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1.
Clin Infect Dis ; 73(11): e4005-e4011, 2021 12 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1562130

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Racial disparities are central in the national conversation about coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) , with Black/African Americans being disproportionately affected. We assessed risk factors for death from COVID-19 among Black inpatients at an urban hospital in Detroit, Michigan. METHODS: This was a retrospective, single-center cohort study. We reviewed the electronic medical records of patients positive for severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (the COVID-19 virus) on qualitative polymerase chain reaction assay who were admitted between 8 March 2020 and 6 May 2020. The primary outcome was in-hospital mortality. RESULTS: The case fatality rate was 29.1% (122/419). The mean duration of symptoms prior to hospitalization was 5.3 (3.9) days. The incidence of altered mental status on presentation was higher among patients who died than those who survived, 43% vs 20.0%, respectively (P < .0001). From multivariable analysis, the odds of death increased with age (≥60 years), admission from a nursing facility, Charlson score, altered mental status, higher C-reactive protein on admission, need for mechanical ventilation, presence of shock, and acute respiratory distress syndrome. CONCLUSIONS: These demographic, clinical, and laboratory factors may help healthcare providers identify Black patients at highest risk for severe COVID-19-associated outcomes. Early and aggressive interventions among this at-risk population may help mitigate adverse outcomes.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , African Americans , Cohort Studies , Hospital Mortality , Hospitalization , Humans , Middle Aged , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2
2.
Eur J Neurol ; 28(8): 2603-2613, 2021 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1518029

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Nasu-Hakola disease (NHD) is a rare, autosomal recessive disorder characterized by skeletal and neurological symptoms. Behavioral symptoms with cognitive impairment may mimic the behavioral variant of frontotemporal dementia (bvFTD) and other early-onset dementias. Our patients were analyzed and the literature was reviewed to delineate neurological and neuroimaging findings suggestive of NHD. METHOD: Fourteen patients carrying a pathogenic mutation in the TREM2 gene were found in our database. Demographic, clinical, laboratory and radiological data were retrieved and analyzed. RESULTS: The presenting clinical picture was behavioral changes with cognitive decline resembling bvFTD in all patients. The mean age was 37.1 ± 4.97 years and the mean duration of the disease was 8.9 ± 3.51 years. Only two patients had typical bone cysts. Seven patients had bilateral calcification of the basal ganglia in computed tomography of the brain. Magnetic resonance imaging of the brain revealed severe atrophy of the corpus callosum, enlargement of the ventricles, atrophy of the caudate nuclei and periventricular white matter changes in all patients. Symmetrical global atrophy of the brain mainly affecting frontoparietal and lateral temporal regions were observed in all cases, and 13 patients had atrophy of the hippocampus. Cerebrospinal fluid examination of 10 patients showed elevated protein levels in six and the presence of oligoclonal bands in four patients. CONCLUSION: A combination of white matter changes, enlarged ventricles, atrophy of the caudate nuclei and thinning of the corpus callosum in magnetic resonance imaging strongly suggests NHD in patients with FTD syndrome. Molecular genetic analysis should be performed in suspected cases, and families should receive genetic counseling.


Subject(s)
Frontotemporal Dementia , Lipodystrophy , Membrane Glycoproteins/genetics , Osteochondrodysplasias , Receptors, Immunologic/genetics , Subacute Sclerosing Panencephalitis , Adult , Brain/diagnostic imaging , Frontotemporal Dementia/diagnostic imaging , Frontotemporal Dementia/genetics , Humans , Magnetic Resonance Imaging , Neuroimaging
3.
Int Psychogeriatr ; 33(10): 1005-1007, 2021 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1492960
4.
Res Gerontol Nurs ; 14(3): 150-159, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1278555

