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1.
BMJ Open ; 11(1): e045889, 2021 01 17.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1832434

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The COVID-19 pandemic has had a major impact on delivery of social support services. This might be expected to particularly affect older adults and people living with dementia (PLWD), and to reduce their well-being. AIMS: To explore how social support service use by older adults, carers and PLWD, and their mental well-being changed over the first 3 months since the pandemic outbreak. METHODS: Unpaid dementia carers, PLWD and older adults took part in a longitudinal online or telephone survey collected between April and May 2020, and at two subsequent timepoints 6 and 12 weeks after baseline. Participants were asked about their social support service usage in a typical week prior to the pandemic (at baseline), and in the past week at each of the three timepoints. They also completed measures of levels of depression, anxiety and mental well-being. RESULTS: 377 participants had complete data at all three timepoints. Social support service usage dropped shortly after lockdown measures were imposed at timepoint 1 (T1), to then increase again by T3. The access to paid care was least affected by COVID-19. Cases of anxiety dropped significantly across the study period, while cases of depression rose. Well-being increased significantly for older adults and PLWD from T1 to T3. CONCLUSIONS: Access to social support services has been significantly affected by the pandemic, which is starting to recover slowly. With mental well-being differently affected across groups, support needs to be put in place to maintain better well-being across those vulnerable groups during the ongoing pandemic.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/psychology , Caregivers/psychology , Dementia/psychology , Health Facility Closure , Social Work , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Anxiety/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Depression/epidemiology , Female , Humans , Longitudinal Studies , Male , Mental Health , Middle Aged , Social Support , United Kingdom/epidemiology , Young Adult
2.
J Clin Med ; 10(4)2021 Feb 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1753562

ABSTRACT

There is increasing interest in the use of technology to support social health in dementia. The primary objective of this systematic review was to synthesize evidence of effectiveness of digital technologies used by people with dementia to improve self-management and social participation. Records published from 1 January 2007 to 9 April 2020 were identified from Pubmed, PsycInfo, Web of Science, CINAHL, and the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials. Controlled interventional studies evaluating interventions based on any digital technology were included if: primary users of the technology had dementia or mild cognitive impairment (MCI); and the study reported outcomes relevant to self-management or social participation. Studies were clustered by population, intervention, and outcomes, and narrative synthesis was undertaken. Of 1394 records identified, nine met the inclusion criteria: two were deemed to be of poor methodological quality, six of fair quality, and one of good quality. Three clusters of technologies were identified: virtual reality, wearables, and software applications. We identified weak evidence that digital technologies may provide less benefit to people with dementia than people with MCI. Future research should address the methodological limitations and narrow scope of existing work. In the absence of strong evidence, clinicians and caregivers must use their judgement to appraise available technologies on a case-by-case basis.

3.
Geriatr Nurs ; 42(5): 1230-1239, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1575510

ABSTRACT

The purpose of this study was to systematically examine the association between dementia and mortality among older adults with COVID-19. To do so, we conducted a search of 7 databases for relevant full-text articles. A cohort study and case-control study were included. A meta-analysis was performed to synthesize the pooled odds ratio with a random-effects model. We identified studies that reported mortality among older adults with dementia and non-dementia who have COVID-19. The pooled mortality rates of dementia and non-dementia older adults infected with COVID-19 were 39% (95% CI: 0.23-0.54%, I2 = 83.48%) and 20% (95% CI: 0.16-0.25%, I2 = 83.48%), respectively. Overall, dementia was the main factor influencing poor health outcomes and high rates of mortality in older adults with COVID-19 infection (odds ratio 2.96; 95% CI 2.00-4.38, I2 = 29.7%), respectively. Our results show that older adults with dementia with COVID-19 infection have a higher risk of mortality compared with older adults without dementia. This current study further highlights the need to provide focused care to the older adults with dementia or cognitive impairment who have COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Dementia , Aged , Case-Control Studies , Cohort Studies , Humans , Observational Studies as Topic , SARS-CoV-2
4.
Clin Infect Dis ; 73(11): e4005-e4011, 2021 12 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1562130

