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1.
Psychiatr Danub ; 32(3-4): 527-535, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2100775

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Adolescents' anxiety and depression during the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic outbreak cannot be ignored. In public health crisis events, adolescents are prone to negative psychological problems, such as anxiety and depression. Hence, this research focuses on the use of reasonable and efficient methods to intervene in adolescents' psychological problems during the COVID-19 pandemic. SUBJECTS AND METHODS: From February to April 2020, we conducted an anonymous online survey on a total of 1,200 adolescents in the provinces of Hunan and Guangxi in China. Moreover, we randomly divided a total of 150 middle school students with anxiety scores greater than 50 and volunteered to participate in the intervention experiment into control and intervention groups, with 75 members in each group. On the basis of the proposed routine treatment, we conducted 8 weeks of model 328-based peer education intervention in the intervention group. RESULTS: After the intervention, the self-rating anxiety scale scores (SAS) of the intervention group are better than those of the control group (P<0.001). Moreover, the self-rating depression scale (SDS) scores of both groups are reduced, but the effect is more significant on the intervention group (P<0.001) than on the control group. Finally, the total Pittsburgh sleep quality index (PSQI) scores of both groups are reduced, but the effect is more significant on the intervention group than on the control group (P=0.001 and <0.001, respectively). CONCLUSIONS: Model 328-based peer education intervention can significantly reduce the level of anxiety and depression in adolescents and improve their sleep quality.


Subject(s)
Anxiety , COVID-19 , Depression , Sleep Wake Disorders , Adolescent , Anxiety/epidemiology , Anxiety/therapy , China , Depression/epidemiology , Depression/therapy , Humans , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , Sleep Wake Disorders/epidemiology , Sleep Wake Disorders/therapy
2.
Psychiatr Danub ; 32(3-4): 491-498, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2100770

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Individuals with certain pre-existing chronic health conditions have been identified as a high-risk group for fatalities of COVID-19. Therefore, it is likely that individuals with chronic diseases may worry during this pandemic to the detriment of their mental health. This study compares the mental health of Bangladeshi adults affected by chronic disease to a healthy, matched control group during the COVID-19 pandemic. SUBJECTS AND METHODS: A matched case-control analysis was performed with data collected from 395 respondents with chronic diseases and 395 controls matched for age, gender, and residence. Inclusion criteria for cases were respondents who self-reported having asthma, cardiovascular disease symptoms and/or diabetes. Respondents were recruited using an online survey, which included the DASS-21 measure to assess symptoms of stress, anxiety, and depression. Chi-square test, t-test, Fisher's exact test and a conditional logistic regression were performed to examine associations among variables. RESULTS: The prevalence of anxiety symptoms and depression symptoms and the level of stress were significantly higher among cases (59%; 71.6%; 73.7%, respectively) than among controls (25.6%; 31.1%; 43.3%, respectively). Chi-square and t-test showed significant associations and differences between having chronic diseases and mental health outcomes. A conditional logistic regression showed that respondents with asthma, diabetes, cardiovascular disease symptoms, or any combination of these diseases had higher odds of exhibiting symptoms of stress, anxiety, and depression than healthy individuals. CONCLUSION: These results underscore a subpopulation vulnerable to mental health consequences during this pandemic and indicate the need for additional mental health resources to be available to those with chronic diseases.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Adult , Anxiety , Case-Control Studies , Chronic Disease , Comorbidity , Depression , Humans , Outcome Assessment, Health Care , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2
3.
Psychiatr Danub ; 32(2): 273-279, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2100758

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Turkey is one of the countries affected during the period of COVID-19 outbreak. The purpose of the current study is to investigate psychological resilience and depression in individuals during the period of COVID-19 outbreak in Turkey in relation to different variables. The study also aims to explore the relationship between psychological resilience and depression. SUBJECTS AND METHODS: The current study was conducted on a total of 518 people over the social media through the Google e-forms. In the study, the "Short Psychological Resilience Scale" and the "Beck Depression Scale" were used to collect data. In the analysis of the collected data, t-test, One Way Anova, Mann-Whitney U Test, Kruskal Wallis-H Test, Pearson Correlation Coefficient were used. RESULTS: In the current study, psychological resilience and depression were investigated in relation to different variables. Psychological resilience was found to be higher male participants, educators,university graduates and groups with not mental health problems. Depression was found to be higher females, university students, high school and lower graduates,with mental health problems. When the relationship between psychological resilience and depression was investigated, it was found that there is a medium and negative correlation between them. Moreover, the cut-off point for the depression score was set to be 17 and the rate of the people having 17 points or higher scores was found to be 16.6%. CONCLUSION: In light of the findings of the current study, it can be suggested to offer more mental health care services to those having higher levels of depression. Studies can be conducted to improve online psychological support services. A medium and negative correlation was found between psychological resilience and depression in the current study, which shows that more importance should be attached to activities to improve psychological resilience.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/psychology , Depression/epidemiology , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Pneumonia, Viral/psychology , Resilience, Psychological , Adolescent , Adult , COVID-19 , Child , Child, Preschool , Female , Humans , Infant , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Turkey/epidemiology , Young Adult
4.
Psychiatr Danub ; 32(2): 266-272, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2100757