ABSTRACT

Patients with dementia (PwD) are characterized as a vulnerable group as they are unable to communicate their needs, putting them at risk for care omissions. The current study aimed to explore care toward PwD and detect if any aspects of care are omitted. An observation study was conducted in three medical-surgical adult wards of an acute general hospital. Data were collected by an observer, through field notes, and were analyzed with content analysis. A face scale was used to assess PwD's mood. Thirteen PwD were observed for 90 hours. Four thematic areas were identified: (a) Unmet Fundamental Patient Needs, (b) Human Right to Dignity and Respect, (c) Communication Deficiencies, and (d) Implementation of Nursing Interventions. Nurse-patient contact lasted from 5 to 7 minutes and numerous care omissions were noted. The face scale assessment revealed that most PwD looked very sad after nursing care. This study enriches insight for the care of PwD during hospitalization and emphasizes the need for health care workers' education and support. [Research in Gerontological Nursing, 14(3), 150-159.].


Subject(s)
Dementia , Nursing Care , Communication , Hospitalization , Humans , Nurse-Patient Relations
5.
Front Neurol ; 12: 644317, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1210488

ABSTRACT

Agitation is a behavioral syndrome characterized by increased, often undirected, motor activity, restlessness, aggressiveness, and emotional distress. According to several observations, agitation prevalence ranges from 30 to 50% in Alzheimer's disease, 30% in dementia with Lewy bodies, 40% in frontotemporal dementia, and 40% in vascular dementia (VaD). With an overall prevalence of about 30%, agitation is the third most common neuropsychiatric symptoms (NPS) in dementia, after apathy and depression, and it is even more frequent (80%) in residents of nursing homes. The pathophysiological mechanism underlying agitation is represented by a frontal lobe dysfunction, mostly involving the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) and the orbitofrontal cortex (OFC), respectively, meaningful in selecting the salient stimuli and subsequent decision-making and behavioral reactions. Furthermore, increased sensitivity to noradrenergic signaling has been observed, possibly due to a frontal lobe up-regulation of adrenergic receptors, as a reaction to the depletion of noradrenergic neurons within the locus coeruleus (LC). Indeed, LC neurons mainly project toward the OFC and ACC. These observations may explain the abnormal reactivity to weak stimuli and the global arousal found in many patients who have dementia. Furthermore, agitation can be precipitated by several factors, e.g., the sunset or low lighted environments as in the sundown syndrome, hospitalization, the admission to nursing residencies, or changes in pharmacological regimens. In recent days, the global pandemic has increased agitation incidence among dementia patients and generated higher distress levels in patients and caregivers. Hence, given the increasing presence of this condition and its related burden on society and the health system, the present point of view aims at providing an extensive guide to facilitate the identification, prevention, and management of acute and chronic agitation in dementia patients.

6.
Ageing Res Rev ; 69: 101373, 2021 Aug.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1242880

ABSTRACT

The coronavirus disease 19 (COVID-19) is relevant in older people. Attention was given to the nursing homes in which frailer people are usually admitted. In this review, we discuss the approaches for daily problems found in nursing home as geriatricians and potentially new research directions. We start with the problem of the older people affected by dementia and Behavioral and Psychological Symptoms of Dementia for which also the execution of a simple diagnostic test (such as nasopharyngeal swab) could be problematic. Another important problem is the management of wandering patients for which the re-organization of the spaces and vaccination could be the solutions. The relationship with families is another important problem, also from a medico-legal point of view, that can be faced using video conferencing tools. Moreover, we discussed the importance of stratifying prognosis in older nursing home residents for the best management and therapeutically approach, including palliative care, also using telemedicine and the inclusion of prognostic tools in daily clinical practice. Finally, we approached the therapeutical issues in older people that suggests the necessity of future research for finding older-friendly medications.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Dementia , Aged , Dementia/therapy , Geriatricians , Humans , Nursing Homes , SARS-CoV-2
7.
Aging Clin Exp Res ; 33(6): 1753-1756, 2021 Jun.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1231955