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Racial disparities are central in the national conversation about coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) , with Black/African Americans being disproportionately affected. We assessed risk factors for death from COVID-19 among Black inpatients at an urban hospital in Detroit, Michigan. METHODS: This was a retrospective, single-center cohort study. We reviewed the electronic medical records of patients positive for severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (the COVID-19 virus) on qualitative polymerase chain reaction assay who were admitted between 8 March 2020 and 6 May 2020. The primary outcome was in-hospital mortality. RESULTS: The case fatality rate was 29.1% (122/419). The mean duration of symptoms prior to hospitalization was 5.3 (3.9) days. The incidence of altered mental status on presentation was higher among patients who died than those who survived, 43% vs 20.0%, respectively (P < .0001). From multivariable analysis, the odds of death increased with age (≥60 years), admission from a nursing facility, Charlson score, altered mental status, higher C-reactive protein on admission, need for mechanical ventilation, presence of shock, and acute respiratory distress syndrome. CONCLUSIONS: These demographic, clinical, and laboratory factors may help healthcare providers identify Black patients at highest risk for severe COVID-19-associated outcomes. Early and aggressive interventions among this at-risk population may help mitigate adverse outcomes.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , African Americans , Cohort Studies , Hospital Mortality , Hospitalization , Humans , Middle Aged , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2
6.
Eur J Neurol ; 28(8): 2603-2613, 2021 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1518029

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Nasu-Hakola disease (NHD) is a rare, autosomal recessive disorder characterized by skeletal and neurological symptoms. Behavioral symptoms with cognitive impairment may mimic the behavioral variant of frontotemporal dementia (bvFTD) and other early-onset dementias. Our patients were analyzed and the literature was reviewed to delineate neurological and neuroimaging findings suggestive of NHD. METHOD: Fourteen patients carrying a pathogenic mutation in the TREM2 gene were found in our database. Demographic, clinical, laboratory and radiological data were retrieved and analyzed. RESULTS: The presenting clinical picture was behavioral changes with cognitive decline resembling bvFTD in all patients. The mean age was 37.1 ± 4.97 years and the mean duration of the disease was 8.9 ± 3.51 years. Only two patients had typical bone cysts. Seven patients had bilateral calcification of the basal ganglia in computed tomography of the brain. Magnetic resonance imaging of the brain revealed severe atrophy of the corpus callosum, enlargement of the ventricles, atrophy of the caudate nuclei and periventricular white matter changes in all patients. Symmetrical global atrophy of the brain mainly affecting frontoparietal and lateral temporal regions were observed in all cases, and 13 patients had atrophy of the hippocampus. Cerebrospinal fluid examination of 10 patients showed elevated protein levels in six and the presence of oligoclonal bands in four patients. CONCLUSION: A combination of white matter changes, enlarged ventricles, atrophy of the caudate nuclei and thinning of the corpus callosum in magnetic resonance imaging strongly suggests NHD in patients with FTD syndrome. Molecular genetic analysis should be performed in suspected cases, and families should receive genetic counseling.


Subject(s)
Frontotemporal Dementia , Lipodystrophy , Membrane Glycoproteins/genetics , Osteochondrodysplasias , Receptors, Immunologic/genetics , Subacute Sclerosing Panencephalitis , Adult , Brain/diagnostic imaging , Frontotemporal Dementia/diagnostic imaging , Frontotemporal Dementia/genetics , Humans , Magnetic Resonance Imaging , Neuroimaging
8.
Int Psychogeriatr ; 33(10): 1005-1007, 2021 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1492960
9.
Disabil Rehabil ; 43(10): 1342-1358, 2021 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1455011

