Your browser doesn't support javascript.
Show: 20 | 50 | 100
Results 1 - 20 de 35
Filter
1.
Viruses ; 12(12)2020 11 30.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1389520

ABSTRACT

Aptamers are short fragments of nucleic acids, DNA or RNA that have the ability to bind selected proteins with high specificity and affinity. These properties allow them to be used as an element of biosensors for the detection of specific proteins, including viral ones, which makes it possible to design valuable diagnostic tools. The influenza virus causes a huge number of human and animal deaths worldwide every year, and contributes to remarkable economic losses. In addition, in 2020, a new threat appeared-the SARS-Cov-2 pandemic. Both disease entities, especially in the initial stage of infection, are almost identical in terms of signs and symptoms. Therefore, a diagnostic solution is needed that will allow distinguishing between both pathogens, with high sensitivity and specificity; it should be cheap, quick and possible to use in the field, for example, in a doctor's office. All the mentioned properties are met by aptasensors in which the detection elements are specific aptamers. We present here the latest developments in the construction of various types of aptasensors for the detection of influenza virus. Aptasensor operation is based on the measurement of changes in electric impedance, fluorescence or electric signal (impedimetric, fluorescence and electrochemical aptasensors, respectively); it allows both qualitative and quantitative determinations. The particularly high advancement for detecting of influenza virus concerns impedimetric aptasensors.


Subject(s)
Aptamers, Nucleotide/therapeutic use , Biosensing Techniques , Influenza, Human/diagnosis , Orthomyxoviridae/isolation & purification , Aptamers, Nucleotide/genetics , COVID-19/diagnosis , Electric Impedance , Electrochemical Techniques , Fluorescence , Humans , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification
2.
Anal Chim Acta ; 1159: 338384, 2021 May 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1279519

ABSTRACT

Viruses are the causing agents for many relevant diseases, including influenza, Ebola, HIV/AIDS, and COVID-19. Its rapid replication and high transmissibility can lead to serious consequences not only to the individual but also to collective health, causing deep economic impacts. In this scenario, diagnosis tools are of significant importance, allowing the rapid, precise, and low-cost testing of a substantial number of individuals. Currently, PCR-based techniques are the gold standard for the diagnosis of viral diseases. Although these allow the diagnosis of different illnesses with high precision, they still present significant drawbacks. Their main disadvantages include long periods for obtaining results and the need for specialized professionals and equipment, requiring the tests to be performed in research centers. In this scenario, biosensors have been presented as promising alternatives for the rapid, precise, low-cost, and on-site diagnosis of viral diseases. This critical review article describes the advancements achieved in the last five years regarding electrochemical biosensors for the diagnosis of viral infections. First, genosensors and aptasensors for the detection of virus and the diagnosis of viral diseases are presented in detail regarding probe immobilization approaches, detection methods (label-free and sandwich), and amplification strategies. Following, immunosensors are highlighted, including many different construction strategies such as label-free, sandwich, competitive, and lateral-flow assays. Then, biosensors for the detection of viral-diseases-related biomarkers are presented and discussed, as well as point of care systems and their advantages when compared to traditional techniques. Last, the difficulties of commercializing electrochemical devices are critically discussed in conjunction with future trends such as lab-on-a-chip and flexible sensors.


Subject(s)
Biosensing Techniques , Electrochemical Techniques , Virus Diseases/diagnosis , Viruses/isolation & purification , Humans , Immunoassay
3.
Biosens Bioelectron ; 190: 113421, 2021 Oct 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1260670

ABSTRACT

Early diagnosis and monitoring of SARS-CoV-2 virus is essential to control COVID-19 outbreak. In this study, we propose a promising surface enhanced Raman scattering (SERS)-based COVID-19 biosensor for ultrasensitive detection of SARS-CoV-2 virus in untreated saliva. The SERS-immune substrate was fabricated by a novel oil/water/oil (O/W/O) three-phase liquid-liquid interfaces self-assembly method, forming two layers of dense and uniform gold nanoparticle films to ensure the reproducibility and sensitivity of SERS immunoassay. The detection was performed by an immunoreaction between the SARS-CoV-2 spike antibody modified SERS-immune substrate, spike antigen protein and Raman reporter-labeled immuno-Ag nanoparticles. This SERS-based biosensor was able to detect the SARS-CoV-2 spike protein at concentrations of 0.77 fg mL-1 in phosphate-buffered saline and 6.07 fg mL-1 in untreated saliva. The designed SERS-based biosensor exhibited excellent specificity and sensitivity for SARS-CoV-2 virus without any sample pretreatment, providing a potential choice for the early diagnosis of COVID-19.