ABSTRACT

Hospital at Home (HaH) has been proposed as a solution to relieve pressure on hospital beds during the COVID-19 pandemic; however, caregivers' feelings of inadequacy and concerns on the need for tighter clinical monitoring might lead to unnecessary and potentially harmful hospital admissions in frail older patients with mild or atypical COVID-19. Here we report the case of a 91-year old woman with severe dementia and atypical COVID-19 that could be successfully managed by our HaH thanks to her highly motivated caregivers and the support of a telemedicine solution (TMS) to provide caregiver training and support as well as supplementary telemonitoring. Despite some well-known issues on TMS use, the hybrid in-person and tele-visit approach of TMS-assisted HaH could help to create a "secure" environment, empowering caregivers to manage frail older adults with COVID-19 at home, avoiding unnecessary admissions to closed wards and their negative physical, functional and psychological outcomes.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Dementia , Telemedicine , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Caregivers , Dementia/epidemiology , Dementia/therapy , Female , Hospitals , Humans , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2
9.
Curr Psychol ; : 1-10, 2021 May 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1225059

ABSTRACT

Dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB) is a neurodegenerative disease characterized by cognitive, behavioral and motor symptoms and has a more challenging clinical management and poorer prognosis compared to other forms of dementia. The experience of lockdown leads to negative psychological outcomes for fragile people such as elderly with dementia, particularly for DLB, causing a worsening of cognitive and neuropsychiatric symptoms. Since an individual's feeling of time passage is strongly related to their cognitive and emotional state, it is conceivable to expect alterations of this construct in people with DLB during such a difficult period. We therefore assessed the subjective experience of the passage of time for present and past time intervals (Subjective Time Questionnaire, STQ) during the lockdown due to coronavirus disease (COVID-19) in 22 patients with DLB (17 of which were re-tested in a post-lockdown period) and compared their experience with that of 14 caregivers with similar age. Patients showed a significantly slower perception of present and past time spent under lockdown restrictions. We argue that these alterations might be related to the distinctive features of DLB and their exacerbation recorded by the patients' caregivers during the period of lockdown, though our results show that the patients' experience of time passage in a post-lockdown period remained similarly slow. Overall, we show an impairment of the subjective perception of time passage in DLB tested during the COVID-19 lockdown. SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: The online version contains supplementary material available at 10.1007/s12144-021-01811-7.

10.
J Alzheimers Dis ; 81(1): 75-81, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1215268

ABSTRACT

Acute delirium and other neuropsychiatric symptoms have frequently been reported in COVID-19 patients and are variably referred to as acute encephalopathy, COVID-19 encephalopathy, SARS-CoV-2 encephalitis, or steroid-responsive encephalitis. COVID-19 specific biomarkers of cognitive impairment are currently lacking, but there is some evidence that SARS-CoV-2 could preferentially and directly target the frontal lobes, as suggested by behavioral and dysexecutive symptoms, fronto-temporal hypoperfusion on MRI, EEG slowing in frontal regions, and frontal hypometabolism on 18F-FDG-PET imaging. We suggest that an inflammatory parainfectious process targeting preferentially the frontal lobes (and/or frontal networks) could be the underlying cause of these shared clinical, neurophysiological, and imaging findings in COVID-19 patients. We explore the biological mechanisms and the clinical biomarkers that might underlie such disruption of frontal circuits and highlight the need of standardized diagnostic procedures to be applied when investigating patients with these clinical findings. We also suggest the use of a unique label, to increase comparability across studies.


Subject(s)
Acute Febrile Encephalopathy/physiopathology , COVID-19/physiopathology , Frontal Lobe/physiopathology , Frontal Lobe/virology , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Acute Febrile Encephalopathy/diagnosis , Acute Febrile Encephalopathy/virology , Biomarkers/analysis , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/virology , Delirium/diagnosis , Delirium/physiopathology , Delirium/virology , Electroencephalography , Humans , Magnetic Resonance Imaging , Nerve Net/physiopathology , Virulence
11.
Front Aging Neurosci ; 13: 653533, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1200094