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: Cognitive instrumental activities of daily living are particularly related to executive functions, such as scheduling appointments, monthly payments, managing the household economy, shopping or taking the bus. The aim of this systematic review was to determine the available tests for the assessment of executive functions with ecological validity to predict individuals' functioning. MATERIALS AND METHODS: An electronic search was conducted in MEDLINE, Cochrane Central, PsyCInfo and IEEE Xplore until May 2019, in addition to a manual search. The PRISMA criteria and the Covidence platform were used to select articles and extract data. RESULTS: After applying the search selection criteria, 76 studies were identified. They referred to 110 tools to assess instrumental activities of daily living. Those that have received most attention are related to menu preparation and shopping. Performance-based measures are the most widely used traditional methods. Most tests were aimed at the adult population with acquired brain damage, cognitive impairment or dementia. There was a predominance of tests based on the Multiple Errands Test paradigm. CONCLUSIONS: In recent years, it has increased the number of tools that assess the instrumental activities of daily living based on technologies such as personal or environmental sensors and serious games.IMPLICATIONS FOR REHABILITATIONAssessment of Instrumental Activities of Daily Living through performance-based measures is especially useful for the early detection of dysfunctions or preclinical disability.Difficulties in performing instrumental activities of daily living are closely associated with deficits in executive functions and prospective memory.Activities of Daily Living can be understood as multitasks.The use of virtual reality-based tests was shown to be sensitive to the detection of cognitive deficits in Activities of Daily Living.An advantage of using virtual reality in assessments is that it can help to predict the level of personal autonomy in patients who are in an institutional environment and could be a first approximation to the real environment.


Subject(s)
Activities of Daily Living , Cognitive Dysfunction , Adult , Cognition , Cognitive Dysfunction/diagnosis , Executive Function , Humans , Neuropsychological Tests
10.
World J Psychiatry ; 10(7): 162-174, 2020 Jul 19.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1456458

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Alzheimer's disease (AD) is among the most prevalent forms of dementia in the world and neuropathological studies suggest similar high prevalence of mixed (AD + vascular) dementias. Approximately 25%-50% of individuals with AD develop psychosis sometime during their illness. The presence of psychosis in AD worsens outcomes. Currently there are no United States Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approved medications for the treatment of psychosis in AD. Pimavanserin, a novel atypical antipsychotic medication, was approved by the FDA for the treatment of hallucinations and delusions associated with Parkinson disease psychosis and is currently in clinical trials for the treatment of psychosis in AD. AIM: To evaluate the existing literature regarding the use of pimavanserin for treating psychosis among individuals with AD. METHODS: A literature review of clinical studies of pimavanserin treatment for psychosis in individuals with AD was performed using the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis guidelines. Trials were identified by systematically searching PubMed, MEDLINE, EMBASE, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, Web of Science, and Scopus through October 2019. The 5-point Jadad scoring system was used to assess the methodologic quality of the randomized placebo-controlled trials. RESULTS: A total of 499 citations were retrieved and pooled in EndNote and de-duplicated to 258 citations. This set was uploaded to Covidence for screening. Two separate screeners (Srinivasan S and Tampi RR) evaluated the titles, abstracts, and full text of eligible articles. Of the identified 258 abstracts, 98 articles underwent full text review and 2 publications from 1 randomized controlled trial (RCT) were included in the final analysis. The quality of evidence was assessed to be of good methodologic quality, scoring 4 out of 5 using the 5-point Jadad questionnaire with the Jadad Scoring calculation. This systematic review found only one RCT that evaluated the use of pimavanserin for the treatment of psychosis among individuals with AD. This phase 2 trial resulted in two publications, the second of which was a subgroup analysis from the original study. The evidence from these two publications showed that pimavanserin improves psychotic symptoms among individuals with AD when compared to placebo at week 6. CONCLUSION: Pimavanserin may be a pharmacologic consideration for the treatment for psychosis in AD. Additional RCTs are needed to assess the evidence of effectiveness before pimavanserin is considered a standard treatment.

