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1.
J Clin Med ; 10(4)2021 Feb 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1753562

ABSTRACT

There is increasing interest in the use of technology to support social health in dementia. The primary objective of this systematic review was to synthesize evidence of effectiveness of digital technologies used by people with dementia to improve self-management and social participation. Records published from 1 January 2007 to 9 April 2020 were identified from Pubmed, PsycInfo, Web of Science, CINAHL, and the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials. Controlled interventional studies evaluating interventions based on any digital technology were included if: primary users of the technology had dementia or mild cognitive impairment (MCI); and the study reported outcomes relevant to self-management or social participation. Studies were clustered by population, intervention, and outcomes, and narrative synthesis was undertaken. Of 1394 records identified, nine met the inclusion criteria: two were deemed to be of poor methodological quality, six of fair quality, and one of good quality. Three clusters of technologies were identified: virtual reality, wearables, and software applications. We identified weak evidence that digital technologies may provide less benefit to people with dementia than people with MCI. Future research should address the methodological limitations and narrow scope of existing work. In the absence of strong evidence, clinicians and caregivers must use their judgement to appraise available technologies on a case-by-case basis.

2.
World J Psychiatry ; 10(7): 162-174, 2020 Jul 19.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1456458

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Alzheimer's disease (AD) is among the most prevalent forms of dementia in the world and neuropathological studies suggest similar high prevalence of mixed (AD + vascular) dementias. Approximately 25%-50% of individuals with AD develop psychosis sometime during their illness. The presence of psychosis in AD worsens outcomes. Currently there are no United States Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approved medications for the treatment of psychosis in AD. Pimavanserin, a novel atypical antipsychotic medication, was approved by the FDA for the treatment of hallucinations and delusions associated with Parkinson disease psychosis and is currently in clinical trials for the treatment of psychosis in AD. AIM: To evaluate the existing literature regarding the use of pimavanserin for treating psychosis among individuals with AD. METHODS: A literature review of clinical studies of pimavanserin treatment for psychosis in individuals with AD was performed using the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis guidelines. Trials were identified by systematically searching PubMed, MEDLINE, EMBASE, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, Web of Science, and Scopus through October 2019. The 5-point Jadad scoring system was used to assess the methodologic quality of the randomized placebo-controlled trials. RESULTS: A total of 499 citations were retrieved and pooled in EndNote and de-duplicated to 258 citations. This set was uploaded to Covidence for screening. Two separate screeners (Srinivasan S and Tampi RR) evaluated the titles, abstracts, and full text of eligible articles. Of the identified 258 abstracts, 98 articles underwent full text review and 2 publications from 1 randomized controlled trial (RCT) were included in the final analysis. The quality of evidence was assessed to be of good methodologic quality, scoring 4 out of 5 using the 5-point Jadad questionnaire with the Jadad Scoring calculation. This systematic review found only one RCT that evaluated the use of pimavanserin for the treatment of psychosis among individuals with AD. This phase 2 trial resulted in two publications, the second of which was a subgroup analysis from the original study. The evidence from these two publications showed that pimavanserin improves psychotic symptoms among individuals with AD when compared to placebo at week 6. CONCLUSION: Pimavanserin may be a pharmacologic consideration for the treatment for psychosis in AD. Additional RCTs are needed to assess the evidence of effectiveness before pimavanserin is considered a standard treatment.

