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1.
Niger J Clin Pract ; 24(5): 753-761, 2021 May.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1239069

ABSTRACT

AIMS: We aimed to objectively assess the COVID-19 awareness of the patients requiring dental interventions in our dental clinic by utilizing a newly generated questionnaire, which may serve helpfully in the hard battle against the pandemic in our country. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This study included 306 volunteer adults who applied to our dental clinic for dental interventions during the early days of COVID-19 outbreak in Turkey. All patients responded to a newly created questionnaire composed of four sections with 19 questions those mostly assessing the social and demographic details; like the participant's age, gender, marital status, education status, medical history, basic dental hygiene habits, occupation, and general information about the COVID-19 infection and its protection methods. RESULTS: The outcomes of 306 participants revealed that their gender, age, and education status showed significant distinctions about the dissemination of coronavirus via dental interventions. Higher education status was linked to a loftier level of social awareness about the COVID-19 infection and its potential associations with dental interventions. It was observed that the participants were unsatisfactorily cautious against the COVID-19 infection and its dissemination pathways in their social environment, particularly in the specific case of systematic diseases and preventive measures. The primary way of obtaining information about the COVID-19 infection was the electronic websites. CONCLUSION: Deplorably, accentuating the urgent need for further intensive training programs on the relationship between the systemic diseases and COVID-19 infection, and explicit daily care methods in the social environment.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Adult , Disease Outbreaks/prevention & control , Humans , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , Turkey/epidemiology
2.
J Indian Soc Pedod Prev Dent ; 39(1): 22-28, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1197594

ABSTRACT

RATIONALE: The impact of COVID-19 has affected billions of people affecting nearly all domains of life, including patient's healthcare needs. Due to constrained dental services during lockdown, pediatric dental needs were severely compromised therefore, parental attitude and practices of maintaining child's oral hygiene impose significant impact on child's oral hygiene. AIM: This study aims to assess the attitude and practices of parents toward their children's oral health care during COVID-19 pandemic. METHODOLOGY: The present cross-sectional study was conducted with a sample of 120 parents selected randomly from the outpatient department after obtaining informed consent. A structured questionnaire was used to assess attitude and practice of parents toward their child's oral hygiene during lockdown in COVID-19 pandemic. RESULTS: The overall attitude and practice score of parents in maintaining their child's oral hygiene was low, with mean value of 2.36 ± 1.36 and 2.51 ± 1.50, respectively. 60.8% of parents reported the need of dental treatment for their child during the lockdown period whereas 50.8% parents contacted the dentist during this period; majority (37.5%) of which reported due to toothache. 68.3% of parents would like to visit nearby dental hospital for emergencies during lockdown period. Only 33.3% of parents took extra efforts to maintain their child's oral hygiene while 45% made dietary changes in their child's diet to prevent tooth decay. CONCLUSION: The overall attitude and practices of the parents were poor toward the oral health of their children during the lockdown period in COVID-19 pandemic. There is urgent need of increasing awareness among parents regarding the importance of maintaining their child's oral health. The inability to see the doctor should at least encourage better home practice measures for future. The concept of tele-dentistry is very new and will be the need of the coming modern times.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pandemics , Attitude to Health , Child , Communicable Disease Control , Cross-Sectional Studies , Delivery of Health Care , Humans , Oral Health , Parents , SARS-CoV-2 , Surveys and Questionnaires
3.
Patient Saf Surg ; 15(1): 16, 2021 Apr 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1181115

ABSTRACT

The global coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic spread has seized the entire world and has created extensive health concerns in the general population. Despite various efforts to prevent the pandemic spread, the flare-up of this disease is still soaring due to the community spread in every area. The droplet spread from the afflicted is of the highest concern because of its rapid spread to uninfected individuals. Dental treatments have to be planned and carried out with extreme caution and dental personnel should take extreme care and follow meticulous guidelines when treating an individual with SARS-CoV-2 (severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2) infection. This article highlights the clinical picture of COVID-19 (coronavirus diseases 2019) and presents a summary of precautionary and prophylactic measures in preventing the cross-infection and the nosocomial spread of the infection in a dental setting.