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Occurrence of symptoms of fear and depression among general population during the outbreak of COVID-19 seems to present an emerging problem worldwide. The aim of this study was to examine levels of fear and depressive symptoms in association with COVID-19 outbreak and to assess other contributing factors in the population of Bosnia and Herzegovina. SUBJECTS AND METHODS: Link to an anonymous questionnaire, mainly based on The Fear of COVID-19 Scale (Ahorsu et al. 2020) and two-item and nine-item Patient Health Questionnaires (PHQs) (Maurer et al. 2018) (background information, fear assessment and information regarding depression) was distributed online to general population of Bosnia and Herzegovina. RESULTS: Out of 1201 respondents, 217 (18.0%) reported experiencing fear and 341 (28.4%) reported having symptoms of depression during COVID-19 outbreak. The mean age of the subjects was 30.57±11.26. Being older (OR=1.044; 95% CI 1.031-1.057; p<0.001) and having moderate to severe depressive symptoms (OR=1.093; 95% CI 1.067-1.120; p<0.001) were independent significant predictors for developing fear; living in rural environment (OR=0.551; 95% Cl 0.325-0.935; p=0.0027) significantly decreased the risk of developing fear; being female (OR=1.750; 95% CI 1.242-2.466; p=0.001), unemployed (OR=1.557; 95% CI 1.040-2.330; p=0.032) or student (OR=1.943; 95% CI 1.450-2.604; p<0.001) were independent significant predictors for developing moderate to severe depressive symptoms in association with COVID-19. Mann Whitney U-test showed that being older was statistically associated with fear (p<0.001) and being younger was statistically associated with depressive symptoms (p<0.001). CONCLUSIONS: In conclusion, based on our findings, fear and depressive symptoms in general population of Bosnia and Herzegovina during the outbreak of COVID-19 were present in 18.06% (fear) and 28.39% (depression) of subjects and it was statistically associated with age, gender, occupation, living environment and may present a secondary uprising problem connected to outbreak of COVID-19.


Subject(s)
Anxiety/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/psychology , Depression/epidemiology , Fear , Health Surveys , Internet , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Pneumonia, Viral/psychology , Bosnia and Herzegovina/epidemiology , COVID-19 , Humans , Pandemics
5.
Psychiatr Danub ; 33(1): 101-106, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2094078

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Chronic non-communicable diseases, such as asthma (AS) and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), are a public health problem that compromises patients' quality of life and is highly comorbid with medical and psychological conditions. The present study's objective was to know the variables associated with the risk of major depression during confinement due to SAR-CoV-2 in patients with AS and COPD in the Colombian Caribbean. SUBJECTS AND METHODS: An online cross-sectional observational study was done with the participation of patients diagnosed with AS or COPD. AS and COPD patients completed the Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ-9) to identify a major depressive disorder risk. RESULTS: Two hundred seventy-seven patients diagnosed with AS or COPD aged 18 to 69 (M=60.4, SD=17.6) participated. The risk of major depression was assessed using the PHQ-9 sent online after telephone contact with the participants. 30.7% of the patients during the last month reported a risk of major depression, and it was associated with a history of major depressive disorder (OR=4.39, 95% CI 1.53-12.67) and medical comorbidity (OR=1.69, 95% CI 1.00-2.86). CONCLUSIONS: The depression risk is associated with a history of depressive disorder and medical comorbidity in patients with AS and COPD. Medical history is the leading risk factor for depression during confinement. It is recommended to carry out studies with many participants and study other variables that may mediate said associations during confinement by SAR-CoV-2 in the Colombian Caribbean.


Subject(s)
Asthma , Depressive Disorder, Major , Pulmonary Disease, Chronic Obstructive , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Asthma/epidemiology , Colombia/epidemiology , Comorbidity , Cross-Sectional Studies , Depression , Depressive Disorder, Major/epidemiology , Humans , Middle Aged , Pulmonary Disease, Chronic Obstructive/epidemiology , Quality of Life , Risk Factors , Young Adult
6.
JAMA Netw Open ; 3(7): e2014053, 2020 07 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2094114