11.
Int J Nurs Stud ; 109: 103658, 2020 Sep.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1454195

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Nursing literature frequently emphasises the benefits of person-centred approaches for healthcare quality and safety. OBJECTIVE: This umbrella review aimed to synthesise the combined evidence from systematic reviews assessing the impact of person-centred care interventions on patient safety. DESIGN: A three-step review process included a preliminary review of literature, a comprehensive search, and manual searching of reference lists and forward citations of selected reviews. The review protocol was registered with Prospero (CRD42018090048). DATA SOURCES: Reviewers searched 10 databases for systematic reviews published in English-language peer-reviewed journals between 2000 and 2019: Academic Search Complete, CINAHL, Cochrane Library, EMBASE, JBI Database, Medline, ProQuest Health & Medicine, PROSPERO Register, PubMed and Scopus. REVIEW METHODS: Covidence software was used to manage screening and eligibility. Two reviewers independently screened titles and abstracts, reviewed full texts of articles for eligibility, and appraised the quality of reviews using the JBI Critical Appraisal Checklist for Systematic Reviews and Research Syntheses. RESULTS: From an initial total of 3412 potential titles, 16 reviews met the inclusion criteria. The selected reviews examined the impact of person-centred care for diverse groups of patients (children, adults and older people) in varied settings. Most systematic reviews assessed experimental studies, generally comparing person-centred interventions with 'usual care', often demonstrating limited evidence of impact on safety. Reviews addressed several patient safety outcomes relevant to nursing, including falls, infections, medication use and misuse, and mortality rates. The systematic reviews were generally well conducted, although several included studies of poor or fair quality. Given the heterogeneity of the interventions, outcomes and research designs of studies included in the selected reviews, we were unable to draw unequivocal conclusions about the implications of person-centred care for patient safety in this umbrella review. However, there was some encouraging evidence that person-centred care initiatives may result in reduced rates of falls (in acute care and residential aged care settings). The review also highlighted reductions in agitation for people with dementia and some improvement in anti-psychotic medication use in older people with dementia. CONCLUSIONS: Although abundant evidence exists demonstrating the positive effects of person-centred care on healthcare quality and on patient (and provider) wellbeing, there is little research focussing specifically on the impact of person-centred care on patient safety. Thus, there is scope for further high-quality nursing research into how person-centred interventions improve specific patient safety outcomes in order to inform more widespread adoption of person-centred practice.


Subject(s)
Nursing Research , Adult , Aged , Child , Delivery of Health Care , Humans , Patient Safety , Patient-Centered Care , Systematic Reviews as Topic
12.
J Intern Med ; 289(6): 807-830, 2021 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1447945

ABSTRACT

Ageing of the population, together with population growth, has brought along an ample increase in the number of older individuals living with dementia and disabilities. Dementia is the main cause of disability in old age, and promoting healthy brain ageing is considered as a key element in diminishing the burden of age-related disabilities. The World Health Organization recently launched the first risk reduction guidelines for cognitive impairment and dementia. According to recent estimates, approximately 40% of dementia cases worldwide could be attributable to 12 modifiable risk factors: low education; midlife hypertension and obesity; diabetes, smoking, excessive alcohol use, physical inactivity, depression, low social contact, hearing loss, traumatic brain injury and air pollution indicating clear prevention potential. Dementia and physical disability are closely linked with shared risk factors and possible shared underlying mechanisms supporting the possibility of integrated preventive interventions. FINGER trial was the first large randomized controlled trial indicating that multidomain lifestyle-based intervention can prevent cognitive and functional decline amongst at-risk older adults from the general population. Within the World-Wide FINGERS network, the multidomain FINGER concept is now tested and adapted worldwide proving evidence and tools for effective and easily implementable preventive strategies. Close collaboration between researchers, policymakers and healthcare practitioners, involvement of older adults and utilization of new technologies to support self-management is needed to facilitate the implementation of the research findings. In this scoping review, we present the current scientific evidence in the field of dementia and disability prevention and discuss future directions in the field.