Subject(s)
Biosensing Techniques , COVID-19 , Metal Nanoparticles , Gold , Humans , Reproducibility of Results , SARS-CoV-2 , Saliva , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus
4.
Biosens Bioelectron ; 190: 113418, 2021 Oct 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1260669

ABSTRACT

The continuing pandemic of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection, which causes coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), has spread globally and its reliable diagnosis is one of the foremost priorities for protecting public health. Herein a rapid (<1 h), easy-to-implement, and accurate CRISPR-based evanescent wave fluorescence biosensing platform for detection of SARS-CoV-2 is reported. The collateral effect of Cas13a is combined with a universal autonomous enzyme-free hybridization chain reaction (HCR) by designing a cleavage hairpin reporter, which is cleaved upon target recognition, and hence releasing the initiator sequence to trigger the downstream HCR circuits. Detection of HCR assemblies is accomplished by first adsorbing to the desthiobiotin-modified optical fiber, followed by fluorescence emission induced by an evanescent field. Three Cas13a crRNAs targeting the genes of S, N and Orf1ab of SARS-CoV-2 are programmed to specifically target SARS-CoV-2 or broadly detect related coronavirus strains, such as MERS-CoV and SARS-CoV. The HCR amplification coupled Cas13a-based biosensing platform is capable of rapid detection of SARS-CoV-2 with attomolar sensitivity. This method is further validated by adding target RNA of SARS-CoV-2 in negative oropharyngeal swabs. The good discrimination capability of this technique demonstrates its promising potential for point-of-care diagnosis of COVID-19.


Subject(s)
Biosensing Techniques , COVID-19 , CRISPR-Cas Systems , Clustered Regularly Interspaced Short Palindromic Repeats , Humans , Nucleic Acid Amplification Techniques , RNA, Viral , SARS-CoV-2 , Sensitivity and Specificity
5.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 18(11)2021 05 25.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1244009

ABSTRACT

New methodologies based on the principle of "sewage epidemiology" have been successfully applied before in the detection of illegal drugs. The study describes the idea of early detection of a virus, e.g., SARS-CoV-2, in wastewater in order to focus on the area of virus occurrence and supplement the results obtained from clinical examination. By monitoring temporal variation in viral loads in wastewater in combination with other analysis, a virus outbreak can be detected and its spread can be suppressed early. The use of biosensors for virus detection also seems to be an interesting application. Biosensors are highly sensitive, selective, and portable and offer a way for fast analysis. This manuscript provides an overview of the current situation in the area of wastewater analysis, including genetic sequencing regarding viral detection and the technological solution of an early warning system for wastewater monitoring based on biosensors.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Wastewater-Based Epidemiological Monitoring , Humans , Mutation , SARS-CoV-2 , Sewage , Waste Water
6.
Sensors (Basel) ; 21(10)2021 May 17.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1234803

ABSTRACT

In this paper, a highly sensitive graphene-based multiple-layer (BK7/Au/PtSe2/Graphene) coated surface plasmon resonance (SPR) biosensor is proposed for the rapid detection of the novel Coronavirus (COVID-19). The proposed sensor was modeled on the basis of the total internal reflection (TIR) technique for real-time detection of ligand-analyte immobilization in the sensing region. The refractive index (RI) of the sensing region is changed due to the interaction of different concentrations of the ligand-analyte, thus impacting surface plasmon polaritons (SPPs) excitation of the multi-layer sensor interface. The performance of the proposed sensor was numerically investigated by using the transfer matrix method (TMM) and the finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) method. The proposed SPR biosensor provides fast and accurate early-stage diagnosis of the COVID-19 virus, which is crucial in limiting the spread of the pandemic. In addition, the performance of the proposed sensor was investigated numerically with different ligand-analytes: (i) the monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) as ligand and the COVID-19 virus spike receptor-binding domain (RBD) as analyte, (ii) the virus spike RBD as ligand and the virus anti-spike protein (IgM, IgG) as analyte and (iii) the specific probe as ligand and the COVID-19 virus single-standard ribonucleic acid (RNA) as analyte. After the investigation, the sensitivity of the proposed sensor was found to provide 183.33°/refractive index unit (RIU) in SPR angle (θSPR) and 833.33THz/RIU in SPR frequency (SPRF) for detection of the COVID-19 virus spike RBD; the sensitivity obtained 153.85°/RIU in SPR angle and 726.50THz/RIU in SPRF for detection of the anti-spike protein, and finally, the sensitivity obtained 140.35°/RIU in SPR angle and 500THz/RIU in SPRF for detection of viral RNA. It was observed that whole virus spike RBD detection sensitivity is higher than that of the other two detection processes. Highly sensitive two-dimensional (2D) materials were used to achieve significant enhancement in the Goos-Hänchen (GH) shift detection sensitivity and plasmonic properties of the conventional SPR sensor. The proposed sensor successfully senses the COVID-19 virus and offers additional (1 + 0.55) × L times sensitivity owing to the added graphene layers. Besides, the performance of the proposed sensor was analyzed based on detection accuracy (DA), the figure of merit (FOM), signal-noise ratio (SNR), and quality factor (QF). Based on its performance analysis, it is expected that the proposed sensor may reduce lengthy procedures, false positive results, and clinical costs, compared to traditional sensors. The performance of the proposed sensor model was checked using the TMM algorithm and validated by the FDTD technique.


