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1.
Clin Exp Immunol ; 205(2): 99-105, 2021 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1273082

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus 19 (COVID-19) has been associated with both transient and persistent systemic symptoms that do not appear to be a direct consequence of viral infection. The generation of autoantibodies has been proposed as a mechanism to explain these symptoms. To understand the prevalence of autoantibodies associated with severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection, we investigated the frequency and specificity of clinically relevant autoantibodies in 84 individuals previously infected with SARS-CoV-2, suffering from COVID-19 of varying severity in both the acute and convalescent setting. These were compared with results from 32 individuals who were on the intensive therapy unit (ITU) for non-COVID reasons. We demonstrate a higher frequency of autoantibodies in the COVID-19 ITU group compared with non-COVID-19 ITU disease control patients and that autoantibodies were also found in the serum 3-5 months post-COVID-19 infection. Non-COVID patients displayed a diverse pattern of autoantibodies; in contrast, the COVID-19 groups had a more restricted panel of autoantibodies including skin, skeletal muscle and cardiac antibodies. Our results demonstrate that respiratory viral infection with SARS-CoV-2 is associated with the detection of a limited profile of tissue-specific autoantibodies, detectable using routine clinical immunology assays. Further studies are required to determine whether these autoantibodies are specific to SARS-CoV-2 or a phenomenon arising from severe viral infections and to determine the clinical significance of these autoantibodies.


Subject(s)
Antibody Specificity , Autoantibodies , COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Adult , Aged , Autoantibodies/blood , Autoantibodies/immunology , COVID-19/blood , COVID-19/immunology , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Organ Specificity , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/metabolism , Severity of Illness Index
2.
Foodborne Pathog Dis ; 18(2): 63-84, 2021 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-897127

ABSTRACT

Klebsiella pneumoniae is considered an opportunistic pathogen, constituting an ongoing health concern for immunocompromised patients, the elderly, and neonates. Reports on the isolation of K. pneumoniae from other sources are increasing, many of which express multidrug-resistant (MDR) phenotypes. Three phylogroups were identified based on nucleotide differences. Niche environments, including plants, animals, and humans appear to be colonized by different phylogroups, among which KpI (K. pneumoniae) is commonly associated with human infection. Infections with K. pneumoniae can be transmitted through contaminated food or water and can be associated with community-acquired infections or between persons and animals involved in hospital-acquired infections. Increasing reports are describing detections along the food chain, suggesting the possibility exists that this could be a hitherto unexplored reservoir for this opportunistic bacterial pathogen. Expression of MDR phenotypes elaborated by these bacteria is due to the nature of various plasmids carrying antimicrobial resistance (AMR)-encoding genes, and is a challenge to animal, environmental, and human health alike. Raman spectroscopy has the potential to provide for the rapid identification and screening of antimicrobial susceptibility of Klebsiella isolates. Moreover, hypervirulent isolates linked with extraintestinal infections express phenotypes that may support their niche adaptation. In this review, the prevalence, reservoirs, AMR, Raman spectroscopy detection, and pathogenicity of K. pneumoniae are summarized and various extraintestinal infection pathways are further narrated to extend our understanding of its adaptation and survival ability in reservoirs, and associated disease risks.


Subject(s)
Bacterial Zoonoses/microbiology , Disease Reservoirs/microbiology , Klebsiella Infections/epidemiology , Klebsiella Infections/microbiology , Klebsiella pneumoniae/pathogenicity , Aged , Animals , Drug Resistance, Multiple, Bacterial , Female , Humans , Infant, Newborn , Klebsiella pneumoniae/drug effects , Male , Phylogeny , Prevalence
3.
Cell Rep Phys Sci ; 2(1): 100288, 2021 Jan 20.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1009942

ABSTRACT

The novel coronavirus pandemic is sweeping the world and causing global crises. The lack of effective methods of early diagnosis and accurate detection may result in severe infection as well as mortality. Therefore, it is urgently required that rapid, selective, and accurate techniques for detecting pathogenic viruses are developed. Nanotechnology-based biosensors are finding many applications in biological detection, which may address these issues and realize direct detection of molecular targets in real time. Among various nanoplatforms, optical nanobiosensors have aroused much interest due to their inherent advantages of high sensitivity and direct readout. In this review, a summary of recent progress on the optical biosensors based on nanotechnology for pathogenic virus detection is provided, with focus on quantum dots (QDs), upconversion nanoparticles (UCNPs), noble metal nanoparticles, and organic fluorescent molecules-based nanoprobes and chemiluminescence assays. These representative studies demonstrate appealing performance as biosensors and hold great promise for clinical diagnosis.