ABSTRACT

Importance: People exposed to coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) and a series of imperative containment measures could be psychologically stressed, yet the burden of and factors associated with mental health symptoms remain unclear. Objective: To investigate the prevalence of and risk factors associated with mental health symptoms in the general population in China during the COVID-19 pandemic. Design, Setting, and Participants: This large-sample, cross-sectional, population-based, online survey study was conducted from February 28, 2020, to March 11, 2020. It involved all 34 province-level regions in China and included participants aged 18 years and older. Data analysis was performed from March to May 2020. Main Outcomes and Measures: The prevalence of symptoms of depression, anxiety, insomnia, and acute stress among the general population in China during the COVID-19 pandemic was evaluated using the Patient Health Questionnaire-9, Generalized Anxiety Disorder-7, Insomnia Severity Index, and Acute Stress Disorder Scale. Logistic regression analyses were used to explore demographic and COVID-19-related risk factors. Results: Of 71 227 individuals who clicked on the survey link, 56 932 submitted the questionnaires, for a participation rate of 79.9%. After excluding the invalid questionnaires, 56 679 participants (mean [SD] age, 35.97 [8.22] years; 27 149 men [47.9%]) were included in the study; 39 468 respondents (69.6%) were aged 18 to 39 years. During the COVID-19 pandemic, the rates of mental health symptoms among the survey respondents were 27.9% (95% CI, 27.5%-28.2%) for depression, 31.6% (95% CI, 31.2%-32.0%) for anxiety, 29.2% (95% CI, 28.8%-29.6%) for insomnia, and 24.4% (95% CI, 24.0%-24.7%) for acute stress. Participants with confirmed or suspected COVID-19 and their family members or friends had a high risk for symptoms of depression (adjusted odds ratios [ORs], 3.27 [95% CI, 1.84-5.80] for patients; 1.53 [95% CI, 1.26-1.85] for family or friends), anxiety (adjusted ORs, 2.48 [95% CI, 1.43-4.31] for patients; 1.53 [95% CI, 1.27-1.84] for family or friends), insomnia (adjusted ORs, 3.06 [95% CI, 1.73-5.43] for patients; 1.62 [95% CI, 1.35-1.96] for family or friends), and acute stress (adjusted ORs, 3.50 [95% CI, 2.02-6.07] for patients; 1.77 [95% CI, 1.46-2.15] for family or friends). Moreover, people with occupational exposure risks and residents in Hubei province had increased odds of symptoms of depression (adjusted ORs, 1.96 [95% CI, 1.77-2.17] for occupational exposure; 1.42 [95% CI, 1.19-1.68] for Hubei residence), anxiety (adjusted ORs, 1.93 [95% CI, 1.75-2.13] for occupational exposure; 1.54 [95% CI, 1.30-1.82] for Hubei residence), insomnia (adjusted ORs, 1.60 [95% CI, 1.45-1.77] for occupational exposure; 1.20 [95% CI, 1.01-1.42] for Hubei residence), and acute stress (adjusted ORs, 1.98 [95% CI, 1.79-2.20] for occupational exposure; 1.49 [95% CI, 1.25-1.79] for Hubei residence). Both centralized quarantine (adjusted ORs, 1.33 [95% CI, 1.10-1.61] for depression; 1.46 [95% CI, 1.22-1.75] for anxiety; 1.63 [95% CI, 1.36-1.95] for insomnia; 1.46 [95% CI, 1.21-1.77] for acute stress) and home quarantine (adjusted ORs, 1.30 [95% CI, 1.25-1.36] for depression; 1.28 [95% CI, 1.23-1.34] for anxiety; 1.24 [95% CI, 1.19-1.30] for insomnia; 1.29 [95% CI, 1.24-1.35] for acute stress) were associated with the 4 negative mental health outcomes. Being at work was associated with lower risks of depression (adjusted OR, 0.85 [95% CI, 0.79-0.91]), anxiety (adjusted OR, 0.92 [95% CI, 0.86-0.99]), and insomnia (adjusted OR, 0.87 [95% CI, 0.81-0.94]). Conclusions and Relevance: The results of this survey indicate that mental health symptoms may have been common during the COVID-19 outbreak among the general population in China, especially among infected individuals, people with suspected infection, and people who might have contact with patients with COVID-19. Some measures, such as quarantine and delays in returning to work, were also associated with mental health among the public. These findings identify populations at risk for mental health problems during the COVID-19 pandemic and may help in implementing mental health intervention policies in other countries and regions.