ABSTRACT

Background: Family caregivers of patients with dementia are at high risk of stress and burden, and quarantine due to the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic may have increased the risk of psychological disturbances in this population. The current study was carried out during the national lockdown declared in March 2020 by the Italian government as a containment measure of the first wave of the coronavirus pandemic and is the first nationwide survey on the impact of COVID-19 lockdown on the mental health of dementia informal caregivers. Methods: Eighty-seven dementia centers evenly distributed on the Italian territory enrolled 4,710 caregiver-patient pairs. Caregivers underwent a telephone interview assessing classical symptoms of caregiver stress and concern for the consequences of COVID-19 infection on patient's health. We calculated prevalence of symptoms and regressed them on various potential stress risk factors: caregivers' sociodemographic characteristics and lifestyle, patients' clinical features, and lockdown-related elements, like discontinuity in medical care. Results: Approximately 90% of caregivers reported at least one symptom of stress, and nearly 30% reported four or more symptoms. The most prevalent symptoms were concern for consequences of COVID-19 on patient's health (75%) and anxiety (46%). The main risk factors for stress were identified as a conflicting relationship with the patient and discontinuity in assistance, but caregiver's female sex, younger age, lower education, and cohabitation with the patient also had an impact. Availability of help from institutions or private individuals showed a protective effect against sense of abandonment but a detrimental effect on concern about the risk for the patient to contract COVID-19. The only protective factor was mild dementia severity, which was associated with a lower risk of feeling isolated and abandoned; type of dementia, on the other hand, did not affect stress risk. Conclusion: Our results demonstrate the large prevalence of stress in family caregivers of patients with dementia during the COVID-19 pandemic and have identified both caregivers and situations at a higher risk of stress, which should be taken into account in the planning of interventions in support of quarantined families and patients.

12.
J Alzheimers Dis ; 80(4): 1705-1712, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1194580

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The social isolation imposed by COVID-19 pandemic can have a major impact on the mental health of dementia patients and their caregivers. OBJECTIVE: We aim to evaluate the neurological decline of patients with dementia and the caregivers' burden during the pandemic. METHODS: We performed a cross-sectional study. Caregivers of dementia patients following in the outpatient clinic were included. A structured telephone interview composed of the Neuropsychiatric Inventory Questionnaire (NPI-Q), Zarit Burden Interview (ZBI), Beck Depression (BDI) and Anxiety (BAI) Inventories to address cognitive, behavioral, and functional changes associated with social distancing during the Sars-Cov-2 outbreak. Patients were divided in two groups according to caregivers' report: with perceived Altered Cognition (AC) and Stable Cognition (SC). RESULTS: A total of 58 patients (median age: 57 years [21-87], 58.6%females) and caregivers (median age: 76.5 years [55-89], 79.3%females) were included. Cognitive decline was shown by most patients (53.4%), as well as behavioral symptoms (48.3%), especially apathy/depression (24.1%), and functional decline (34.5%). The AC group (n = 31) presented increased behavioral (67.7%versus 25.9%, p = 0.002) and functional (61.3%versus 3.7%, p < 0.001) changes when compared to the SC group. In the AC group, ZBI, BDI, NPI-Q caregiver distress, and NPI-Q patient's severity of symptoms scores were worse than the SC group (p < 0.005 for all). CONCLUSION: Patients' neuropsychiatric worsening and caregiver burden were frequent during the pandemic. Worsening of cognition was associated with increased caregivers' psychological distress.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/psychology , Caregivers/psychology , Dementia/psychology , Mental Disorders/psychology , Psychological Distress , Social Isolation/psychology , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Brazil/epidemiology , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/epidemiology , Caregivers/trends , Cross-Sectional Studies , Dementia/diagnosis , Dementia/epidemiology , Female , Humans , Male , Mental Disorders/diagnosis , Mental Disorders/epidemiology , Middle Aged , Outpatient Clinics, Hospital/trends , Pandemics , Young Adult
13.
Acta Clin Belg ; 77(3): 588-595, 2022 Jun.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1191081