Subject(s)
Biosensing Techniques , COVID-19 , Graphite , Humans , SARS-CoV-2 , Surface Plasmon Resonance
7.
J Med Eng Technol ; 45(6): 423-433, 2021 Aug.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1230941

ABSTRACT

Acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), also called COVID-19, is one of the most contagious viruses resulting in a progressive pandemic. Since specific antiviral treatments have not been developed yet and its fatal rate is almost high, early and fast detection is critical for controlling the outbreak. In this study, a piezoelectric microcantilever biosensor has been designed for detecting COVID-19 samples directly without requiring preparation steps. The biosensor acts as a transducer and is coated with the related antibody. When the SARS-CoV-2 antigens adsorbed on the microcantilever top surface through their spike proteins, a surface stress due to the mass change would be prompted leading to the measurable tip deflection and floating voltage. To obtain a biosensor with optimum parameters, different shapes and piezoelectric materials have been assessed and it was concluded that a Poly (vinylidene fluoride) (PVDF) biosensor in a shape of a holed punched form triangle, represented the best result. Therefore, the highly sensitive microcantilever biosensor can detect COVID-19 in clinical samples with various viral loads, rapidly. Also, it is selective enough to differentiate SARS-CoV-2 from other viruses with similar symptoms.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/virology , Biosensing Techniques , Humans , Pandemics , Polymers/chemistry , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity
8.
Matter ; 4(7): 2403-2416, 2021 Jul 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1225332

ABSTRACT

SARS-CoV-2, the virus that causes COVID-19, has killed over 3 million people worldwide. Despite the urgency of the current pandemic, most available diagnostic methods for COVID-19 use RT-PCR to detect nucleic acid sequences specific to SARS-CoV-2. These tests are limited by their requirement of a large laboratory space, high reagent costs, multistep sample preparation, and the potential for cross-contamination. Moreover, results usually take hours to days to become available. Therefore, fast, reliable, inexpensive, and scalable point-of-care diagnostics are urgently needed. Here, we describe RAPID 1.0, a simple, handheld, and highly sensitive miniaturized biosensor modified with human receptor angiotensin-converting enzyme-2. RAPID 1.0 can detect SARS-CoV-2 using 10 µL of sample within 4 min through its increased resistance to charge transfer of a redox probe measured by electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. The sensitivity and specificity of RAPID for nasopharyngeal/oropharyngeal swab and saliva samples are 85.3% and 100% and 100% and 86.5%, respectively.

9.
Biosens Bioelectron ; 185: 113177, 2021 Aug 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1206999

ABSTRACT

Rapid diagnosis and case isolation are pivotal to controlling the current pandemic of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). In this study, a label-free DNA capacitive biosensor for the detection of SARS-CoV-2 that demonstrates real-time, low-cost, and high-throughput screening of nucleic acid samples is presented. Our novel biosensor composed of the interdigitated platinum/titanium electrodes on the glass substrate can detect the hybridization of analyte DNA with probe DNA. The hybridization signals of specific DNA sequences were verified through exhaustive physicochemical analytical techniques such as Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectrometry, contact-angle analysis, and capacitance-frequency measurements. For a single-step hybridized reaction, the fabricated kit exhibited significant sensitivity (capacitance change, ΔC = ~2 nF) in detecting the conserved region of the SARS-CoV-2 RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRp) gene with high sensitivity of 0.843 nF/nM. In addition to capacitive measurements, this selective detection was confirmed by the fluorescence image and intensity from a SARS-CoV-2 gene labeled with a fluorescent dye. We also demonstrated that the kits are recyclable by surface ozone treatment using UV irradiation. Thus, these kits could potentially be applied to various types of label-free DNA, thereby acting as rapid, cost-effective biosensors for several diseases.