3.
BMC Fam Pract ; 21(1): 141, 2020 07 13.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1455918

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The potential value of expanding the Practice Nurse role to include the recognition and management of dementia has been acknowledged. Practice Nurses are well-positioned to provide comprehensive dementia information and support so that people living with dementia are better equipped to self-manage their health and live well with dementia. The purpose of this review was to systematically examine published literature to identify existing and potential roles of Practice Nurse's in the delivery of care to people affected by dementia and to describe the characteristics and effectiveness of nurse interventions in dementia models of care. METHODS: The PRISMA statement guided the systematic review of the quantitative and qualitative evidence for roles and characteristics of the Practice Nurse in the delivery of dementia care. A comprehensive literature search of seven electronic databases and Google scholar identified relevant original research published in English between January 2000 and January 2019. Thirteen articles met the inclusion criteria and were extracted into the Covidence software for analysis. RESULTS: The heterogeneity of the included studies purpose, design and outcomes measures and the diversity in health systems and primary care nurses scope of practice made it difficult to synthesise the findings and draw conclusions. The heterogeneity did, however, provide important insights into the characteristics of roles undertaken by nurses working in the general practice setting, which were potentially beneficial to people living with dementia and their support person. These included patient accessibility to the Practice Nurse, early recognition and management of cognitive changes, care management and collaboration with the General Practitioner. Limitations of the provision of dementia care by Practice Nurses included a lack of definition of the role, inadequate dementia specific training, time constraints and poor communication with General Practitioners. CONCLUSIONS: Embedding an evidence-based model that describes the role of the Practice Nurse in dementia care provision has the potential to increase early recognition of cognitive impairment and more appropriate primary care management of dementia. SYSTEMATIC REVIEW REGISTRATION: PROSPERO 2018 CRD42018088191.


Subject(s)
Dementia , Evidence-Based Nursing/methods , Nurse's Role , Primary Health Care/organization & administration , Cognition , Dementia/diagnosis , Dementia/nursing , Dementia/psychology , Humans
4.
Int J Nurs Stud ; 109: 103658, 2020 Sep.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1454195

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Nursing literature frequently emphasises the benefits of person-centred approaches for healthcare quality and safety. OBJECTIVE: This umbrella review aimed to synthesise the combined evidence from systematic reviews assessing the impact of person-centred care interventions on patient safety. DESIGN: A three-step review process included a preliminary review of literature, a comprehensive search, and manual searching of reference lists and forward citations of selected reviews. The review protocol was registered with Prospero (CRD42018090048). DATA SOURCES: Reviewers searched 10 databases for systematic reviews published in English-language peer-reviewed journals between 2000 and 2019: Academic Search Complete, CINAHL, Cochrane Library, EMBASE, JBI Database, Medline, ProQuest Health & Medicine, PROSPERO Register, PubMed and Scopus. REVIEW METHODS: Covidence software was used to manage screening and eligibility. Two reviewers independently screened titles and abstracts, reviewed full texts of articles for eligibility, and appraised the quality of reviews using the JBI Critical Appraisal Checklist for Systematic Reviews and Research Syntheses. RESULTS: From an initial total of 3412 potential titles, 16 reviews met the inclusion criteria. The selected reviews examined the impact of person-centred care for diverse groups of patients (children, adults and older people) in varied settings. Most systematic reviews assessed experimental studies, generally comparing person-centred interventions with 'usual care', often demonstrating limited evidence of impact on safety. Reviews addressed several patient safety outcomes relevant to nursing, including falls, infections, medication use and misuse, and mortality rates. The systematic reviews were generally well conducted, although several included studies of poor or fair quality. Given the heterogeneity of the interventions, outcomes and research designs of studies included in the selected reviews, we were unable to draw unequivocal conclusions about the implications of person-centred care for patient safety in this umbrella review. However, there was some encouraging evidence that person-centred care initiatives may result in reduced rates of falls (in acute care and residential aged care settings). The review also highlighted reductions in agitation for people with dementia and some improvement in anti-psychotic medication use in older people with dementia. CONCLUSIONS: Although abundant evidence exists demonstrating the positive effects of person-centred care on healthcare quality and on patient (and provider) wellbeing, there is little research focussing specifically on the impact of person-centred care on patient safety. Thus, there is scope for further high-quality nursing research into how person-centred interventions improve specific patient safety outcomes in order to inform more widespread adoption of person-centred practice.