4.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 18(8)2021 04 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1178252

ABSTRACT

Dental care has been affected by SARS-CoV-2 (COVID-19) worldwide. In contrast to other dental clinics, the Justus-Liebig-University Giessen (Germany) decided not to limit dental treatment to emergencies alone, but to continue dental care for all patients, with increased safety measures. As such, health care professionals may be exposed to additional physical and mental stress. The aim of this study was to assess the perspectives of all persons involved in dental care (dentists, dental assistants, students, and patients) regarding the aspects of safety measures, anxiety about self-infection and infecting others, and other prospects in the period March to December 2020 using a questionnaire. Data collection was performed between 14 December 2020 and 23 January 2021. A total of 35 dentists (response rate of 79.5%), 23 dental assistants (65.7%), 84 students (80%), and 51 patients (21.8%) completed the survey. The patients did not notice any changes in the care received. Dentists and dental assistants reported a higher workload due to additional safety measures. The majority of dentists, students, and patients agreed that normal patient care was maintained. One-third of dental assistants would have preferred emergency treatment alone and expressed significantly higher anxiety about COVID-19 infection than all other groups (p < 0.05). In conclusion, all groups showed a predominantly positive perspective on dental care, and anxiety about self-infection and infecting others was especially low. However, additional measures are time-consuming and compound daily patient care. This concept, based on well-established infection control, might be a viable proposal for current and future pandemics.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pandemics , Cross-Sectional Studies , Dental Assistants , Dental Care , Dentists , Germany , Humans , SARS-CoV-2 , Students , Surveys and Questionnaires
5.
A A Pract ; 15(2): e01398, 2021 Feb 23.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1099913

ABSTRACT

The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic prompted the creation of novel techniques to protect patients and health care providers. Simulations showed that disposable oxygen face tents act as a physical barrier and can be repurposed as a negative airflow tent. This case study presents a pediatric patient requiring dental surgery, ineligible for preoperative testing for COVID-19 due to developmental delay and aggression. Precautionary measures were taken by means of full personal protective equipment (PPE) and negative airflow tent. The tent added additional protection and is a promising new technique that is disposable, widely available, and offers full access to proceduralists.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/transmission , Infectious Disease Transmission, Patient-to-Professional/prevention & control , Personal Protective Equipment , Tooth Extraction , Aggression/psychology , Air Movements , Anesthesia, General , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19 Testing , Child , Developmental Disabilities/psychology , Humans , Male , Patient Compliance/psychology , SARS-CoV-2
6.
Bull Natl Res Cent ; 45(1): 32, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1059717

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Coronavirus disease (COVID-19) is considered a highly contagious disease with flu-like symptoms and causing relatively high level of death. It can be transmitted from a person to another through droplets and that makes the dentists at high risk of infection. Therefore, the aim of the current study was to assess the awareness and knowledge of dental students about the signs and symptoms of Coronavirus disease (COVID-19) and to evaluate their awareness about the required infection control measures during the dental treatment to control the spread of the disease. A questionnaire was formed using Google forms and distributed among dental students and interns in different universities in Cairo, Egypt. Questions were about signs and symptoms of COVID-19, attitude of the dentists toward dental treatment of suspected patients and the required personal protective equipment (PPE) and infection control measures at the dental clinic. RESULTS: The majority of the participants strongly agreed/agreed that COVID-19 is a highly dangerous disease, Participants reported that the most common symptom is difficulty in breathing (89.4%) followed by fever (84.4%). Face shield was the most recommended personal protective equipment (PPE) during dental treatment (98.6%) followed by disposable gown (96.3%). The majority of participants (84.8%) recommended using 70% ethyl alcohol as the first method to disinfect surfaces in between dental visits, followed by sodium hypochlorite. CONCLUSIONS: Dental students and interns in Cairo, Egypt, have good knowledge and awareness about COVID-19 and the necessary precautions required to provide adequate dental treatment for the patients during the pandemic COVID-19; however, the importance of infection control should be highlighted for both clinical and preclinical dental students, to provide safe dental treatment to the patients as well as protection of the dentists and healthcare workers.