Subject(s)
Anxiety , Coronavirus Infections , Depression , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral , Sleep Initiation and Maintenance Disorders , Stress, Psychological , Adult , Anxiety/diagnosis , Anxiety/epidemiology , Anxiety/physiopathology , Betacoronavirus/isolation & purification , COVID-19 , China/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/diagnosis , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/psychology , Depression/diagnosis , Depression/epidemiology , Depression/physiopathology , Female , Humans , Male , Mental Health/statistics & numerical data , Mental Status Schedule/statistics & numerical data , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnosis , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Pneumonia, Viral/psychology , Prevalence , Quarantine/psychology , Return to Work/psychology , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2 , Sleep Initiation and Maintenance Disorders/diagnosis , Sleep Initiation and Maintenance Disorders/epidemiology , Sleep Initiation and Maintenance Disorders/physiopathology , Stress, Psychological/diagnosis , Stress, Psychological/epidemiology , Stress, Psychological/physiopathology
7.
Curr Psychol ; 41(8): 5723-5730, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1982341

ABSTRACT

Home quarantine may lead to families developing a variety of psychological distress. The purpose of this study was to examine the psychological status of children and their parent during 2019 coronavirus disease (COVID-19) outbreak in China. Data were collected from children (n = 1360) and their parent (n = 1360) in China using online survey during February 2020. Demographic information, media exposure, and psychological status including anxiety, depression and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms were assessed using self-report measures. The results indicated that, for children, 1.84% experienced moderate anxiety, 2.22% experienced depression and 3.16% met the diagnostic criteria for PTSD; for parent, 1.18%, 0.01% and 3.60% experienced moderate anxiety, severe depression, and moderate depression, respectively, and 3.53% met the diagnostic criteria for PTSD. Moreover, excessive media exposure (ß = -0.08 ~ 0.13, ps < 0.05) was a risk factor for anxiety and PTSD for children, a positive factor against anxiety and depression for parent. Being a mother (ß = 0.07 ~ 0.21, ps < 0.01), being younger (ß = -0.09 ~ -0.07, ps < 0.05), lower levels of educational attainment (ß = -0.17 ~ -0.08, ps < 0.01) and family monthly income (ß = -0.17 ~ -0.11, ps < 0.05) were risk factors for anxiety, depression and PTSD for parent. Findings suggested that children and their parent in non-severe area didn't suffer major psychological distress during the outbreak. Factors associated with lower levels of mental health problems were identified to inform the use of psychological interventions to improve the mental health of vulnerable groups during the pandemic.

8.
Front Psychol ; 11: 590559, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1933806

ABSTRACT

Psychological science faces a call to action researching the implications of the corona virus disease 2019 (Covid-19) pandemic. Rapid reviews have reported that maintaining rigorous research standards is a priority for the field, such as ensuring reliable and valid measurement, when investigating people's experience of Covid-19 (O'Connor et al., 2020). However, no research to date has validated a measure mental health symptomology for an athlete population. The current research addresses this gap by examining the internal consistency, factor structure, invariance, and convergent validity of the Depression Anxiety and Stress Scale (DASS-21; Lovibond and Lovibond, 1995) in two athlete samples. Participants completed the DASS-21 and sport-specific measures of mental health such as the Profile of Mood States - Depression subscale (POMS-D), Sport Anxiety Scale-2 (SAS-2), Athlete Burnout Questionnaire (ABQ), and Athlete Psychological Strain Questionnaire (APSQ). In sample one (n = 894), results of exploratory structural equation modeling indicated that a three-factor model provided good fit to the data, but a bifactor model provided better fit. Factor loadings indicated minimal misspecification and higher loadings on the general-factor. Invariance testing suggested equivalence across gender, athletic expertise, sport type, and injury status. Further, latent mean differences analyses indicated that females and injured athletes scored higher than male and non-injured athletes on all DASS-21 factors reporting higher mental health symptomology, those with more expertise scored higher on the general-factor and depression and those with less expertise scored higher on anxiety and stress, and no differences between team and individual athletes. In sample two (n = 589), the bifactor structure was replicated. Results largely supported the scales convergent validity with depression predicting POMS-D scores, whereas all three subscales predicted the SAS-2, ABQ, and APSQ scores. Internal consistency was acceptable in both samples. The current work provides initial support for use of the DASS-21 as an operationalisation of mental health symptomology in athletes. Theoretical and practical implications of these results are discussed.

9.
Psychosom Med ; 83(4): 368-372, 2021 05 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1931979

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: Infectious diseases can cause psychological changes in patients. This study aimed to evaluate the prevalence and related risk factors for anxiety and depression in patients with COVID-19. METHODS: A cross-sectional study was performed on patients with COVID-19 admitted to the Sino-French New City branch of Wuhan Tongji Hospital from January to February 2020. The Zung Self-Rating Anxiety and Depression Scales were used to evaluate the prevalence of anxiety and depression. Demographic, clinical, and sociological data were also collected. Multivariable logistic regression analysis was used to identify independent risk factors of anxiety and depression in patients with COVID-19. RESULTS: In the current study, 183 patients were enrolled (mean age = 53 ± 9 years; 41.1% women). The prevalences of anxiety and depression were 56.3% and 39.3%, respectively. Logistic regression analysis revealed that older age, female sex, being divorced or widowed, COVID-19 disease duration, renal disease, and depression were identified as independent risk factors for anxiety in patients with COVID-19. Factors that were associated with depression were female sex, being widowed, COVID-19 disease duration, and anxiety. CONCLUSIONS: This study demonstrates a high prevalence of anxiety and depression in patients with COVID-19 at the peak of the epidemic in Wuhan, China. The identification of demographic, clinical, and social factors may help identify health care professionals to provide psychological care as part of treatment for patients with COVID-19 and other life-threatening infectious diseases.