Subject(s)
Nursing Research , Adult , Aged , Child , Delivery of Health Care , Humans , Patient Safety , Patient-Centered Care , Systematic Reviews as Topic
5.
Public Health ; 194: 196-201, 2021 May.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1392511

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: In the face of the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic, people with dementia and their carers are contending with serious challenges to their health and wellbeing, due to risk of severe illness, limiting of social contact and disruption to usual activities. Many forms of support for people with dementia and their carers, including singing groups, have moved online using videoconferencing. Previous research has demonstrated the benefits of group singing, which include cognitive stimulation, meaningful activity and peer support. However, although we know which aspects of the singing group experience participants find helpful, we do not know how this experience translates into an online videoconferencing format, and this is a very new field with little existing research. This article reviews the literature pertinent to online singing interventions and uses the findings to develop some suggestions for running an online singing group. STUDY DESIGN: SCOPING REVIEW. METHODS: Systematic literature searches were conducted in EMBASE, Medline, CINAHL, PsycINFO and Web of Science. Owing to the paucity of existing research, searches were also conducted in Google Scholar. The scope of the review covered five related areas: online music making and music therapy, telemedicine and telecare, everyday technology for people with dementia, digital arts and dementia, and use of technology for social interaction and leisure. Our analysis aimed to integrate the results to inform the implementation of online singing groups for people with dementia. RESULTS: Scoping of evidence from discrete fields of enquiry and different disciplinary traditions can inform the delivery of online singing in dementia. This literature also yields useful insights into the role of the carer and how best to support participants to use technology. Barriers and facilitators to online singing were found to relate both to the technology and to the individual participant. CONCLUSION: Lockdown restrictions have led to much innovation, and this is likely to lead to changes in practice even after normal life resumes. The suggestions in this article will be helpful primarily for practitioners moving into online work and researchers investigating this novel area. They may also be useful to commissioners and policymakers because they reflect current knowledge about best practice.


Subject(s)
Dementia/therapy , Music Therapy/methods , Singing , Telemedicine , COVID-19/epidemiology , Humans
6.
Aust Health Rev ; 45(4): 485-490, 2021 Aug.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1358383

ABSTRACT

Objectives This study explored whether consumer experience report (CER) data from residential aged care services (RACSs) could be combined into a general factor and determined whether poor experience in RACSs could be predicted by known resident or home characteristics or sampling procedures. Methods CER data collected by structured interviews in 2018 and early 2019 were analysed using structural equation modelling and linear regression analysis. Results Data were available from 17194 interviews undertaken at 1159 RACSs. The 10 CER items loaded onto two independent factors. Bifactorial modelling indicated that items could be combined into a general factor. Controlling for state or territory, consumer experience was best predicted by home size: those in large facilities reported poorer experience than those in smaller facilities. Other significant negative predictors with small effect sizes included not being independently mobile, being male and not being randomly selected. Dementia did not predict total CER score. Conclusions The results of this study support the inclusion of people with dementia and exclusion of volunteer participants from published CERs. Further research is needed to explore why a relatively poor consumer experience is reported by people in larger homes, men and those with mobility issues. What is known about the topic? Poor experience in aged care is a persistent concern for government, individuals and aged care services. The recent Royal Commission into Aged Care Quality and Safety has identified systemic failure. Although many organisational features and processes have previously been identified as important in determining the quality of care, few studies have explored the characteristics that predict the consumer experience of residents in aged care. What does this paper add? This paper provides empirical evidence that several variables influence consumer experience in aged care, including facility size and resident sex and mobility. There is evidence that smaller facilities provide care that is perceived better by residents, and that men and people with mobility issues have worse experiences in aged care. There is a lack of clarity as to what other influences, such as facility ethos, facility location and staffing levels, may contribute to resident experience. Such clarity is important, because Australian aged care is currently facing comprehensive scrutiny, and governments are looking to ensure the safety and quality of aged care services. What are the implications for practitioners? Identifying and addressing inequities in aged care services and mitigating risks must be a priority in Australia to ensure aged care services provide safe and high-quality care. The results of this study challenge current funding structures that encourage the development of larger aged care homes, and instead suggest that better funding for smaller-sized facilities may be able to improve the experience of residents in aged care. The results also suggest that facilities and governments should attend to the experiences of specific groups, such as men and people with mobility issues.