Subject(s)
Cognitive Dysfunction , Dementia , Aged , Cognitive Dysfunction/epidemiology , Cognitive Dysfunction/prevention & control , Dementia/epidemiology , Dementia/prevention & control , Humans , Life Style , Randomized Controlled Trials as Topic , Risk Factors , Risk Reduction Behavior
13.
Public Health ; 194: 196-201, 2021 May.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1392511

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: In the face of the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic, people with dementia and their carers are contending with serious challenges to their health and wellbeing, due to risk of severe illness, limiting of social contact and disruption to usual activities. Many forms of support for people with dementia and their carers, including singing groups, have moved online using videoconferencing. Previous research has demonstrated the benefits of group singing, which include cognitive stimulation, meaningful activity and peer support. However, although we know which aspects of the singing group experience participants find helpful, we do not know how this experience translates into an online videoconferencing format, and this is a very new field with little existing research. This article reviews the literature pertinent to online singing interventions and uses the findings to develop some suggestions for running an online singing group. STUDY DESIGN: SCOPING REVIEW. METHODS: Systematic literature searches were conducted in EMBASE, Medline, CINAHL, PsycINFO and Web of Science. Owing to the paucity of existing research, searches were also conducted in Google Scholar. The scope of the review covered five related areas: online music making and music therapy, telemedicine and telecare, everyday technology for people with dementia, digital arts and dementia, and use of technology for social interaction and leisure. Our analysis aimed to integrate the results to inform the implementation of online singing groups for people with dementia. RESULTS: Scoping of evidence from discrete fields of enquiry and different disciplinary traditions can inform the delivery of online singing in dementia. This literature also yields useful insights into the role of the carer and how best to support participants to use technology. Barriers and facilitators to online singing were found to relate both to the technology and to the individual participant. CONCLUSION: Lockdown restrictions have led to much innovation, and this is likely to lead to changes in practice even after normal life resumes. The suggestions in this article will be helpful primarily for practitioners moving into online work and researchers investigating this novel area. They may also be useful to commissioners and policymakers because they reflect current knowledge about best practice.


Subject(s)
Dementia/therapy , Music Therapy/methods , Singing , Telemedicine , COVID-19/epidemiology , Humans
14.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 18(8)2021 04 20.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1378436

ABSTRACT

Dementia represents a significant problem in the Middle East. Sociocultural and political factors that shape conceptions of health and care tend to stifle research and the dissemination of knowledge throughout the Middle East. These socio-political challenges concerning engagement with individuals living with dementia and their carers include language barriers, stigmatization, logistical constraints, lack of informal support outside of hospitals, and over-dependence on clinicians for dementia information. There is an urgent need in the Middle East to increase care and support for adults with dementia and their carers, enhance research efforts and improve the dissemination of information related to dementia in the region. One possible way to do so is to begin to promote a knowledge-based culture throughout the Middle East. This can be achieved by aligning traditional deterministic and spiritual perspectives of mental health with more Western, scientific, and evidence-based models. We suggest employing practical, multidimensional approaches to deal with the stated challenges, both at individual and societal levels. Doing so will improve knowledge of dementia and allow health and social care systems in the Middle East to begin to address a growing problem.


Subject(s)
Caregivers , Dementia , Adult , Dementia/therapy , Humans , Mental Health , Middle East , Social Support
15.
Aust Health Rev ; 45(4): 485-490, 2021 Aug.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1358383