7.
Clin Exp Dent Res ; 7(3): 271-278, 2021 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-995904

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: This paper aims to report and discuss the organization and statistics of dental care during the COVID-19 epidemics on the national level in Slovenia, providing helpful information to health policy planners worldwide. MATERIAL AND METHODS: During an eight-week lockdown, Emergency Dental Centers (EDCs) were established and coordinated on the national level to treat patients' urgent dental conditions. Telemedicine was used on the first level of triage to reduce contacts between healthcare workers and patients. Weekly coordination between EDCs was supported by real-time data acquisition on the number of patient visits, prescribed medicine, the number and type of dental procedures, and the usage of personal protective equipment (PPE). RESULTS: In EDCs, 27,468 patients were serviced, on average 235 patients per day/million people. The care was provided by 4798 man days of dental health care workers. Except for the first week, treatment and triage visits showed a slight increase. The number of incisions was nearly constant, while the number of extractions increased. A nearly threefold increase was found for emergency endodontic treatments (EET). The number of antibiotic prescriptions demonstrated an increasing trend. Analgesic prescriptions showed a decreasing trend from the beginning of lockdown. CONCLUSIONS: The reorganization and centralization of dental care proved to be an efficient model in Slovenia for the provision of urgent dental care, and the management of the healthcare workforce and PPE. Data from this study may provide helpful information for planning the needs and corresponding resources for the next waves of epidemics of COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Dental Care/statistics & numerical data , Emergency Service, Hospital/standards , Health Personnel/statistics & numerical data , Personal Protective Equipment/supply & distribution , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Telemedicine , COVID-19/transmission , COVID-19/virology , Emergency Service, Hospital/organization & administration , Humans , Infectious Disease Transmission, Patient-to-Professional/prevention & control , Slovenia/epidemiology
8.
Br Dent J ; 229(12): 801-805, 2020 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-989751

ABSTRACT

As routine care was suspended in most countries, one could anticipate progression of undiagnosed and managed oral disease. Patients are usually unaware of the development of oral disease as it is not visible to them and largely asymptomatic, especially in its early stages. The natural progression of conditions such as caries and periodontitis is inevitable without diagnosis and management. The full extent of patient harm because of the suspension of routine dental care can only be estimated when routine oral examinations are fully re-established, and even then, we will probably never know the number of individuals impacted or the extent of disease progression and harm.In first-world countries, there has always been a back-up emergency treatment system for dental problems. For example, in the UK, the safety net for life-threatening swellings and for acute pain relief is the accident and emergency services. This system remained in place during the COVID-19 pandemic. Courts could be expected to understand the coronavirus context and would take this into account should there be a complaint against the clinician about access to care.The suspension of routine dental care to save lives will lead to the closure of many dental practices due to substantial financial impact. The return to routine care will be slow, with prioritisation of non-aerosol generating procedures while we look to further understand methods to mitigate transmission risk via infected aerosol and spatter. Inevitably, the cost of personal protective equipment and the lower volume of patients pose a continued threat to businesses.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Dental Care , Humans , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2
9.
Eur J Paediatr Dent ; 21(4): 277-282, 2020 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-994937

ABSTRACT

AIM: The aim of this study was to evaluate the features of inhalation conscious sedation for urgent dental treatments in uncooperative paediatric patients during COVID-19 outbreak. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Forty-two uncooperative patients, attending primary and secondary schools, were submitted to emergency dental treatments with inhalation conscious sedation using nitrous oxide and oxygen during COVID-19 pandemic. Collected data included: number of working sessions, success/failure, adverse events, side effects, number of teeth treated; type of dental procedure. Parents filled in an e-mailed questionnaire on post-discharge children status to evaluate: pain; crying; fever; vomiting; headache; drowsiness; excitability; irritability; ability to eat; need for drugs. RESULTS: One working session was carried out in 29 patients, 2 working sessions were carried out in 6 patients and 3 working sessions were carried out in 7 patients. Success rate was 87.1%. In relation to success, there was no statistically significant difference between males and females, healthy and disabled patients, respectively; while there was a statistically significant difference between patients attending primary and secondary schools (p=0.023). No adverse events occurred. The most frequent side effect was nausea. In relation to side effects, there was no statistically significant difference between males and females, healthy and disabled patients, patients attending primary and secondary schools, respectively. In relation to e-mailed questionnaires on post-discharge children status, 29.6% of the patients had pain, 22.2% vomited, 14.8% had headache, 18.5% experienced drowsiness, 29.6% failed to eating normally, 35.2% needed to take drugs. None of the patients cried, had a fever, exhibited irritability and excitability. CONCLUSION: Inhalation conscious sedation is a safe, practical and effective procedure with minimal side effects to perform emergency dental treatments in uncooperative paediatric patients during COVID-19 outbreak.