Subject(s)
Delivery of Health Care , Homes for the Aged , Aged , Australia , Humans , Male , Quality of Health Care
7.
Br J Community Nurs ; 25(10): 510-512, 2020 Oct 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1326017
8.
JMIR Aging ; 4(2): e24724, 2021 Jun 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1290185

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: In academic research contexts, eHealth interventions for caregivers of people with dementia have shown ample evidence of effectiveness. However, they are rarely implemented in practice, and much can be learned from their counterparts (commercial, governmental, or other origins) that are already being used in practice. OBJECTIVE: This study aims to examine a sample of case studies of eHealth interventions to support informal caregivers of people with dementia that are currently used in the Netherlands; to investigate what strategies are used to ensure the desirability, feasibility, viability, and sustainability of the interventions; and to apply the lessons learned from this practical, commercial implementation perspective to academically developed eHealth interventions for caregivers of people with dementia. METHODS: In step 1, experts (N=483) in the fields of dementia and eHealth were contacted and asked to recommend interventions that met the following criteria: delivered via the internet; suitable for informal caregivers of people with dementia; accessible in the Netherlands, either in Dutch or in English; and used in practice. The contacted experts were academics working on dementia and psychosocial innovations, industry professionals from eHealth software companies, clinicians, patient organizations, and people with dementia and their caregivers. In step 2, contact persons from the suggested eHealth interventions participated in a semistructured telephone interview. The results were analyzed using a multiple case study methodology. RESULTS: In total, the response rate was 7.5% (36/483), and 21 eHealth interventions for caregivers of people with dementia were recommended. Furthermore, 43% (9/21) of the interventions met all 4 criteria and were included in the sample for the case study analysis. Of these 9 interventions, 4 were found to have developed sustainable business models and 5 were implemented in a more exploratory manner and relied on research grants to varying extents, although some had also developed preliminary business models. CONCLUSIONS: These findings suggest that the desirability, feasibility, and viability of eHealth interventions for caregivers of people with dementia are linked to their integration into larger structures, their ownership and support of content internally, their development of information and communication technology services externally, and their offer of fixed, low pricing. The origin of the case studies was also important, as eHealth interventions that had originated in an academic research context less reliably found their way to sustainable implementation. In addition, careful selection of digital transformation strategies, more intersectoral cooperation, and more funding for implementation and business modeling research are recommended to help future developers bring eHealth interventions for caregivers of people with dementia into practice.

9.
BMJ Case Rep ; 14(6)2021 Jun 17.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1276911

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 pandemic significantly impeded face-to-face health and social care delivery for people living with dementia and their carers. Interruption of meaningful activity engagement along with increased social isolation is known to be associated with loss of skills, increased loneliness, physical deterioration and decline in cognition and mood in people with dementia. To ensure continuity of care for people living with dementia, for whom multimodal, non-pharmacological intervention programmes were being provided, there was an urgent need to adopt a remote delivery model. Guidance on digitally delivered assessment and care specific to non-pharmacological interventions for dementia is lacking. Adoption of technology-enabled care for people with dementia requires overcoming barriers to technology use, adaptation of therapeutic guidelines, adaptation of communication methods and carer support. Despite these challenges, therapists successfully transitioned from in-person to digital delivery of therapeutic interventions with associated benefits of continued meaningful activity engagement discussed.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Dementia , Caregivers , Humans , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2
10.
Clin Gerontol ; : 1-14, 2021 Jun 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1266047

ABSTRACT

Objectives: Quality dementia care, which recognizes caregivers as vital care partners, is a scarce resource. Innovative solutions like video telehealth may increase the reach of extant clinicians; however, little is known about perceived barriers and facilitators to in-home video telehealth for dementia management from the perspectives of caregivers.Methods: Twenty-four caregivers of community-dwelling Veterans with dementia participated in semi-structured interviews. Questions gathered perceived facilitators and barriers to in-home video telehealth for dementia management through experience with related technology. Transcripts were analyzed using directed content analysis which was guided by factors previously identified as influencing older adults' adoption of technology.Results: Caregiver experience with related technology was mostly facilitative to video telehealth, which was thought best suited for follow-up care. Increased access and decreased patient-caregiver stress were potential benefits. Barriers included perceived limitations of video and the belief that persons with dementia would have limited ability to manage technological aspects and to engage in video telehealth on their own.Conclusions: This study improves our understanding of the factors that caregivers perceive as barriers and facilitators to in-home video telehealth for dementia management.Clinical Implications: Strategies to optimize video telehealth include capitalizing on caregivers' social network and providing targeted training.