Subject(s)
Biosensing Techniques , COVID-19 , DNA , Humans , Point-of-Care Systems , RNA, Viral , SARS-CoV-2 , Sensitivity and Specificity , Spectroscopy, Fourier Transform Infrared
10.
J Electroanal Chem (Lausanne) ; 893: 115289, 2021 Jul 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1201492

ABSTRACT

The SARS-CoV-2 virus is still causing a dramatic loss of human lives worldwide, constituting an unprecedented challenge for the society, public health and economy, to overcome. The up-to-date diagnostic tests, PCR, antibody ELISA and Rapid Antigen, require special equipment, hours of analysis and special staff. For this reason, many research groups have focused recently on the design and development of electrochemical biosensors for the SARS-CoV-2 detection, indicating that they can play a significant role in controlling COVID disease. In this review we thoroughly discuss the transducer electrode nanomaterials investigated in order to improve the sensitivity, specificity and response time of the as-developed SARS-CoV-2 electrochemical biosensors. Particularly, we mainly focus on the results appeard on Au-based and carbon or graphene-based electrodes, which are the main material groups recently investigated worldwidely. Additionally, the adopted electrochemical detection techniques are also discussed, highlighting their pros and cos. The nanomaterial-based electrochemical biosensors could enable a fast, accurate and without special cost, virus detection. However, further research is required in terms of new nanomaterials and synthesis strategies in order the SARS-CoV-2 electrochemical biosensors to be commercialized.

11.
ACS Appl Mater Interfaces ; 13(17): 19816-19824, 2021 May 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1199255

ABSTRACT

The detection of the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) is crucial for preventing and controlling infectious diseases and disease treatment. In this work, a Au@Ti3C2@PEI-Ru(dcbpy)32+ nanocomposite-based electrochemiluminescence (ECL) biosensor was rationally designed, which realized sensitive detection of the RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRp) gene of SARS-CoV-2. In addition, a DNA walker was also used to excise the hairpin DNAs under the action of Nb.BbvCI endonuclease. Furthermore, model DNA-Ag nanoclusters (model DNA-AgNCs) were used to quench the initial ECL signal. As a result, the ECL biosensor was used to sensitively detect the SARS-CoV-2 RdRp gene with a detection range of 1 fM to 100 pM and a limit of detection of 0.21 fM. It was indicated that the ECL biosensor had a great application potential for clinical medical detection. Furthermore, the DNA walker amplification also played a reliable candidate strategy for other detection methods.


Subject(s)
Biosensing Techniques/methods , Nanocomposites/chemistry , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , DNA, Viral/genetics , RNA-Dependent RNA Polymerase/metabolism
12.
Biosensors (Basel) ; 11(4)2021 Apr 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1186891

ABSTRACT

The rapid spread of epidemic diseases (i.e., coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19)) has contributed to focus global attention on the diagnosis of medical conditions by ultrasensitive detection methods. To overcome this challenge, increasing efforts have been driven towards the development of single-molecule analytical platforms. In this context, recent progress in plasmonic biosensing has enabled the design of novel detection strategies capable of targeting individual molecules while evaluating their binding affinity and biological interactions. This review compiles the latest advances in plasmonic technologies for monitoring clinically relevant biomarkers at the single-molecule level. Functional applications are discussed according to plasmonic sensing modes based on either nanoapertures or nanoparticle approaches. A special focus was devoted to new analytical developments involving a wide variety of analytes (e.g., proteins, living cells, nucleic acids and viruses). The utility of plasmonic-based single-molecule analysis for personalized medicine, considering technological limitations and future prospects, is also overviewed.


