METHODS: An agent-based model of COVID-19 was developed with individual agents able to move between 3 states (susceptible, infectious, or recovered), with each agent placed in 1 of 7 social network types and assigned a propensity to comply with NPIs (quarantine, contact tracing, and physical distancing). A series of policy questions were tested to illustrate the impact of social networks and NPI compliance on viral spread among (1) populations, (2) specific at-risk subgroups, and (3) individual trajectories. RESULTS: Simulation outcomes showed large impacts of physical distancing policies on number of infections, with substantial modification by type of social network and level of compliance. In addition, outcomes on metrics that sought to maximize those never infected (or recovered) and minimize infections and deaths showed significantly different epidemic trajectories by social network type and among higher or lower at-risk age cohorts. CONCLUSIONS: Although dynamic simulation models have important limitations, which are discussed, these decision support tools should be a key resource for navigating the ongoing impacts of the COVID-19 pandemic and can help local and national decision makers determine where, when, and how to invest resources.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pandemics , Computer Simulation , Humans , Pandemics/prevention & control , Quarantine , SARS-CoV-2
9.
Front Med (Lausanne) ; 7: 585003, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1556373

ABSTRACT

Background: Identifying clinical-features or a scoring-system to predict a benefit from hospital admission for patients with COVID-19 can be of great value for the decision-makers in the health sector. We aimed to identify differences in patients' demographic, clinical, laboratory, and radiological findings of COVID-19 positive cases to develop and validate a diagnostic-model predicting who will develop severe-form and who will need critical-care in the future. Methods: In this observational retrospective study, COVID-19 positive cases (total 417) diagnosed in Al Kuwait Hospital, Dubai, UAE were recruited, and their prognosis in terms of admission to the hospital and the need for intensive care was reviewed until their tests turned negative. Patients were classified according to their clinical state into mild, moderate, severe, and critical. We retrieved all the baseline clinical data, laboratory, and radiological results and used them to identify parameters that can predict admission to the intensive care unit (ICU). Results: Patients with ICU admission showed a distinct clinical, demographic as well as laboratory features when compared to patients who did not need ICU admission. This includes the elder age group, male gender, and presence of comorbidities like diabetes and history of hypertension. ROC and Precision-Recall curves showed that among all variables, D dimers (>1.5 mg/dl), Urea (>6.5 mmol/L), and Troponin (>13.5 ng/ml) could positively predict the admission to ICU in patients with COVID-19. On the other hand, decreased Lymphocyte count and albumin can predict admission to ICU in patients with COVID-19 with acceptable sensitivity (59.32, 95% CI [49.89-68.27]) and specificity (79.31, 95% CI [72.53-85.07]). Conclusion: Using these three predictors with their cut of values can identify patients who are at risk of developing critical COVID-19 and might need aggressive intervention earlier in the course of the disease.

10.
J Med Ethics ; 47(8): 547-548, 2021 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1537986

ABSTRACT

Rapid, large-scale uptake of new vaccines against COVID-19 will be crucial to decrease infections and end the pandemic. In a recent article in this journal, Julian Savulescu argued in favour of monetary incentives to convince more people to be vaccinated once the vaccine becomes available. To evaluate the potential of his suggestion, we conducted an experiment investigating the impact of payments and the communication of individual and prosocial benefits of high vaccination rates on vaccination intentions. Our results revealed that none of these interventions or their combinations increased willingness to be vaccinated shortly after a vaccine becomes available. Consequently, decision makers should be cautious about introducing monetary incentives and instead focus on interventions that increase confidence in vaccine safety first, as this has shown to be an especially important factor regarding the demand for the new COVID-19 vaccines.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines/administration & dosage , COVID-19 Vaccines/economics , COVID-19 , Motivation , Patient Acceptance of Health Care/psychology , Vaccination/economics , Vaccination/psychology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Female , Health Education , Humans , Male , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2
11.
Curr Psychol ; : 1-10, 2021 May 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1520476

ABSTRACT

Different strategies were followed to control the spread of the COVID-19 disease worldwide. Jordan declared a military-enforced curfew for three months, which successfully controlled the disease spreading. However, the curfew impacted several aspects of students' lives and personalities. This study discusses the impact of the COVID-19 curfew restrictions on university students' mental health, as this area was not fully discussed in previous studies. An online survey was distributed to cover the psychological symptoms and coping strategies of university students. Most of them experienced short temper, anxiety, and sleep problems. Female students expressed more psychological symptoms than males, they managed their stress by sleeping, studying, and worshiping. Whereas male students were working, exercising, and playing video games. A distinct interest was noticed among students of different ages. Young students (18-25 years) expressed unhappiness and distress-like symptoms; they advocated sleeping and playing video games. While elder students (>26 years) had anxiety, sleep problems, and short tempers, they managed their symptoms by studying, exercising, and worshiping. The curfew restrictions have negatively impacted the mental health of female and younger students more than other categories. These research outcomes will help decision-makers to implement healthy coping strategies to be followed during unusual conditions. SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: The online version contains supplementary material available at 10.1007/s12144-021-01833-1.