Subject(s)
Anxiety/epidemiology , COVID-19/psychology , Depression/epidemiology , Anxiety/etiology , COVID-19/complications , China/epidemiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Depression/etiology , Female , Humans , Logistic Models , Male , Middle Aged , Prevalence , Psychiatric Status Rating Scales , Risk Factors
10.
Infect Drug Resist ; 14: 2113-2119, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1808755

ABSTRACT

AIM: The global impact of COVID-19 on mental health increases from time to time. Several studies show that depression is highly prevalent among quarantined individuals. COVID-19 is a pandemic with a rapidly increasing incidence of infections and deaths. People are depressed and psychologically overwhelmed by the illness and possible loss of their friends and loved ones. OBJECTIVE: To assess the prevalence and associated factors of depression symptoms among quarantined individuals in Tigrai treatment center, Tigrai, Ethiopia, 2020. METHODS: A multicenter Institution-based cross-sectional study was employed among individuals in the Tigrai quarantine centers. A simple random sampling technique was used between April and October 2020 until an adequate sample size was reached. Depression was assessed by using the depression, anxiety, and stress scale (DASS). Epi data manager version 4.4 was used to enter data and data was analyzed using SPSS version 20. Logistic regression was carried out and an odds ratio with 95% confidence intervals (CI) was computed to identify factors associated with depression. A P-value of less than 0.05 was considered as statistically significant and the strength of the association was presented by an odds ratio of 95% CI. RESULTS: The finding of the present study on the prevalence of depression among quarantined individuals was 18.1 with 95% CI (14.8-22.9). Bivariate and multivariable logistic regression analysis was performed and factors such as being female, duration of quarantine, unemployment, and having perceived stigma were significantly associated with depression. RECOMMENDATION AND CONCLUSION: The prevalence of depression symptoms among quarantined individuals during the COVID-19 pandemic was 18.1%. In multivariable logistic regression analysis, being female, duration of quarantine, unemployment, and having perceived stigma were significantly associated with depression. So, clinicians, mental health professionals, and policymakers should work together to address the problem.

11.
J Taibah Univ Med Sci ; 15(6): 536-543, 2020 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1796394

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: This study aims to assess the magnitude of depression, anxiety, and stress among health care workers by the coronavirus disease (COVID-19) in Almadinah Almunawwarah, KSA. METHODS: This cross-sectional study examined 122 health care workers between April and May 2020 through the electronic use of the Hospital Anxiety and Depression (HAD) questionnaire, and Perceived Stress Scale (PSS). The perceptions of the participants towards stigmatisation of their profession during the COVID-19 pandemic were also assessed through a Likert's scale. The magnitude of anxiety, depression, and stress were analysed using a mean ± SD, correlation and percentages in respective statistics. A p value of <0.05 was considered significant. RESULTS: This study found that 32.9% of the healthcare workers frequently faced COVID-19 cases during the ongoing pandemic. As many as 35.6% were unusually anxious. A mean anxiety score of 8.43 ± 4.6 was noted, with significantly higher scores for women and those workers with inadequate training (p < 0.001 and 0.028). Moreover, a mean depression score of 7.6 ± 4.7 (p < 0.002) was recorded for the healthcare workers with inadequate training. About 27.9% of the participants were depressed. The mean stress score of the study cohort was 6.86 ± 2.5. From the cohort, 24.5% and 72.8% experienced mild and moderate stress, respectively. This study found that inadequate training for infection control was associated with a higher proportion of anxiety and depression [OR 1.86 (95% CI: 1.5-2.3; p < 0.043) and OR 2.21 (95% CI: 1.7-2.8; p < 0.018), respectively. CONCLUSION: This study found a high prevalence of anxiety, depression, and moderate stress among healthcare workers, regardless of their job specifications. The associated risk factors for anxiety and depression included inadequate training for infection control, and pre-existing stress-provoking medical conditions.