4.
Sensors (Basel) ; 20(23)2020 Dec 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-965897

ABSTRACT

Biosensors are measurement devices that can sense several biomolecules, and are widely used for the detection of relevant clinical pathogens such as bacteria and viruses, showing outstanding results. Because of the latent existing risk of facing another pandemic like the one we are living through due to COVID-19, researchers are constantly looking forward to developing new technologies for diagnosis and treatment of infections caused by different bacteria and viruses. Regarding that, nanotechnology has improved biosensors' design and performance through the development of materials and nanoparticles that enhance their affinity, selectivity, and efficacy in detecting these pathogens, such as employing nanoparticles, graphene quantum dots, and electrospun nanofibers. Therefore, this work aims to present a comprehensive review that exposes how biosensors work in terms of bacterial and viral detection, and the nanotechnological features that are contributing to achieving a faster yet still efficient COVID-19 diagnosis at the point-of-care.


Subject(s)
Bacteria/genetics , Biosensing Techniques/methods , Viruses/genetics , Animals , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/virology , Humans , Nanotechnology/methods , Pandemics/prevention & control , SARS-CoV-2/genetics
5.
Biosens Bioelectron ; 171: 112715, 2021 Jan 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-866446

ABSTRACT

Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) causes coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), a newly emerging human infectious disease. Because no specific antiviral drugs or vaccines are available to treat COVID-19, early diagnostics, isolation, and prevention are crucial for containing the outbreak. Molecular diagnostics using reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) are the current gold standard for detection. However, viral RNAs are much less stable during transport and storage than proteins such as antigens and antibodies. Consequently, false-negative RT-PCR results can occur due to inadequate collection of clinical specimens or poor handling of a specimen during testing. Although antigen immunoassays are stable diagnostics for detection of past infection, infection progress, and transmission dynamics, no matched antibody pair for immunoassay of SARS-CoV-2 antigens has yet been reported. In this study, we designed and developed a novel rapid detection method for SARS-CoV-2 spike 1 (S1) protein using the SARS-CoV-2 receptor ACE2, which can form matched pairs with commercially available antibodies. ACE2 and S1-mAb were paired with each other for capture and detection in a lateral flow immunoassay (LFIA) that did not cross-react with SARS-CoV Spike 1 or MERS-CoV Spike 1 protein. The SARS-CoV-2 S1 (<5 ng of recombinant proteins/reaction) was detected by the ACE2-based LFIA. The limit of detection of our ACE2-LFIA was 1.86 × 105 copies/mL in the clinical specimen of COVID-19 Patients without no cross-reactivity for nasal swabs from healthy subjects. This is the first study to detect SARS-CoV-2 S1 antigen using an LFIA with matched pair consisting of ACE2 and antibody. Our findings will be helpful to detect the S1 antigen of SARS-CoV-2 from COVID-19 patients.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus/isolation & purification , Biosensing Techniques/instrumentation , Clinical Laboratory Techniques , Coronavirus Infections/diagnosis , Peptidyl-Dipeptidase A/chemistry , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnosis , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/analysis , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2 , Antibodies, Monoclonal/chemistry , Biosensing Techniques/economics , COVID-19 , COVID-19 Testing , Clinical Laboratory Techniques/economics , Clinical Laboratory Techniques/instrumentation , Coronavirus Infections/economics , Equipment Design , Humans , Immunoassay/economics , Immunoassay/instrumentation , Immunoconjugates/chemistry , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , Sensitivity and Specificity , Time Factors
6.
Int J Infect Dis ; 101: 334-341, 2020 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-846859

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: A hasty reopening has led to a resurgence of the novel coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) in the United States (US). We aimed to quantify the impact of several public health measures including non-medical mask-wearing, shelter-in-place, and detection of silent infections to help inform COVID-19 mitigation strategies. METHODS: We extended a previously established agent-based disease transmission model and parameterized it with estimates of COVID-19 characteristics and US population demographics. We implemented non-medical mask-wearing, shelter-in-place, and case isolation as control measures, and quantified their impact on reducing the attack rate and adverse clinical outcomes. RESULTS: We found that non-medical mask-wearing by 75% of the population reduced infections, hospitalizations, and deaths by 37.7% (interquartile range (IQR): 36.1-39.4%), 44.2% (IQR: 42.9-45.8%), and 47.2% (IQR: 45.5-48.7%), respectively, in the absence of a shelter-in-place strategy. Sheltering individuals aged 50 to 64 years of age was the most efficient strategy, decreasing attack rate, hospitalizations, and deaths by over 82% when combined with mask-wearing. Outbreak control was achieved in the simulated scenarios and the attack rate was reduced to below 1% when at least 33% of silent pre-symptomatic and asymptomatic infections were identified and isolated. CONCLUSIONS: Mask-wearing, even with the use of non-medical masks, has a substantial impact on outbreak control. A judicious implementation of shelter-in-place strategies remains an important public health intervention amid ongoing outbreaks.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Emergency Shelter , Masks , COVID-19/therapy , COVID-19/virology , Disease Outbreaks , Hospitalization , Humans , Incidence , Pandemics/prevention & control , Public Health , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , United States/epidemiology
7.
Clin Pract Cases Emerg Med ; 4(3): 340-343, 2020 Aug.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-761060