ABSTRACT

Objectives This study explored whether consumer experience report (CER) data from residential aged care services (RACSs) could be combined into a general factor and determined whether poor experience in RACSs could be predicted by known resident or home characteristics or sampling procedures. Methods CER data collected by structured interviews in 2018 and early 2019 were analysed using structural equation modelling and linear regression analysis. Results Data were available from 17194 interviews undertaken at 1159 RACSs. The 10 CER items loaded onto two independent factors. Bifactorial modelling indicated that items could be combined into a general factor. Controlling for state or territory, consumer experience was best predicted by home size: those in large facilities reported poorer experience than those in smaller facilities. Other significant negative predictors with small effect sizes included not being independently mobile, being male and not being randomly selected. Dementia did not predict total CER score. Conclusions The results of this study support the inclusion of people with dementia and exclusion of volunteer participants from published CERs. Further research is needed to explore why a relatively poor consumer experience is reported by people in larger homes, men and those with mobility issues. What is known about the topic? Poor experience in aged care is a persistent concern for government, individuals and aged care services. The recent Royal Commission into Aged Care Quality and Safety has identified systemic failure. Although many organisational features and processes have previously been identified as important in determining the quality of care, few studies have explored the characteristics that predict the consumer experience of residents in aged care. What does this paper add? This paper provides empirical evidence that several variables influence consumer experience in aged care, including facility size and resident sex and mobility. There is evidence that smaller facilities provide care that is perceived better by residents, and that men and people with mobility issues have worse experiences in aged care. There is a lack of clarity as to what other influences, such as facility ethos, facility location and staffing levels, may contribute to resident experience. Such clarity is important, because Australian aged care is currently facing comprehensive scrutiny, and governments are looking to ensure the safety and quality of aged care services. What are the implications for practitioners? Identifying and addressing inequities in aged care services and mitigating risks must be a priority in Australia to ensure aged care services provide safe and high-quality care. The results of this study challenge current funding structures that encourage the development of larger aged care homes, and instead suggest that better funding for smaller-sized facilities may be able to improve the experience of residents in aged care. The results also suggest that facilities and governments should attend to the experiences of specific groups, such as men and people with mobility issues.


Subject(s)
Delivery of Health Care , Homes for the Aged , Aged , Australia , Humans , Male , Quality of Health Care
16.
Br J Community Nurs ; 25(10): 510-512, 2020 Oct 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1326017
17.
JMIR Res Protoc ; 10(5): e26431, 2021 May 18.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1304546

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The COVID-19 pandemic has led to worldwide implementation of unprecedented restrictions to control its rapid spread and mitigate its impact. The Spanish government has enforced social distancing, quarantine, and home confinement measures. Such restrictions on activities of daily life and separation from loved ones may lead to social isolation and loneliness with health-related consequences among community-dwelling older adults with mild cognitive impairment or mild dementia and their caregivers. Additionally, inadequate access to health care and social support services may aggravate chronic conditions. Home-based technological interventions have emerged for combating social isolation and loneliness, while simultaneously preventing the risk of virus exposure. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this cohort study is to explore, analyze, and determine the impact of social isolation on (1) cognition, quality of life, mood, technophilia, and perceived stress among community-dwelling older adults with mild cognitive impairment or mild dementia and on the caregiver burden; (2) access to and utilization of health and social care services; and (3) cognitive, social, and entertainment-related uses of information and communication technologies. METHODS: This study will be conducted in Málaga (Andalucía, Spain). In total 200 dyads, consisting of a person with mild cognitive impairment or mild dementia and his/her informal caregiver, will be contacted by telephone. Potential respondents will be participants of the following clinical trials: support, monitoring, and reminder technology for mild dementia (n=100) and television-based assistive integrated service to support European adults living with mild dementia or mild cognitive impairment (n=100). RESULTS: As of May 2021, a total of 153 participants have been enrolled and assessed during COVID-19 confinement, of whom 67 have been assessed at 6 months of enrollment. Changes in the mean values of the variables will be analyzed relative to baseline findings of previous studies with those during and after confinement, using repeated-measures analysis of variance or the nonparametric Friedman test, as appropriate. The performance of multivariate analysis of covariance (ANCOVA) to introduce potential covariates will also be considered. Values of 95% CI will be used. CONCLUSIONS: If our hypothesis is accepted, these findings will demonstrate the negative impact of social isolation owing to COVID-19 confinement on cognition, quality of life, mood, and perceived stress among community-dwelling older adults with mild cognitive impairment and mild dementia, the impact on technophilia, caregiver burden, the access to and utilization of health and social care services, and the cognitive, social, and entertainment-related use of information and communication technologies during and after COVID-19 confinement. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov NCT04385797; https://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT04385797. INTERNATIONAL REGISTERED REPORT IDENTIFIER (IRRID): DERR1-10.2196/26431.