Subject(s)
Anesthesia, Dental , Anesthetics, Inhalation , COVID-19 , Aftercare , Anesthetics, Inhalation/adverse effects , Child , Child Behavior , Conscious Sedation , Female , Humans , Male , Nitrous Oxide/adverse effects , Oxygen , Pandemics , Patient Discharge , SARS-CoV-2 , Treatment Outcome
10.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 17(21)2020 10 22.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-983186

ABSTRACT

This study aimed to assess dental care needs in Cluj region during the State of Emergency, declared due to the COVID-19 pandemic, compared to the same period of the year 2019. A descriptive retrospective analysis was conducted, which retrieved patients seeking emergency dental services at the Emergency Department of County General Hospital and "Iuliu Hațieganu" University of Medicine and Pharmacy, Cluj-Napoca, Romania, the only dental service available in April 2020. Recorded data cover the month of April 2020 and is compared with the same period of 2019. During April 2020, 724 patients received dental care, whereas only 160 patients were treated in April 2019 in the same facility. The number of patients with acute apical periodontitis, abscess, and acute pulpitis was significantly higher in 2020. The percentage of patients receiving sedative filling for the treatment of acute pulpitis in 2020 was significantly higher than in 2019, while the proportion of patients receiving pulpectomy was higher in 2019. The percentage of patients receiving endodontic drainage for the treatment of acute periapical periodontitis in 2020 was higher. This study demonstrates that the COVID-19 pandemic impacted the use of medical care services and could further impact the oral health and quality of life of patients.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Dentistry/statistics & numerical data , Emergency Service, Hospital , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Betacoronavirus , COVID-19 , Cross-Sectional Studies , Humans , Pandemics , Retrospective Studies , Romania/epidemiology , SARS-CoV-2
11.
Microorganisms ; 8(11)2020 Oct 31.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-976333

ABSTRACT

In the context of the SARS-CoV-2 (Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2) pandemic, the medical system has been subjected to many changes. Face-to-face treatments have been suspended for a period of time. After the lockdown, dentists have to be aware of the modalities to protect themselves and their patients in order not to get infected. Dental practitioners are potentially exposed to a high degree of contamination with SARS-CoV-2 while performing dental procedures that produce aerosols. It should also be noted that the airways, namely the oral cavity and nostrils, are the access pathways for SARS-CoV-2. In order to protect themselves and their patients, they have to use full personal protective equipment. Relevant data regarding this pandemic are under evaluation and are still under test. In this article, we made a synthesis about the way in which SARS-CoV-2 spreads, how to diagnose a novel corona virus infection, what the possible treatments are, and which protective personal equipment we can use to stop its spreading.

12.
Community Dent Oral Epidemiol ; 49(4): 369-376, 2021 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-971807

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: Oral health is essential to maintaining good overall health, and access to dental care is necessary for the early detection, prevention and control of oral diseases. The COVID-19 pandemic has seen a significant disruption in the provision of dental services globally. The aim of this study was to investigate the impact of COVID-19 on dental services provided in Australia through the Child Dental Benefits Schedule. METHODS: This study was a retrospective analysis of Medicare data on utilization of the Child Dental Benefits Schedule obtained from the Australian Government. Data were analysed for the period February to September 2020, with the number of services provided per month across five categories (diagnostic, preventive, restorative, endodontic and oral surgery) compared with the monthly average for 2019 (95% CI) and the same month for 2019. Total services by month were reported for 2017, 2018 and 2019 to compare the yearly trend with 2020. Differences in services provision by State/Territory were also described. RESULTS: Over the period of March to September, there were 881 454 fewer dental services provided in 2020 than 2019, with the largest decline seen in April. There was a greater decline in preventive and diagnostic services, and a smaller decline in endodontic and oral surgery services. A second wave of COVID-19 in Victoria saw 198 609 fewer dental services provided in that state from July to September 2020 than 2019. Dental service provision had still not returned to normal levels across Australia by September 2020. CONCLUSION: The COVID-19 pandemic has had a significant impact on the provision of dental services to children from lower socioeconomic backgrounds who already experience higher levels of dental disease and disadvantage in accessing dental care. Although the restriction of dental services was deemed necessary in order to minimize the risk of transmission of COVID-19 in the dental setting, the impact of these restrictions on oral health will be long lasting. Given the chronic and progressive nature of dental disease, the deferral of necessary dental care is likely to contribute to poorer oral health and long-term problems for many Australians.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pandemics , Aged , Australia/epidemiology , Child , Dental Care , Humans , National Health Programs , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2
13.
BMC Oral Health ; 20(1): 354, 2020 12 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-958035