12.
Qual Quant ; : 1-18, 2021 Feb 19.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1499498

ABSTRACT

Developments in technology have facilitated the emergence of new crowd counting organisations. Some of the organisations have established platforms to disseminate their data, making it available to researchers for the first time. These databases promise to increase the quality and quantity of research in various fields. In the late 2010s, specialist crowd counting organisations emerged with the sole purpose of counting crowds at protests and disseminating the results, sometimes in a purely partisan manner. Because of the contemporary relevance of protest behaviour, we frame our discussion within this context. For social scientists considering the utilisation of these new databases, it is essential that crowd numbers be linked to underlying human behaviour in a way that promises a chain of connections to investigate and explore. We use behavioural economics to show why relative crowd size may be important for human decision-makers. And we show how the significance of relative crowd size relates to other aspects of the human decision-making process, including risk preferences and probability assessments. Far from being a theory of protest behaviour, we present a behavioural economics-based primer for empirical researchers and social scientists engaging with newly available crowd counting data. The conclusions may apply in other contexts and might be extended to encompass specific types of behaviour, including aggression and violence. Indeed, the conclusions may guide the analysis of the emergence of the crowd counting organisations themselves.

13.
J Crit Care ; 64: 160-164, 2021 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1479628

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: To measure the rate of recall of study participation and study attrition in survivors of acute respiratory distress syndrome(ARDS). MATERIALS/METHODS: In this ancillary study of the Re-evaluation of Systemic Early neuromuscular blockade(ROSE) trial, we measured the rate of study participation recall 3 months following discharge and subsequent study attrition at 6 months. We compared patient and hospital characteristics, and long-term outcomes by recall. As surrogate decision-makers provided initial consent, we measured the rate of patient reconsent and its association with study recall. RESULTS: Of 487 patients evaluated, recall status was determined in 386(82.7%). Among these, 287(74.4%) patients recalled participation in the ROSE trial, while 99(25.6%) did not. There was no significant difference in 6-month attrition among patients who recalled study participation (9.1%) and those who did not (12.1%) (p = 0.38). Patient characteristics were similar between groups, except SOFA scores, ventilator-free days, and length of stay. 330(68%) were reconsented. Compared to those not reconsented, significantly more patients who were reconsented recalled study participation(78% vs. 66%;p = 0.01). CONCLUSIONS: One in 4 ARDS survivors do not recall their participation in a clinical trial during hospitalization 3 months following hospital discharge, which did not influence 6-month attrition. However, more patients recall study participation if reconsent is obtained.


Subject(s)
Respiratory Distress Syndrome , Survivors , Clinical Trials as Topic , Humans , Mental Recall , Patient Discharge , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/therapy , Survivors/psychology
14.
Work ; 66(4): 717-729, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1435948

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: COVID-19 is a highly contagious acute respiratory syndrome and has been declared a pandemic in more than 209 countries worldwide. At the time of writing, no preventive vaccine has been developed and tested in the community. This study was conducted to review studies aimed at preventing the spread of the coronavirus worldwide. METHODS: This study was a review of the evidence-based literature and was conducted by searching databases, including Google Scholar, PubMed, and ScienceDirect, until April 2020. The search was performed based on keywords including "coronavirus", "COVID-19", and "prevention". The list of references in the final studies has also been re-reviewed to find articles that might not have been obtained through the search. The guidelines published by trustworthy organizations such as the World Health Organization and Center for Disease Control have been used in this study. CONCLUSION: So far, no vaccine or definitive treatment for COVID-19 has been invented, and the disease has become a pandemic. Therefore, observation of hand hygiene, disinfection of high-touch surfaces, observation of social distance, and lack of presence in public places are recommended as preventive measures. Moreover, to control the situation and to reduce the incidence of the virus, some of the measures taken by the decision-making bodies and the guidelines of the deterrent institutions to strengthen telecommuting of employees and reduce the presence of people in the community and prevent unnecessary activities, are very important.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus/pathogenicity , COVID-19/prevention & control , Coronavirus Infections/prevention & control , Infection Control/standards , Pandemics/prevention & control , Pneumonia, Viral/prevention & control , Workplace/organization & administration , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/transmission , COVID-19 Testing , Clinical Laboratory Techniques/standards , Coronavirus Infections/diagnosis , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/transmission , Decision Making, Organizational , Disinfection/organization & administration , Disinfection/standards , Guidelines as Topic , Hand Hygiene/organization & administration , Hand Hygiene/standards , Humans , Incidence , Infection Control/methods , Infection Control/organization & administration , Mass Screening/organization & administration , Mass Screening/standards , Physical Distancing , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnosis , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Pneumonia, Viral/transmission , SARS-CoV-2 , Telecommunications/organization & administration , Telecommunications/standards , Workplace/standards
15.
Patterns (N Y) ; 2(6): 100264, 2021 Jun 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1386425