18.
JMIR Aging ; 4(2): e24724, 2021 Jun 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1290185

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: In academic research contexts, eHealth interventions for caregivers of people with dementia have shown ample evidence of effectiveness. However, they are rarely implemented in practice, and much can be learned from their counterparts (commercial, governmental, or other origins) that are already being used in practice. OBJECTIVE: This study aims to examine a sample of case studies of eHealth interventions to support informal caregivers of people with dementia that are currently used in the Netherlands; to investigate what strategies are used to ensure the desirability, feasibility, viability, and sustainability of the interventions; and to apply the lessons learned from this practical, commercial implementation perspective to academically developed eHealth interventions for caregivers of people with dementia. METHODS: In step 1, experts (N=483) in the fields of dementia and eHealth were contacted and asked to recommend interventions that met the following criteria: delivered via the internet; suitable for informal caregivers of people with dementia; accessible in the Netherlands, either in Dutch or in English; and used in practice. The contacted experts were academics working on dementia and psychosocial innovations, industry professionals from eHealth software companies, clinicians, patient organizations, and people with dementia and their caregivers. In step 2, contact persons from the suggested eHealth interventions participated in a semistructured telephone interview. The results were analyzed using a multiple case study methodology. RESULTS: In total, the response rate was 7.5% (36/483), and 21 eHealth interventions for caregivers of people with dementia were recommended. Furthermore, 43% (9/21) of the interventions met all 4 criteria and were included in the sample for the case study analysis. Of these 9 interventions, 4 were found to have developed sustainable business models and 5 were implemented in a more exploratory manner and relied on research grants to varying extents, although some had also developed preliminary business models. CONCLUSIONS: These findings suggest that the desirability, feasibility, and viability of eHealth interventions for caregivers of people with dementia are linked to their integration into larger structures, their ownership and support of content internally, their development of information and communication technology services externally, and their offer of fixed, low pricing. The origin of the case studies was also important, as eHealth interventions that had originated in an academic research context less reliably found their way to sustainable implementation. In addition, careful selection of digital transformation strategies, more intersectoral cooperation, and more funding for implementation and business modeling research are recommended to help future developers bring eHealth interventions for caregivers of people with dementia into practice.

19.
Res Gerontol Nurs ; 14(3): 150-159, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1278555

ABSTRACT

Patients with dementia (PwD) are characterized as a vulnerable group as they are unable to communicate their needs, putting them at risk for care omissions. The current study aimed to explore care toward PwD and detect if any aspects of care are omitted. An observation study was conducted in three medical-surgical adult wards of an acute general hospital. Data were collected by an observer, through field notes, and were analyzed with content analysis. A face scale was used to assess PwD's mood. Thirteen PwD were observed for 90 hours. Four thematic areas were identified: (a) Unmet Fundamental Patient Needs, (b) Human Right to Dignity and Respect, (c) Communication Deficiencies, and (d) Implementation of Nursing Interventions. Nurse-patient contact lasted from 5 to 7 minutes and numerous care omissions were noted. The face scale assessment revealed that most PwD looked very sad after nursing care. This study enriches insight for the care of PwD during hospitalization and emphasizes the need for health care workers' education and support. [Research in Gerontological Nursing, 14(3), 150-159.].


Subject(s)
Dementia , Nursing Care , Communication , Hospitalization , Humans , Nurse-Patient Relations
20.
BMJ Case Rep ; 14(6)2021 Jun 17.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1276911

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 pandemic significantly impeded face-to-face health and social care delivery for people living with dementia and their carers. Interruption of meaningful activity engagement along with increased social isolation is known to be associated with loss of skills, increased loneliness, physical deterioration and decline in cognition and mood in people with dementia. To ensure continuity of care for people living with dementia, for whom multimodal, non-pharmacological intervention programmes were being provided, there was an urgent need to adopt a remote delivery model. Guidance on digitally delivered assessment and care specific to non-pharmacological interventions for dementia is lacking. Adoption of technology-enabled care for people with dementia requires overcoming barriers to technology use, adaptation of therapeutic guidelines, adaptation of communication methods and carer support. Despite these challenges, therapists successfully transitioned from in-person to digital delivery of therapeutic interventions with associated benefits of continued meaningful activity engagement discussed.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Dementia , Caregivers , Humans , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2
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