ABSTRACT

AIM: Associations of depression, dementia, and poor life quality with mortality of COVID-19have not been studied yet. We aimed to identify the risk factors for mortality and analyze the associations with patients' physiological and mental well-being, as reflected by comorbidities, life quality, depression, and cognitive impairment. METHODS: : Older patients receiving inpatient hospital care for COVID-19 were included.Demographic data, medical history, symptoms at admission, laboratory findings, and treatment outcomes were recorded. RESULTS: : There were 122 patients with a median age of 73.0 years. The mortality rate was 9.0% (n = 11 patients). Patients with mortality were significantly active smokers, obese, and having comorbidities using polypharmacy. Weight loss ≥of 10% during hospitalization was significantly associated with mortality.Poor life quality and a higher risk of depression, cognitive impairment, and falling were more frequently seen in non-survived patients. (p < 0.05). High ferritin was the only independent risk factor for mortality (OR = 15.61, 95% CI:1.08-226.09, p = 0.044). CONCLUSION: : The presence of comorbidities, depression, cognitive impairment, higher falling risk, and poor life quality were significantly associated with higher mortality rates in older adults with COVID-19. High ferritin level was an independent risk factor for mortality.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Cognitive Dysfunction , Depression , Quality of Life , Aged , COVID-19/mortality , Cognitive Dysfunction/epidemiology , Depression/epidemiology , Ferritins , Humans , Prospective Studies
14.
Hum Psychopharmacol ; 36(5): e2789, 2021 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1182144

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Inpatients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) show a high rate of neuropsychiatric manifestations, possibly related to a higher risk of serious illness or death. Use of psychotropic medications (PMs) indicates the presence of neuropsychiatric symptoms in COVID-19 patients. So far, potential clinical predictors of use of PMs have not been much investigated. In order to extend research in this area, we aimed to investigate the prevalence of PM prescription among a sample of inpatients with COVID-19 and to find potential predictors of initiation of PMs in these individuals. METHODS: This is a cross-sectional single-center study, conducted during the first outbreak peak in a hospital of northern Italy. Information on socio-demographic characteristics, comorbidities, routine blood test, use of potential COVID-19 treatments, and length of stay were retrieved from medical records. RESULTS: Data were available for 151 inpatients. Forty-seven of them (31.1%) started at least one prescription of a PM. PM prescription was significantly inversely associated with lymphocyte and platelet counts. A significant association was also found for lactate dehydrogenase (LDH). CONCLUSION: Our findings suggest that the initiation of PMs could be common among COVID-19 inpatients. Lymphocyte and platelet counts as well as LDH levels may reflect neuropsychiatric complications of COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/drug therapy , COVID-19/epidemiology , Hospitalization/trends , Psychotropic Drugs/therapeutic use , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , COVID-19/psychology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , Humans , Italy/epidemiology , Male , Mental Disorders/drug therapy , Mental Disorders/epidemiology , Mental Disorders/psychology , Middle Aged
15.
Alzheimers Res Ther ; 13(1): 77, 2021 04 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1175344

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: There is limited evidence on the characteristics and outcome of patients with dementia hospitalised for novel coronavirus infection (COVID-19). METHOD: We conducted a prospective study in 2 gerontologic COVID units in Paris, France, from March 14, 2020, to May 7, 2020. Patients with dementia hospitalised for confirmed COVID-19 infection were systematically enrolled. A binary logistic regression analysis was performed to identify factors associated with mortality at 21 days. RESULTS: We included 125 patients. Median age was 86 (IQI 82-90); 59.4% were female. Most common causes of dementia were Alzheimer's disease, mixed dementia and vascular dementia. 67.2% had ≥ 2 comorbidities; 40.2% lived in a long-term care facility. The most common symptoms at COVID-19 onset were confusion and delirium (82.4%), asthenia (76.8%) and fever (72.8%) before polypnea (51.2%) and desaturation (50.4%). Falls were frequent at the initial phase of the disease (35.2%). The fatality rate at 21 days was 22.4%. Chronic kidney disease and CRP at admission were independent factors of death. Persisting confusion, mood and behavioural disorders were observed in survivors (19.2%). CONCLUSION: COVID-19 in demented individuals is associated with severe outcome in SARS-CoV-2 infection and is characterised by specific clinical features and complications, with confusion and delirium at the forefront. COVID-19 testing should be considered in front of any significant change from baseline.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/mortality , Dementia , Aged, 80 and over , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19 Testing , Comorbidity , Dementia/complications , Dementia/virology , Female , France/epidemiology , Humans , Male , Prospective Studies , Risk Factors
16.
Gerontol Geriatr Med ; 7: 23337214211005223, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1166874