12.
Neuropsychiatr Dis Treat ; 16: 2511-2518, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1793305

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: COVID-19 has had a devastating impact on the mental health condition of the world's population. Although the direct effect of COVID-19 on the mental health status of chronic medical patients is well understood, the burden of depression and anxiety on patients with chronic medical conditions is not well studied yet. Therefore, the study aimed to assess the prevalence of depression, anxiety and associated factors among chronic medical patients amid the COVID-19 pandemic in Mettu Karl Referral Hospital, Mettu, Ethiopia. METHODS: A facility-based cross-sectional study was conducted from June 1 to July 30, 2020 among chronic medical patients in Mettu Karl Referral Hospital, Ethiopia. Consecutive sampling technique was applied with a total of 423 samples. Quantitative data were employed by using structured questionnaires. Descriptive statistical procedures, bivariate and multivariate logistic regressions with odds ratios and 95% confidence interval (CI) were employed. The statistical significance was declared at p value < 0.05. RESULTS: The findings showed that the prevalence of depression and anxiety among chronic medical patients was 55.7% and 61.8%, respectively. Female gender (AOR = 1.66, 95% CI (1.06, 2.59)), poor social support (AOR = 1.94, 95% CI (1.10, 3.42)), widowed/divorced (AOR = 3.92, 95% CI (1.59, 9.64)), separated (AOR = 3.66, 95% CI (1.64, 8.19)), and longer duration of illness (AOR = 1.82, 95% CI (1.15, 2.89)) were significantly associated with depression, whereas earlier age at onset of illness, having more than three co-morbid diagnoses, tobacco use and poor social support were found to have significant association with anxiety among chronic medical patients amid the COVID-19 pandemic in Ethiopia. CONCLUSION: The magnitude of concurrent depression and anxiety in the current study was high. Strategies for prompt identification and treatment of depression and anxiety should be developed among medically ill patients.

13.
Front Psychol ; 11: 582014, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1760251

ABSTRACT

The outbreak of Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has negatively impacted global economies and employment. In the UK, it is predicted that approximately eight million jobs were furloughed as a result of the outbreak and the associated restriction of movement or shielding measures. This study aimed to investigate the impact of changes in employment status on cognitive and emotional health as well as perceptions of work. Furthermore, it examined the relationships between women's job security and anxiety, depression and cognitive function. Women living with breast cancer (N = 234) completed online questionnaires to measure their cognitive function, general emotional well-being, COVID-19 related emotional vulnerability (COVID-EMV), work ability and COVID-19 related perceptions of work. Our results revealed that threat to job security was predictive of depression and cognitive function in the entire sample Such that those with higher levels of perceived job security had lower depression and better cognitive function. Further, women who were furloughed or unable to continue work reported higher job insecurity compared to those who had worked throughout the pandemic. Greater rumination was also associated with worse anxiety and depression as well as poorer cognitive function. Finally, moderation analysis highlighted that women who had better cognitive functioning were less likely to experience anxiety when their job security was high. Given our findings, we suggest that employers provide women with accessible interventions to enhance cognitive and emotional resilience and thus help protect against the detrimental effects of job insecurity created by the COVID-19 outbreak.

14.
Psychol Res Behav Manag ; 13: 1047-1055, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1725157

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: The COVID-19 (coronavirus disease-2019) has been associated with psychological distress during its rapid rise period in Pakistan. The present study aimed to assess the mental health of healthcare workers (HCWs) in the three metropolitan cities of Pakistan. METHODS: A cross-sectional, web-based study was conducted in 276 HCWs from April 10, 2020, to June 5, 2020. Depression, anxiety, and stress scale (DASS-21) were used for the mental health assessment of the HCWs. Multivariable logistic regression analysis (MLRA) was performed to measure the association between the demographics and the occurrence of depression, anxiety, and stress (DAS). RESULTS: The frequency of DAS in the HCWs was 10.1%, 25.4%, and 7.3%, respectively. The MLRA showed that the depression in HCWs was significantly associated with the profession (P<0.001). The anxiety in HCWs was significantly associated with their age (P=0.005), profession (P<0.05), and residence (P<0.05). The stress in HCWs was significantly associated with their age (P<0.05). LIMITATION: This study was conducted in the early phase of the COVID-19 pandemic, when the number of COVID-19 cases was on the rise in Pakistan and it only represents a definite period (April to June 2020). CONCLUSION: The symptoms of DAS are present in the HCWs of Pakistan and to manage the psychological health of HCWs, there is a need for the initiation of psychological well-being programs.