Subject(s)
Biosensing Techniques/methods , Virus Diseases/diagnosis , Biomarkers/analysis , Biomarkers/metabolism , Biosensing Techniques/instrumentation , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/virology , Humans , Nanoparticles/chemistry , Nucleic Acids/analysis , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Single-Cell Analysis , Surface Plasmon Resonance , Virus Diseases/virology
13.
Sens Actuators A Phys ; 327: 112742, 2021 Aug 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1172076

ABSTRACT

Undoubtedly, the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has received the greatest concern with a global impact, and this situation will continue for a long period of time. Looking back in history, airborne transimission diseases have caused huge casualties several times. COVID-19 as a typical airborne disease caught our attention and reminded us of the importance of preventing such diseases. Therefore, this study focuses on finding a new way to guard against the spread of these diseases such as COVID-19. This paper studies the dynamic electromechanical response of metal-core piezoelectric fiber/epoxy matrix composites, designed as mass load sensors for virus detection, by numerical modelling. The dynamic electromechanical response is simulated by applying an alternating current (AC) electric field to make the composite vibrate. Furthermore, both concentrated and distributed loads are considered to assess the sensitivity of the biosensor during modelling of the combination of both biomarker and viruses. The design parameters of this sensor, such as the resonant frequency, the position and size of the biomarker, will be studied and optimized as the key values to determine the sensitivity of detection. The novelty of this work is to propose functional composites that can detect the viruses from changes of the output voltage instead of the resonant frequency change using piezoelectric sensor and piezoelectric actuator. The contribution of this detection method will significantly shorten the detection time as it avoids fast Fourier transform (FFT) or discrete Fourier transform (DFT). The outcome of this research offers a reliable numerical model to optimize the design of the proposed biosensor for virus detection, which will contribute to the production of high-performance piezoelectric biosensors in the future.

14.
Micromachines (Basel) ; 12(2)2021 Feb 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1134187

ABSTRACT

The last few decades have been plagued by viral outbreaks that present some of the biggest challenges to public safety. The current coronavirus (COVID-19) disease pandemic has exponentiated these concerns. Increased research on diagnostic tools is currently being implemented in order to assist with rapid identification of the virus, as mass diagnosis and containment is the best way to prevent the outbreak of the virus. Accordingly, there is a growing urgency to establish a point-of-care device for the rapid detection of coronavirus to prevent subsequent spread. This device needs to be sensitive, selective, and exhibit rapid diagnostic capabilities. Electrochemical biosensors have demonstrated these traits and, hence, serve as promising candidates for the detection of viruses. This review summarizes the designs and features of electrochemical biosensors developed for some past and current pandemic or epidemic viruses, including influenza, HIV, Ebola, and Zika. Alongside the design, this review also discusses the detection principles, fabrication techniques, and applications of the biosensors. Finally, research and perspective of biosensors as potential detection tools for the rapid identification of SARS-CoV-2 is discussed.

15.
Trends Analyt Chem ; 139: 116253, 2021 Jun.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1129203

ABSTRACT

Respiratory viruses are real menace for human health which result in devastating epidemic disease. Consequently, it is in urgent need of identifying and quantifying virus with a rapid, sensitive and precise approach. The study of electrochemical biosensors for respiratory virus detection has become one of the most rapidly developing scientific fields. Recent developments in electrochemical biosensors concerning respiratory virus detection are comprehensively reviewed in this paper. This review is structured along common detecting objects of respiratory viruses, electrochemical biosensors, electrochemical biosensors for respiratory virus detection and future challenges. The electrochemical biosensors for respiratory virus detection are introduced, including nucleic acids-based, immunosensors and other affinity biosensors. Lastly, for Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) diagnosis, the future challenges regarding developing electrochemical biosensor-based Point-of-Care Tests (POCTs) are summarized. This review is expected to provide a helpful guide for the researchers entering this interdisciplinary field and developing more novel electrochemical biosensors for respiratory virus detection.

16.
Life Sci ; 273: 119117, 2021 May 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1065431

ABSTRACT

Biosensors are important devices in clinical diagnostics, food processing, and environmental monitoring for detecting various analytes, especially viruses. These biosensors provide rapid and effective instruments for qualitative and quantitative detection of infectious diseases in real-time. Here, we report the development of biosensors based on various techniques. Additionally, we will explain the mechanisms, advantages, and disadvantages of the most common biosensors that are currently used for viral detection, which could be optical (e.g., surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS), Surface plasmon resonance (SPR)) and electrochemical biosensors. Based on that, this review recommends methods for efficient, simple, low-cost, and rapid detection of SARS-CoV-2 (the causative agent of COVID-19) that employ the two types of biosensors depending on attaching hemoglobin ß-chain and binding of specific antibodies with SARS-CoV-2 antigens, respectively.