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The highly contagious nature of the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV2), besides the fact that dental procedures commonly generate blood and saliva droplets that could lead to the contagion have resulted in the closure of many dental clinics. In the present study, we aimed to evaluate the impact of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic on dental practice by conducting an online questionnaire among the Iranian dental practitioners and finding their perspectives on the subject. METHODS: This report is based on a questionnaire that was conducted among Iranian dentists. The survey included questions that evaluate the dentists' perceptions and attitudes toward the COVID-19 pandemic and its effect on their personal life, financial status, and the quality of dental services for patients. RESULTS: Overall, 240 dentists contributed to this study (214 general dentists and 26 specialists). The majority of the participants (n = 170, 70%) did not perform non-emergency procedures during the pandemic. The dental practitioners have suggested several strategies to decrease the risk of contagion, such as reducing treatment sessions (n = 90, 37%), strict triage of patients (n = 156, 64%), and using personal protective equipment (n = 108, 45%). However, most of the dentists (n = 210, 87%) had problems, providing personal protective equipment during the pandemic. Moreover, 97% (n = 234) of the participants reported that they encountered a decrease in their financial income since the eruption of the pandemic. CONCLUSION: Dental health care workers are at the highest risk of contracting COVID-19. Thus, dental practitioners ought to execute the standard protocols more cautiously during the pandemic. They could also lower their work hours and limit dental procedures to emergency treatments to reduce the risk of COVID-19 transmission. Besides, the public organizations should provide proper equipment for the dental practitioners to decrease the risk of contagion.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/prevention & control , Dentistry/methods , Adult , Aged , Dentists , Female , Humans , Income/trends , Infection Control , Iran/epidemiology , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Personal Protective Equipment/supply & distribution , Surveys and Questionnaires
14.
Disaster Med Public Health Prep ; : 1-5, 2020 Oct 23.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-889070

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: The 2019 coronavirus disease (COVID-19) has spread to most countries around the world, infecting millions of people and resulting in the pandemic. This presents great challenges for dental professionals. It is necessary to explore preventive measures for COVID-19 in dental treatments. METHODS: In this paper, we outline several measures designed to prevent COVID-19 in dental treatments, such as 3-level pre-examination triage and 2-body temperature tests, 3-level protection for medical personnel, gargling before oral treatment, implementing the 4-hand operation, suctioning saliva during oral treatment, using a rubber dam, and strict enforcement of hand hygiene. These measures include recommendations for medical staff and give practical advice for managing treatment. RESULTS: The epidemic has been brought under control, and routine oral examination and treatments have gradually been resumed from March 9, 2020, in Hunan Province, China. From January 24 to March 8, 2020, a total of 4272 patients received oral therapy during the COVID-19 epidemic in our hospital. We followed these guidelines during the COVID-19 epidemic, and none of the clinical dental staff, other workers, or patients were infected with COVID-19. CONCLUSIONS: These preventive measures for COVID-19 in dental treatments can be used as a reference for oral clinics and stomatological hospitals.