15.
J Gerontol B Psychol Sci Soc Sci ; 77(4): e5-e10, 2022 04 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1709015

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic is an ongoing stressor that may have detrimental effects on mental health. Theoretical and empirical literature implies that individuals who are characterized by catastrophic appraisals of somatic cues, a tendency known as anxiety sensitivity, as well as by older subjective age, might be particularly vulnerable to depression and anxiety during the pandemic. Furthermore, subjective age might moderate the relations between anxiety sensitivity with depression and anxiety symptoms. Yet, research to date has not explored the contribution of both anxiety sensitivity and subjective age in explaining distress following stress in general, nor in light of the current COVID-19 pandemic. METHOD: Filling this gap, a convenience sample of 828 participants (Mage = 43.98, SD = 14.06) filled questionnaires measuring background variables, COVID-19-related stressors, anxiety sensitivity, subjective age, and anxiety and depression symptoms during the pandemic. RESULTS: Positive associations were found between anxiety sensitivity and subjective age, on the one hand, and anxiety and depression symptoms, on the other. Furthermore, subjective age moderated the relations between anxiety sensitivity with depression and anxiety symptoms. Although higher levels of anxiety sensitivity were related to depression and anxiety during the pandemic, these relations were significantly stronger among participants with an older subjective age. DISCUSSION: The findings are consistent with theories that view subjective age as an intraindividual construct involved in modulating important mental health outcomes in the context of coping with stress.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Anxiety/psychology , COVID-19/epidemiology , Depression/psychology , Humans , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2
16.
Sex Transm Infect ; 98(2): 128-131, 2022 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1691279

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: Women living with HIV in the UK are an ethnically diverse group with significant psychosocial challenges. Increasing numbers are reaching older age. We describe psychological and socioeconomic factors among women with HIV in England aged 45-60 and explore associations with ethnicity. METHODS: Analysis of cross-sectional data on 724 women recruited to the PRIME Study. Psychological symptoms were measured using the Patient Health Questionnaire 4 and social isolation with a modified Duke-UNC Functional Social Support Scale. RESULTS: Black African (BA) women were more likely than Black Caribbean or White British (WB) women to have a university education (48.3%, 27.0%, 25.7%, respectively, p<0.001), but were not more likely to be employed (68.4%, 61.4%, 65.2%, p=0.56) and were less likely to have enough money to meet their basic needs (56.4%, 63.0%, 82.9%, p<0.001). BA women were less likely to report being diagnosed with depression than WB women (adjusted odds ratio (aOR) 0.40, p<0.001) but more likely to report current psychological distress (aOR 3.34, p<0.05). CONCLUSIONS: We report high levels of poverty, psychological distress and social isolation in this ethnically diverse group of midlife women with HIV, especially among those who were BA. Despite being more likely to experience psychological distress, BA women were less likely to have been diagnosed with depression suggesting a possible inequity in access to mental health services. Holistic HIV care requires awareness of the psychosocial needs of older women living with HIV, which may be more pronounced in racially minoritised communities, and prompt referral for support including psychology, peer support and advice about benefits.


Subject(s)
/statistics & numerical data , HIV Infections/psychology , Healthcare Disparities/ethnology , Mental Health/ethnology , Socioeconomic Factors , Age Factors , Anxiety/etiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Depression/etiology , Female , HIV Infections/complications , HIV Infections/epidemiology , Healthcare Disparities/statistics & numerical data , Humans , Middle Aged , Poverty/statistics & numerical data , Social Support , Surveys and Questionnaires , United Kingdom/epidemiology
17.
Psychotherapeut (Berl) ; 65(4): 291-296, 2020.
Article in German | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1680760

ABSTRACT

Due to the pandemic caused by the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) and the resulting constraints on personal (i.e. face to face) treatment, video consultations have recently gained a major role in the delivery of healthcare services; however, until now, most psychotherapists have little experience with conducting video consultations, not least because of poor possibilities for reimbursement from the statutory health insurance. This article provides (1) an overview of the effectiveness of psychotherapy interventions delivered via video consultations for depression and anxiety disorders, (2) recommendations for setting up and conducting these consultations and (3) first experiences of psychotherapists from a German feasibility study and from the provision in routine care in hospital during the COVID-19 pandemic.

18.
J Int Neuropsychol Soc ; 28(2): 177-187, 2022 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1671457

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: The current study aims to examine the prevalence rates and the relationship of symptoms of depression, anxiety, and comorbid depression/anxiety with neurocognitive performance in college athletes at baseline. We hypothesized a priori that the mood disturbance groups would perform worse than healthy controls, with the comorbid group performing worst overall. METHODS: Eight hundred and thirty-one (M = 620, F = 211) collegiate athletes completed a comprehensive neuropsychological test battery at baseline which included self-report measures of anxiety and depression. Athletes were separated into four groups [Healthy Control (HC) (n = 578), Depressive Symptoms Only (n = 137), Anxiety Symptoms Only (n = 54), and Comorbid Depressive/Anxiety Symptoms (n = 62)] based on their anxiety and depression scores. Athletes' neurocognitive functioning was analyzed via Z score composites of Attention/Processing Speed and Memory. RESULTS: One-way analysis of variance revealed that, compared to HC athletes, the comorbid group performed significantly worse on measures of Attention/Processing Speed but not Memory. However, those in the depressive symptoms only and anxiety symptoms only groups were not significantly different from one another or the HC group on neurocognitive outcomes. Chi-square analyses revealed that a significantly greater proportion of athletes in all three affective groups were neurocognitively impaired compared to the HC group. CONCLUSIONS: These results demonstrate that collegiate athletes with comorbid depressive/anxiety symptoms should be identified, as their poorer cognitive performance at baseline could complicate post-concussion interpretation. Thus, assessing for mood disturbance at baseline is essential to obtain an accurate measurement of baseline functioning. Further, given the negative health outcomes associated with affective symptomatology, especially comorbidities, it is important to provide care as appropriate.