11.
J Clin Med ; 10(11)2021 May 25.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1266748

ABSTRACT

Social isolation in community-dwelling older adults with dementia is a growing health issue that can negatively affect health and well-being. To date, little attention has been paid to the role of technology in improving their social participation. This systematic review aims to provide a systematic overview of the effects of technological interventions that target social participation in community-dwelling older adults with and without dementia. The scientific databases Medline (PubMed), PsycINFO, CINAHL, Web of Science, and the Cochrane Library were systematically searched and independently screened by two reviewers. Results were synthesized narratively. The methodological quality of included studies was independently assessed by two reviewers. In total, 36 studies of varying methodological quality were identified. Most studies evaluated social networking technology and ICT training programs. Three studies focused on people with dementia. Quantitative findings showed limited effects on loneliness, social isolation, and social support. Nevertheless, several benefits related to social participation were reported qualitatively. Social interaction, face-to-face contact, and intergenerational engagement were suggested to be successful elements of technological interventions in improving the social participation of community-dwelling older adults. Rigorous studies with larger sample sizes are highly needed to evaluate the long-term effects of technology on the multidimensional concept of social participation.

12.
Gerontol Geriatr Med ; 7: 23337214211020164, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1262489

ABSTRACT

Background: In December 2019, the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), or COVID-19, raised worldwide concern. Since then, the COVID-19 pandemic has negatively influenced health and wellness across the globe and caused nearly three million deaths. This study focuses on informal caregivers of people with dementia, a disease that affects about 50 million older adults worldwide and requires much caregiving support. Objective: Examine the current literature on the impact of COVID-19 on the health and well-being of informal caregivers for people with dementia. Method: This rapid review was conducted across five electronic databases for quantitative and qualitative articles published through March 15, 2021. Results: The 10 studies included in this review reported quantitative descriptive data from across the globe; however, no studies existed from the U.S. or East Asia countries. All of the studies examined the psychological rather than physical impact of COVID-19 and highlighted risk and protective factors in the areas of psychosocial (resilience, neuropsychiatric, and social isolation), sociodemographic (gender and education), and environmental (home confinement, living arrangement, and dementia stage). Conclusion: COVID-19 has had a considerable negative impact on the psychological well-being of informal caregivers of people with dementia, namely causing more depression and anxiety than pre-pandemic.

13.
J Am Geriatr Soc ; 69(10): 2741-2744, 2021 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1262362

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Because of the COVID-19 pandemic, the ongoing D-CARE pragmatic trial of two models of dementia care management needed to transition to all data collection by telephone. METHODS: For the first 1069 D-CARE participants, we determined the feasibility of administering a short 3-item version of the Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA) to persons with dementia by telephone and examined the correlation with the full 12-item version. RESULTS: The 3-item version could be administered by telephone in approximately 6 min and was highly correlated with the full MoCA (r = 0.78, p < 0.0001). CONCLUSIONS: This brief version of the MoCA was feasible to collect by telephone and could be used as an alternative to the full MoCA, particularly if the purpose of cognitive assessment is characterization of study participants.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Dementia , Mental Status and Dementia Tests , Patient Care Management , Telemedicine/methods , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Cognitive Dysfunction/diagnosis , Dementia/diagnosis , Dementia/psychology , Dementia/therapy , Female , Humans , Infection Control/methods , Interviews as Topic/methods , Male , Patient Care Management/methods , Patient Care Management/trends , Reproducibility of Results , SARS-CoV-2
14.
Clin Gerontol ; 45(1): 86-96, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1254193