ABSTRACT

While large-scale vaccination campaigns against SARS-CoV-2 are rolled out at the time of writing, non-pharmaceutical interventions (NPIs), including the isolation of infected individuals and quarantine of exposed individuals, remain central measures to contain the spread of SARS-CoV-2. Strategies that combine NPIs with innovative SARS-CoV-2 testing strategies may increase containment efficacy and help to shorten quarantine durations. We developed a user-friendly software tool that implements a recently published stochastic within-host viral dynamics model that captures temporal attributes of the viral infection, such as test sensitivity, infectiousness, and the occurrence of symptoms. Based on this model, the software allows to evaluate the efficacy of user-defined, arbitrary NPI and testing strategies in reducing the transmission potential in different contexts. The software thus enables decision makers to explore NPI strategies and perform hypothesis testing, e.g., with regard to the utilization of novel diagnostics or with regard to containing novel virus variants.

16.
Front Med (Lausanne) ; 7: 561168, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1389192

ABSTRACT

Providing routine healthcare to patients with serious health illnesses represents a challenge to healthcare providers amid the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic. Treating cancer patients during this pandemic is even more complex due to their heightened vulnerability, as both cancer and cancer treatment weaken the immune system leading to a higher risk of both infections and severe complications. In addition to the need to protect cancer patients from unnecessary exposure to SARS-CoV-2 infection during their routine care, interruption, and discontinuation of cancer treatment can result in negative consequences on patients' health, in addition to the ghost of rationing healthcare resources in high demand during a global health crisis. This article aims to explore the ethical dilemmas faced by decision-makers and healthcare providers caring for cancer patients during the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic. This includes setting triage criteria for non-infected cancer patients, fairly allocating limited healthcare resources between cancer patients and SARS-CoV-2 patients, prioritizing SARS-CoV-2 treatment or vaccine, once developed, for cancer patients and non-cancer patients, patient-physician communication on matters such as end-of-life and do-not-resuscitate (DNR), and lastly, shifting physicians' priorities from treating their own cancer patients to treating critically ill SARS-CoV-2 infected patients. Ultimately, no straightforward decision can be easily made at such exceptionally difficult times. Applying different ethical principles can result in very different scenarios and consequences. In the end, we will briefly share the experience of the King Hussein Cancer Center (KHCC), the only standalone comprehensive cancer center in the region.

17.
Intensive Care Med Exp ; 9(1): 31, 2021 Jun 18.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1376600

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Whether or not to administer antibiotics is a common and challenging clinical decision in patients with suspected infections presenting to the emergency department (ED). We prospectively validate InSep, a 29-mRNA blood-based host response test for the prediction of bacterial and viral infections. METHODS: The PROMPT trial is a prospective, non-interventional, multi-center clinical study that enrolled 397 adult patients presenting to the ED with signs of acute infection and at least one vital sign change. The infection status was adjudicated using chart review (including a syndromic molecular respiratory panel, procalcitonin and C-reactive protein) by three infectious disease physicians blinded to InSep results. InSep (version BVN-2) was performed using PAXgene Blood RNA processed and quantified on NanoString nCounter SPRINT. InSep results (likelihood of bacterial and viral infection) were compared to the adjudicated infection status. RESULTS: Subject mean age was 64 years, comorbidities were significant for diabetes (17.1%), chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (13.6%), and severe neurological disease (6.8%); 16.9% of subjects were immunocompromised. Infections were adjudicated as bacterial (14.1%), viral (11.3%) and noninfected (0.25%): 74.1% of subjects were adjudicated as indeterminate. InSep distinguished bacterial vs. viral/noninfected patients and viral vs. bacterial/noninfected patients using consensus adjudication with AUROCs of 0.94 (95% CI 0.90-0.99) and 0.90 (95% CI 0.83-0.96), respectively. AUROCs for bacterial vs. viral/noninfected patients were 0.88 (95% CI 0.79-0.96) for PCT, 0.80 (95% CI 0.72-89) for CRP and 0.78 (95% CI 0.69-0.87) for white blood cell counts (of note, the latter biomarkers were provided as part of clinical adjudication). To enable clinical actionability, InSep incorporates score cutoffs to allocate patients into interpretation bands. The Very Likely (rule in) InSep bacterial band showed a specificity of 98% compared to 94% for the corresponding PCT band (> 0.5 µg/L); the Very Unlikely (rule-out) band showed a sensitivity of 95% for InSep compared to 86% for PCT. For the detection of viral infections, InSep demonstrated a specificity of 93% for the Very Likely band (rule in) and a sensitivity of 96% for the Very Unlikely band (rule out). CONCLUSIONS: InSep demonstrated high accuracy for predicting the presence of both bacterial and viral infections in ED patients with suspected acute infections or suspected sepsis. When translated into a rapid, point-of-care test, InSep will provide ED physicians with actionable results supporting early informed treatment decisions to improve patient outcomes while upholding antimicrobial stewardship. Registration number at Clinicaltrials.gov NCT03295825.