Subject(s)
Athletic Injuries , Brain Concussion , Anxiety/epidemiology , Athletes , Athletic Injuries/complications , Athletic Injuries/diagnosis , Athletic Injuries/epidemiology , Brain Concussion/complications , Brain Concussion/diagnosis , Brain Concussion/epidemiology , Humans , Neuropsychological Tests
19.
Scand J Public Health ; 49(7): 721-729, 2021 Nov.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1636188

ABSTRACT

AIMS: Maternal mental distress in pregnancy can be damaging to the mother's and child's physical and mental health. This study aimed to provide an insight into mental well-being of pregnant women in Denmark during COVID-19 by assessing symptoms of depression and anxiety. METHODS: Data from two cohorts of pregnant women recruited from Danish general practice were compared. A COVID-19 lockdown cohort (N=330) completed questionnaires between 8 April and 6 May. Responses were compared to those from a control cohort of women from 2016 (N=1428). Mental well-being was measured with the Major Depression Inventory (MDI) and the Anxiety Symptom Scale (ASS). RESULTS: Questionnaires were returned by 83% of the COVID-19 lockdown cohort and by 93% of the control cohort. Multivariable analysis controlling for age, cohabitation status, occupation, smoking, alcohol use, chronic disease, fertility treatment, parity and children living at home showed no difference in depressive symptoms (MDI). Anxiety symptoms (ASS) were slightly worse in the COVID-19 lockdown cohort (mean difference=1.4 points), mainly driven by questions concerning general anxiety. The largest differences in anxiety were seen in first trimester (adjusted mean difference=4.0 points). CONCLUSIONS: Pregnant women questioned during the COVID-19 pandemic showed no change in symptoms of depression and only a modest elevation of anxiety when compared to pregnant women questioned during a non-pandemic period in 2016.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pregnant Women , Anxiety/epidemiology , Child , Communicable Disease Control , Denmark/epidemiology , Depression/epidemiology , Female , Humans , Pandemics , Pregnancy , SARS-CoV-2 , Stress, Psychological
20.
Int J Soc Psychiatry ; 66(8): 756-762, 2020 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1638753

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The severe outbreak of COVID-19 has affected the mental health of Indians. AIM: The objective of this article was to find the prevalence rates of depression, anxiety and stress and their socio-demographic correlates among Indian population during the lockdown to contain the spread of COVID-19. METHODS: A cross-sectional survey was conducted using an electronic questionnaire. A total of 354 participants were recruited through convenience sampling. Depression, anxiety and stress were measured using Depression Anxiety Stress Scale (DASS-21), a 21-item self-reported questionnaire. RESULTS: In total, 25%, 28% and 11.6% of the participants were moderate to extremely severely depressed, anxious and stressed, respectively. Binary logistic regressions indicated employment status (odds ratio (OR) = 1.91; 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.072-3.418) and binge drinking (OR = 2.03; 95% CI: 1.045-3.945) were significantly associated with depressive symptoms; gender (OR = 2.17; 95% CI: 1.317-3.589), employment status (OR = 1.77; 95% CI: 1.002-3.141) and binge drinking (OR = 2.62; 95% CI: 1.361-5.048) were significantly associated with anxiety symptoms; and binge drinking (OR = 3.42; 95% CI: 1.544-7.583) was significantly associated with stress symptoms. CONCLUSION: Depression, anxiety and stress among Indian population during the lockdown were prevalent. Along with other measures to contain the spread of COVID-19, mental health of citizens needs the urgent attention of the Indian government and mental health experts. Further large-scale studies should be conducted on different professions and communities such as health care professionals and migrant workers and incorporate other mental health indicators.


Subject(s)
Anxiety/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/psychology , Depression/epidemiology , Mental Health , Pneumonia, Viral/psychology , Stress, Psychological/epidemiology , Adolescent , Adult , Anxiety/diagnosis , Betacoronavirus , Binge Drinking/epidemiology , COVID-19 , Cross-Sectional Studies , Depression/diagnosis , Female , Humans , India/epidemiology , Logistic Models , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Prevalence , Psychiatric Status Rating Scales , Quarantine/psychology , SARS-CoV-2 , Social Isolation/psychology , Stress, Psychological/diagnosis , Surveys and Questionnaires , Young Adult
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