15.
BMC Oral Health ; 20(1): 285, 2020 10 17.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-873975

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Severe Early Childhood Caries (S-ECC) is an aggressive form of tooth decay that often requires pediatric dental rehabilitative surgery. The Early Childhood Oral Health Impact Scale (ECOHIS) measures oral health-related quality of life (OHRQL). The purpose of this study was to determine whether there is an association between ECOHIS scores and surgery wait times for children undergoing dental treatment for S-ECC under general anesthesia (GA). METHODS: The hypothesis was that there is no present association between wait times and ECOHIS score. Children under 72 months of age with S-ECC were recruited on the day of their slated dental surgery under GA. Parents/caregivers completed a questionnaire that included the ECOHIS. Data were merged with other ECOHIS scores from a previous study. Wait times were acquired from the Patient Access Registry Tool (PART) database. Data analysis included descriptive statistics and bivariate analyses. A p-value of ≤0.05 was considered statistically significant; 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were reported for each correlation coefficient. This study was approved by the University of Manitoba's Health Research Ethics Board. RESULTS: Overall, 200 children participated, the majority of whom were Indigenous (63%) and resided in Winnipeg (52.5%). The mean age was 47.6 ± 13.8 months and 50.5% were female. Analyses showed ECOHIS scores were not significantly correlated with children's wait times. Observed correlations between ECOHIS and children's wait times were low and not statistically significant, ranging from ρ = 0.11 for wait times and child impact section (CIS) scores (95% CI: - 0.04, 0.26; p = 0.14), ρ = - 0.08 for family impact section (FIS) scores (95% CI: - 0.23, 0.07; p = 0.28), and ρ = 0.04 for total ECOHIS scores (95% CI: - 0.11, 0.19; p = 0.56). CONCLUSION: No significant associations were observed between ECOHIS scores and wait times. In fact, those with worse OHRQL appeared to wait longer for surgery. ECOHIS scores could, however, still be used to help prioritize children for dental surgery to ensure that they receive timely access to dental care under GA. This is essential given the challenges posed by COVID-19 on timely access to surgical care.


Subject(s)
Dental Caries/diagnosis , Oral Health/statistics & numerical data , Quality of Life/psychology , Waiting Lists , Betacoronavirus , COVID-19 , Child , Child, Preschool , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Dental Caries/epidemiology , Female , Humans , Male , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , SARS-CoV-2
19.
Child Youth Serv Rev ; 118: 105469, 2020 Nov.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-758671

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Severe measures have been implemented around the world to reduce COVID-19 spread with a significant impact on family dynamics. AIM: To assess the impact of the pandemic on fear, dietary choices and oral health perceptions of parents. DESIGN: questionnaire containing 19 questions was remotely applied to 1003 parents of children aged 0-12 years. The questions addressed topics regarding changes in daily routine, dietary habits, fear level, oral health, and variation of income during the pandemic. Data analysis included the description of the relative and absolute frequencies of the variables. Association tests were performed using Fisher's exact and Kruskal-Wallis tests. RESULTS: 73% of respondents reported income loss. Five hundred sixty-eight people denied seeking medical or dental care. 61.5% of respondents revealed changes in the dietary pattern; most of them mentioned an increase in food intake. Most parents (66.6%) would only seek urgent dental care. There was an association between parents' willingness to take their children to dental appointments with the fear level (p < 0.001). CONCLUSIONS: Most families have experienced changes in daily routine and eating habits during the pandemic. Parents fear COVID-19 and it impacts their behavior regarding seeking dental care for their children.

20.
Phys Fluids (1994) ; 32(8): 083111, 2020 Aug 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-752385

ABSTRACT

The aerosol transmissibility of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) has impacted the delivery of health care and essentially stopped the provision of medical and dental therapies. Dentistry uses rotary, ultrasonic, and laser-based instruments that produce water-based aerosols in the daily, routine treatment of patients. Abundant aerosols are generated, which reach health care workers and other patients. Viruses, including SARS-CoV-2 virus and related coronavirus disease (COVID-19) pandemic, continued expansion throughout the USA and the world. The virus is spread by both droplet (visible drops) and aerosol (practically invisible drops) transmission. The generation of aerosols in dentistry-an unavoidable part of most dental treatments-creates a high-risk situation. The US Centers for Disease Control and The Occupational Safety and Health Administration consider dental procedures to be of "highest risk" in the potential spreading of SARS-CoV-2 and other respiratory viruses. There are several ways to reduce or eliminate the virus: (i) cease or postpone dentistry (public and personal health risk), (ii) screen patients immediately prior to dental treatment (by appropriate testing, if any), (iii) block/remove the virus containing aerosol by engineering controls together with stringent personal protective equipment use. The present work takes a novel, fourth approach. By altering the physical response of water to the rotary or ultrasonic forces that are used in dentistry, the generation of aerosol particles and the distance any aerosol may spread beyond the point of generation can be markedly suppressed or completely eliminated in comparison to water for both the ultrasonic scaler and dental handpiece.

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