ABSTRACT

Introduction: Since the declaration of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) as a pandemic, patients with dementia, were specifically vulnerable to the negative impact of the outbreak. Objective: To examine the association between lockdown amid COVID-19 pandemic and the rate of cognitive decline among patients with dementia and mild cognitive impairment (MCI). Methods: We conducted a cross-sectional observational study on patients with dementia and MCI who attended the outpatient clinic at Ibn Sina Hospital, the main tertiary neurology center in Kuwait, during the month of September 2020. The rate of cognitive decline, estimated by MMSE scores, was compared between the period prior to, and during lockdown. Results: We evaluated 36 consecutive patients with cognitive impairment (23 females [63.9%], mean age 71 ± 10.8 years, mean disease duration 34.6 ± 29 months). Eleven patients (30.6%) progressed to a more severe stage during the study period; 1 MCI (2.8%) converted to mild dementia, 6 (16.6%) mild to moderate, and 4 (11.1%) moderate to severe dementia. Monthly decline of MMSE scores before lockdown was 0.2 ± 0.1 points, while it was 0.53 ± 0.3 points during lockdown, which was statistically significant (p = .001). The most affected cognitive domain was the memory with a mean decline of 1.5 ± 0.8 points. Conclusions: This study provides "real-world" data suggesting rapid cognitive decline in patients with dementia during the lockdown period. Healthcare systems should pay more attention to this vulnerable group, to help them maintain their mental, physical and social well-being during this crisis.

17.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 18(6)2021 03 19.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1146730

ABSTRACT

(1) Background: Given the increased social isolation caused by the COVID-19 pandemic, the challenges faced by informal dementia caregivers have increased. An increasing use of technology, both in care and dementia clinical trials, depends upon caregivers' abilities as a user. Accordingly, the aim of our study was to verify the current technology (smartphone and computer) use and acceptance in care, regarding socio-demographic variables; (2) Methods: Questionnaires were distributed to 102 dementia caregivers, mostly of patients with moderate dementia; (3) Results: The majority of participants were women (63%), and large number of them used technological devices such as a smartphone (91%) or computer (81%). Results revealed differences between age, gender, and education level on technology acceptance. Interestingly, smartphone use and acceptance seemed to be feasible, regardless of age, whereas computer use was negatively correlated with age. Technology was perceived by respondents as most useful for patients' activities including locomotion, toileting, and meals; (4) Conclusions: The future of technology use in dementia care should indicate solutions tailored to individual characteristics such as new technology solutions (GPS trackers, smartphone apps, dietary intervention, and meal planning apps).


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Dementia , Caregivers , Female , Humans , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , Technology
18.
Front Psychiatry ; 12: 590104, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1145590

ABSTRACT

Background: The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic had a great impact on patients with cognitive decline or dementia. The lockdown period may exacerbate behavioral disorders and worsen distress of caregivers. The aim of this study is to evaluate the effectiveness of a family support intervention on the negative effects that the COVID-19 lockdown may have on patients and related caregivers. Methods: We recruited patients whose related caregivers had attended a family support course before the COVID-19 lockdown. The course was for family members of patients with cognitive decline or dementia and consisted in eight meetings during which the participants received information about the disease, the management of neuropsychiatric symptoms, and community resources and services available for patients with dementia. Data on cognitive decline, neuropsychiatric symptoms, and functional status had been collected before the course with the Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE), the Neuropsychiatric Inventory (NPI), and the Instrumental (IADL) and Basic (BADL) Activities of Daily Living scales, respectively. The caregiving burden had been evaluated at the end of the course by means of the Zarit Burden Interview (ZBI). After the COVID-19 lockdown, a phone interview was made to compare neuropsychiatric symptoms, functional status, and caregiver's burden with the previous evaluation. Results: There were no significant changes before and after the COVID-19 lockdown in the mean NPI score. The IADL, BADL, and ZBI scores were significantly lower after lockdown than before. The BADL scores were inversely associated with ZBI scores. Thus, despite a worsening of patients' functional status, the caregivers' burden decreased significantly probably due to the positive effect of the family support intervention. Conclusions: Our study demonstrated that a complete family support intervention for caregivers of patients with cognitive decline or dementia can reduce the burden of care even in a particular negative period, such as the COVID-19 lockdown.