18.
BJGP Open ; 5(4)2021 Aug.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1372083

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: General practices in England have continued to care for patients throughout the COVID-19 pandemic by instigating major changes to service delivery. Immunisations have continued, although the number of vaccines delivered initially dropped in April 2020. AIM: To evaluate how COVID-19 impacted the delivery of immunisations in London and identify innovative practices to inform future delivery, including for COVID-19 vaccines. DESIGN & SETTING: A mixed-methods study of immunisation delivery in London, UK. METHOD: An online survey of London general practices was undertaken in May 2020 to produce a descriptive analysis of childhood immunisation delivery and identify innovative delivery models. Semi-structured interviews were conducted between August and November 2020 to explore innovative immunisation models, which were analysed thematically. RESULTS: Sixty-eight per cent (n = 830) of London practices completed the survey and 97% reported having continued childhood immunisation delivery. Common delivery adaptations included spaced-out appointments, calling parents beforehand, and having only one parent attend. Forty-three practices were identified as having innovative models, such as delivering immunisations outside practice buildings or offering drive-through services. The thematic analysis of 14 semi-structured interviews found that, alongside adaptations to immunisation delivery within practices, existing local networks collaborated to establish new immunisation delivery models. Local population characteristics affected delivery and provide insights for large-scale vaccine deployment. CONCLUSION: Immunisations continued during 2020 with practices adapting existing services. New delivery models were developed by building on existing local knowledge, experiences, and networks. Immunisation delivery during the pandemic, including for COVID-19 vaccines, should be tailored to local population needs by building on primary care immunisation expertise.

19.
Am J Trop Med Hyg ; 105(2): 372-374, 2021 Jun 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1371031

ABSTRACT

The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has demanded rapid institutional responses to meet the needs of patients and employees in the face of a serious new disease. To support the well-being of frontline staff, a series of debriefing sessions was used to drive a rapid-cycle quality-improvement process. The goals were to confidentially determine personal coping strategies used by staff, provide an opportunity for staff cross-learning, identify what staff needed most, and provide a real-time feedback loop for decision-makers to create rapid changes to support staff safety and coping. Data were collected via sticky notes on flip charts to protect confidentiality. Management reviewed the data daily. Institutional responses to problems identified during debrief sessions were tracked, visualized, addressed, and shared with staff. More than 10% of staff participated over a 2-week period. Feedback influenced institutional decisions to improve staff schedules, transportation, and COVID-19 training.


Subject(s)
Adaptation, Psychological , COVID-19/epidemiology , Faith-Based Organizations/statistics & numerical data , Tertiary Healthcare/methods , Tertiary Healthcare/statistics & numerical data , Faith-Based Organizations/standards , Hospitals/standards , Hospitals/statistics & numerical data , Humans , Kenya/epidemiology , Medical Staff, Hospital/education , Medical Staff, Hospital/psychology , Medical Staff, Hospital/statistics & numerical data , Quality of Health Care/organization & administration , Quality of Health Care/statistics & numerical data , Tertiary Healthcare/standards
20.
Int J Inf Manage ; 59: 102352, 2021 Aug.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1345355

ABSTRACT

During the coronavirus pandemic, policy makers need to interpret available public health data to make decisions affecting public health. However, the United States' coronavirus response faced data gaps, inadequate and inconsistent definitions of data across different governmental jurisdictions, ambiguous timing in reporting, problems in accessing data, and changing interpretations from scientific institutions. These present numerous problems for the decision makers relying on this information. This paper documents some of the data pitfalls in coronavirus public health data reporting, as identified by the authors in the course of supporting data management for New England's coronavirus response. We provide recommendations for individuals to collect data more effectively during emergency situations such as a COVID-19 surge, as well as recommendations for institutions to provide more meaningful data for various users to access. Through this, we hope to motivate action to avoid data pitfalls during public health responses in the future.

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