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: This project investigated experiences of caregivers of people living with dementia during COVID-19. We recorded caregivers' perceptions of care before, during, and moving forward from COVID-19, emphasizing positive experiences, coping strategies, creative care adaptation, strengths demonstrated, and benefits of providing care. METHODS: Allied health professionals conducted semi-structured interviews with 26 informal caregivers of people living with dementia. We categorized and thematically analyzed responses as before, during or moving forward from COVID-19. RESULTS: A range of themes were derived from the data. Pre-pandemic care: (1) focusing on the person living with dementia and (2) working together. During-pandemic care: (1) respecting personhood; (2) connecting with virtues and values; (3) improving relationships; (4) seeking and receiving support; (5) prioritizing self-care; (6) being protective and proactive; (7) making practical changes. Moving forward from COVID-19: (1) strengthening commitment to the person living with dementia, (2) looking after my own needs, and (3) considering practical requirements. CONCLUSIONS: Participants reported positive caregiving experiences in all timeframes, focusing more on their own needs and experiences during and moving forward from COVID-19. This research may highlight informal caregivers' challenges and needs. CLINICAL IMPLICATIONS: Enforced isolation produced deeper connections for some caregivers. Caregivers benefit from resources facilitating adaptive care.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Dementia , Caregivers , Humans , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2
15.
Neuroscientist ; : 10738584211015136, 2021 May 26.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1243777

ABSTRACT

Neuropsychiatric manifestations of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) have been increasingly recognized. However, the pathophysiology of COVID-19 in the central nervous system remains unclear. Brain organoid models derived from human pluripotent stem cells are potentially useful for the study of complex physiological and pathological processes associated with severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) as they recapitulate cellular heterogeneity and function of individual tissues. We identified brain organoid studies that provided insight into the neurotropic properties of SARS-CoV-2. While SARS-CoV-2 was able to infect neurons, the extent of neurotropism was relatively limited. Conversely, choroidal epithelial cells consistently showed a high susceptibility to SARS-CoV-2 infection. Brain organoid studies also elucidated potential mechanism for cellular entry, demonstrated viral replication, and highlighted downstream cellular effects of SARS-CoV-2 infection. Collectively, they suggest that the neuropsychiatric manifestations of COVID-19 may be contributed by both direct neuronal invasion and indirect consequences of neuroinflammation. The use of high throughput evaluation, patient-derived organoids, and advent of "assembloids" will provide a better understanding and functional characterization of the neuropsychiatric symptoms seen in post-acute COVID-19 syndrome. With advancement of organoid technology, brain organoids offer a promising tool for unravelling pathophysiologic clues and potential therapeutic options for neuropsychiatric complications of COVID-19.

16.
Ageing Res Rev ; 69: 101373, 2021 Aug.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1242880

ABSTRACT

The coronavirus disease 19 (COVID-19) is relevant in older people. Attention was given to the nursing homes in which frailer people are usually admitted. In this review, we discuss the approaches for daily problems found in nursing home as geriatricians and potentially new research directions. We start with the problem of the older people affected by dementia and Behavioral and Psychological Symptoms of Dementia for which also the execution of a simple diagnostic test (such as nasopharyngeal swab) could be problematic. Another important problem is the management of wandering patients for which the re-organization of the spaces and vaccination could be the solutions. The relationship with families is another important problem, also from a medico-legal point of view, that can be faced using video conferencing tools. Moreover, we discussed the importance of stratifying prognosis in older nursing home residents for the best management and therapeutically approach, including palliative care, also using telemedicine and the inclusion of prognostic tools in daily clinical practice. Finally, we approached the therapeutical issues in older people that suggests the necessity of future research for finding older-friendly medications.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Dementia , Aged , Dementia/therapy , Geriatricians , Humans , Nursing Homes , SARS-CoV-2
17.
Front Psychiatry ; 12: 634398, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1241206