19.
Front Neurol ; 12: 630566, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1145569

ABSTRACT

Patients with an alcohol abuse disorder exhibit several medical characteristics and social determinants, which suggest a greater vulnerability to the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection and a worse course of the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) once infected. During the first wave of the COVID-19, most of the countries have register an increase in alcohol consumption. However, studies on the impact of alcohol addiction on the risk of COVID-19 infection are very scarce and inconclusive. This research offers a descriptive observational retrospective cohort study using real world data obtained from the Electronic Health Records. We found that patients with a personal history of alcohol abuse were 8% more likely to extend their hospitalization length of stay for 1 day (95% CI = 1.04-1.12) and 15% more likely to extend their Intensive Care Unit (ICU) length of stay (95% CI = 1.01-1.30). They were also 5.47 times more at risk of needing an ICU admission (95% CI = 1.61-18.57) and 3.54 times (95% CI = 1.51-8.30) more at risk of needing a respirator. Regarding COVID-19 symptoms, patients with a personal history of alcohol abuse were 91% more likely of exhibiting dyspnea (95% CI = 1.03-3.55) and 3.15 times more at risk of showing at least one neuropsychiatric symptom (95% CI = 1.61-6.17). In addition, they showed statistically significant differences in the number of neuropsychiatric symptoms developed during the COVID-19 infection. Therefore, we strongly recommend to warn of the negative consequences of alcohol abuse over COVID-19 complications. For this purpose. Clinicians should systematically assess history of alcohol issues and drinking habits in all patients, especially for those who seek medical advice regarding COVID-19 infection, in order to predict its severity of symptoms and potential complications. Moreover, this information should be included, in a structured field, into the Electronic Health Record to facilitate the automatic extraction of data, in real time, useful to evaluate the decision-making process in a dynamic context.

20.
J Alzheimers Dis ; 81(2): 679-690, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1145549

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Patients with dementia are vulnerable during the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic, yet few studies describe their hospital course and outcomes. OBJECTIVE: To describe and compare the hospital course for COVID-19 patients with dementia to an aging cohort without dementia in a large New York City academic medical center. METHODS: This was a single-center retrospective cohort study describing all consecutive patients age 65 or older with confirmed COVID-19 who presented to the emergency department or were hospitalized at New York-Presbyterian/Columbia University Irving Medical Center between March 6 and April 7, 2020. RESULTS: A total of 531 patients were evaluated, including 116 (21.8%) with previously diagnosed dementia, and 415 without dementia. Patients with dementia had higher mortality (50.0%versus 35.4%, p = 0.006); despite similar comorbidities and complications, multivariate analysis indicated the association was dependent on age, sex, comorbidities, and code status. Patients with dementia more often presented with delirium (36.2%versus 11.6%, p < 0.001) but less often presented with multiple other COVID-19 symptoms, and these findings remained after adjusting for age and sex. CONCLUSION: Hospitalized COVID-19 patients with dementia had higher mortality, but dementia was not an independent risk factor for death. These patients were approximately 3 times more likely to present with delirium but less often manifested or communicated other common COVID-19 symptoms. For this high-risk population in a worsening pandemic, understanding the unique manifestations and course in dementia and aging populations may help guide earlier diagnosis and optimize medical management.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Delirium/epidemiology , Dementia/epidemiology , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , COVID-19/mortality , Comorbidity , Delirium/mortality , Dementia/mortality , Female , Hospital Mortality , Hospitalization , Humans , Male , New York City/epidemiology , Pandemics , Retrospective Studies
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