Subject(s)
Biosensing Techniques/methods , COVID-19 Testing/methods , COVID-19/diagnosis , Biosensing Techniques/instrumentation , COVID-19/virology , COVID-19 Testing/instrumentation , Clinical Laboratory Techniques/instrumentation , Clinical Laboratory Techniques/methods , Equipment Design , Humans , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification
17.
Chem Eng J ; 414: 128759, 2021 Jun 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1056411

ABSTRACT

The recent outbreak of COVID-19 has created much inconvenience and fear that the virus can seriously affect humans, causing health hazards and death. This pandemic has created much worry and as per the report by World Health Organization (WHO), more than 43 million individuals in 215 countries and territories were affected. People around the world are still struggling to overcome the problems associated with this pandemic. Of all the available methods, reverse-transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) has been widely practiced for the pandemic detection even though several diagnostic tools are available having varying accuracy and sensitivity. The method offers many advantages making it a life-saving tool, but the method has the limitation of transporting to the nearest pathology lab, thus limiting its application in resource limited settings. This has a risen a crucial need for point-of-care devices for on-site detection. In this venture, biosensors have been used, since they can be applied immediately at the point-of-care. This review will discuss about the available diagnostic methods and biosensors for COVID-19 detection.

18.
J Electroanal Chem (Lausanne) ; 882: 114989, 2021 Feb 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1014619

ABSTRACT

Detection of pathogens, e.g., bacteria and viruses, is still a big challenge in analytical medicine due to their vast number and variety. Developing strategies for rapid, inexpensive, specific, and sensitive detection of the pathogens using nanomaterials, integrating with microfluidics devices, amplification methods, or even combining these strategies have received significant attention. Especially, after the health-threatening COVID-19 outbreak, rapid and sensitive detection of pathogens became very critical. Detection of pathogens could be realized with electrochemical, optical, mass sensitive, or thermal methods. Among them, electrochemical methods are very promising by bringing different advantages, i.e., they exhibit more versatile detection schemes and real-time quantification as well as label-free measurements, which provides a broader application perspective. In this review, we discuss the recent advances for the detection of bacteria and viruses using electrochemical biosensors. Moreover, electrochemical biosensors for pathogen detection were broadly reviewed in terms of analyte, bio-recognition and transduction elements. Different fabrication techniques, detection principles, and applications of various pathogens with the electrochemical biosensors were also discussed.

19.
Water Res ; 191: 116787, 2021 Mar 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-989378

ABSTRACT

Public health is attracting increasing attention due to the current global pandemic, and wastewater-based epidemiology (WBE) has emerged as a powerful tool for monitoring of public health by analysis of a variety of biomarkers (e.g., chemicals and pathogens) in wastewater. Rapid development of WBE requires rapid and on-site analytical tools for monitoring of sewage biomarkers to provide immediate decision and intervention. Biosensors have been demonstrated to be highly sensitive and selective tools for the analysis of sewage biomarkers due to their fast response, ease-to-use, low cost and the potential for field-testing. This paper presents biosensors as effective tools for wastewater analysis of potential biomarkers and monitoring of public health via WBE. In particular, we discuss the use of sewage sensors for rapid detection of a range of targets, including rapid monitoring of community-wide illicit drug consumption and pathogens for early warning of infectious diseases outbreaks. Finally, we provide a perspective on the future use of the biosensor technology for WBE to enable rapid on-site monitoring of sewage, which will provide nearly real-time data for public health assessment and effective intervention.


Subject(s)
Biosensing Techniques , Wastewater-Based Epidemiological Monitoring , Public Health , Sewage , Waste Water/analysis
20.
Sensors (Basel) ; 20(23)2020 Dec 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-965897

ABSTRACT

Biosensors are measurement devices that can sense several biomolecules, and are widely used for the detection of relevant clinical pathogens such as bacteria and viruses, showing outstanding results. Because of the latent existing risk of facing another pandemic like the one we are living through due to COVID-19, researchers are constantly looking forward to developing new technologies for diagnosis and treatment of infections caused by different bacteria and viruses. Regarding that, nanotechnology has improved biosensors' design and performance through the development of materials and nanoparticles that enhance their affinity, selectivity, and efficacy in detecting these pathogens, such as employing nanoparticles, graphene quantum dots, and electrospun nanofibers. Therefore, this work aims to present a comprehensive review that exposes how biosensors work in terms of bacterial and viral detection, and the nanotechnological features that are contributing to achieving a faster yet still efficient COVID-19 diagnosis at the point-of-care.


Subject(s)
Bacteria/genetics , Biosensing Techniques/methods , Viruses/genetics , Animals , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/virology , Humans , Nanotechnology/methods , Pandemics/prevention & control , SARS-CoV-2/genetics
SELECTION OF CITATIONS
SEARCH DETAIL