ABSTRACT

The first wave of SARS-CoV-2 has deeply affected long term care facilities in the province of Quebec. In response, governmental officials took protective measures, such as suspending visits and activities and even requiring residents to self-isolate to their room. Consequently, residents with major cognitive impairments were cut from their routine as well as from significant social interactions, support, and stimulation essential to their well-being. This isolation negatively affected many residents. For some of them, the loss of bearings resulted in newly or deteriorated behavioral and psychological symptoms of dementia (BPSD). These residents were then more at risk of contracting the virus or contaminating others. To face this challenge, hotels in the Greater Montreal area were transformed into temporary care facilities. As members of a multidisciplinary team specialized in the management of BPSD, we were asked to support the redeployed staff who had little experience in this domain. In this paper, we present the innovative tools implemented in this uncommon work setting. We also discuss factors identified as facilitating the care and treatment of people with BPSD. This experience leads us to propose avenues toward better BPSD management.

18.
BMJ Open ; 11(5): e050066, 2021 05 18.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1234306

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Despite community efforts to support and enable older and vulnerable people during the COVID-19 pandemic, many people with dementia and their family carers are still finding it difficult to adjust their daily living in light of the disruption that the pandemic has caused. There may be needs specific to black, Asian and minority ethnic (BAME) populations in these circumstances that remain thus far unexplored. OBJECTIVE: The aim of the study was to explore the effects of the COVID-19 pandemic on people living with dementia and their family carers of BAME backgrounds, in relation to their experiences of community dementia care and the impact on their daily lives. DESIGN: 15 participants (persons with dementia and carers) were recruited for semistructured qualitative interviews. Respondents were of South Asian and Afro-Caribbean backgrounds. We used thematic analysis to analyse our data from a constructivist perspective, which emphasises the importance of multiple perspectives, contexts and values. RESULTS: There were a number of ways that the COVID-19 pandemic has impacted BAME persons with dementia and carers with regard to their experiences of dementia community care and the impact on their everyday lives. In particular we identified eight key themes, with subthemes: fear and anxiety, food and eating (encompassing food shopping and eating patterns), isolation and identity, community and social relationships, adapting to COVID-19, social isolation and support structures, and medical interactions. Fear and anxiety formed an overarching theme that encompassed all others. DISCUSSION: This paper covers unique and underexplored topics in a COVID-19-vulnerable group. There is limited work with these groups in the UK and this is especially true in COVID-19. The results showed that such impacts were far-reaching and affected not only day-to-day concerns, but also care decisions with long-ranging consequences, and existential interests around fear, faith, death and identity.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Dementia , African Americans , Caregivers , Dementia/epidemiology , Humans , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2
19.
Int J Geriatr Psychiatry ; 36(11): 1597-1639, 2021 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1233187

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: In response to a commissioned research update on dementia during the COVID-19 pandemic, a UK-based working group, comprising dementia researchers from a range of fields and disciplines, aimed to describe the impact of the pandemic on dementia wellbeing and identify priorities for future research. METHODS: We supplemented a rapid literature search (including unpublished, non-peer reviewed and ongoing studies/reports) on dementia wellbeing in the context of COVID-19 with expert group members' consensus about future research needs. From this we generated potential research questions the group judged to be relevant that were not covered by the existing literature. RESULTS: Themes emerged from 141 studies within the six domains of the NHS England COVID-19 Dementia Wellbeing Pathway: Preventing Well, Diagnosing Well, Treating Well, Supporting Well, Living Well and Dying Well. We describe current research findings and knowledge gaps relating to the impact on people affected by dementia (individuals with a diagnosis, their carers and social contacts, health and social care practitioners and volunteers), services, research activities and organisations. Broad themes included the potential benefits and risks of new models of working including remote healthcare, the need for population-representative longitudinal studies to monitor longer-term impacts, and the importance of reporting dementia-related findings within broader health and care studies. CONCLUSIONS: The COVID-19 pandemic has had a disproportionately negative impact on people affected by dementia. Researchers and funding organisations have responded rapidly to try to understand the impacts. Future research should highlight and resolve outstanding questions to develop evidence-based measures to improve the quality of life of people affected by dementia.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Dementia , Consensus , Dementia/epidemiology , Humans , Pandemics , Quality of Life , SARS-CoV-2
20.
JAMA ; 324(15): 1485-1486, 2020 10 20.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1233147
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