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has spread throughout the world since late 2019. Symptoms appear after a two-week incubation period and commonly include fever, cough, myalgia or fatigue, and shortness of breath. CASE REPORT: A 32-year-old male with a history of opiate abuse presented to the emergency department with altered mental status. The patient was lethargic and hypoxic with improvement from naloxone. Official chest radiograph was read as normal; however, the treating clinicians noted bilateral interstitial opacities, raising concern for underlying infectious etiology. Opiates and cocaine were positive on drug screen, and an arterial blood gas on room air showed hypoxemia with respiratory acidosis. The patient was intubated during the treatment course due to persistent hypoxemia and for airway protection after resuscitation. The COVID-19 test was positive on admission, and later computed tomography showed ground-glass opacities. The patient was extubated and discharged after one week on the ventilator. CONCLUSION: When screening patients at and during evaluation, physicans should consider a broad differential as patients with atypical presentations may be overlooked as candidates for COVID-19 testing. As screening and evaluation protocols evolve, we emphasize maintaining a high index of suspicion for COVID-19 in patients with atypical symptoms or presenting with other chief complaints in order to avoid spreading the disease.

8.
Expert Rev Mol Diagn ; 20(9): 971-983, 2020 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-748285

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: The starting months of 2020 witnessed a global pandemic of Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection. The first case of Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) was reported in December, 2019 in Wuhan, China and millions of cases and thousands of deaths were reported within five months. Currently, reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and computed tomography (CT) scanning are clinically prescribed for COVID-19 detection across the globe. AREAS COVERED: This systematic review is focused on currently used diagnostic methods for COVID-19 detection and their future prospects. Online searches on Google Scholar, PubMed and online resources were conducted on the period of year 2017 to mid-2020. Studies investigating laboratory examinations, radiographical analysis, and potential sensors for COVID-19 detection were included. Along with this, the current status of commercially available kits for SARS-CoV-2 coronavirus detection is discussed. EXPERT OPINION: The search has identified the potential applications of nucleic acid technology, diagnostics radiology examinations, and in-vitro diagnostic kits in detection of COVID-19 infections. Despite having their own limitations of each technology, the emerging diagnostic technologies for COVID-19 detection along with undergoing clinical trials are summarized suggesting more collaborations and funding are required for fast track clinical trials.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus/genetics , Clinical Laboratory Techniques , Coronavirus Infections/diagnosis , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnosis , Biosensing Techniques , COVID-19 , COVID-19 Testing , CRISPR-Cas Systems , Coronavirus Infections/diagnostic imaging , Expert Testimony , Humans , Pandemics , Reagent Kits, Diagnostic , Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction/methods , SARS-CoV-2 , Tomography, X-Ray Computed/methods , Ultrasonography/methods
9.
ACS Sens ; 5(9): 2747-2752, 2020 09 25.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-740029

ABSTRACT

With the current intense need for rapid and accurate detection of viruses due to COVID-19, we report on a platform technology that is well suited for this purpose, using intact measles virus for a demonstration. Cases of infection due to the measles virus are rapidly increasing, yet current diagnostic tools used to monitor for the virus rely on slow (>1 h) technologies. Here, we demonstrate the first biosensor capable of detecting the measles virus in minutes with no preprocessing steps. The key sensing element is an electrode coated with a self-assembled monolayer containing the measles antibody, immobilized through an N-heterocyclic carbene (NHC). The intact virus is detected by changes in resistance, giving a linear response to 10-100 µg/mL of the intact measles virus without the need to label or process the sample. The limit of detection is 6 µg/mL, which is at the lower limit of concentrations that can cause infections in primates. The NHC-based biosensors are shown to be superior to thiol-based systems, producing an approximately 10× larger response and significantly greater stability toward repeated measurements and long-term storage. This NHC-based biosensor thus represents an important development for both the rapid detection of the measles virus and as a platform technology for the detection of other biological targets of interest.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Immobilized/immunology , Benzimidazoles/chemistry , Biosensing Techniques/methods , Electrochemical Techniques/methods , Measles virus/isolation & purification , Antibodies, Immobilized/chemistry , Electrochemical Techniques/instrumentation , Electrodes , Gold/chemistry , Limit of Detection , Measles virus/immunology
10.
Int J Infect Dis ; 99: 272-275, 2020 Oct.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-695678

ABSTRACT

Whether severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) affects the fetus in utero is important to the well-being of the mother and neonate. We report the case of a full-term neonate born to a mother who developed symptoms of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) at 32 weeks of gestation. The placental pathology showed slight local inflammation. Serial quantitative antibody measurements in the neonate showed elevated levels of IgM on the day of birth and a gradual decline to negative levels within 28 days of life; the levels of IgG declined gradually, but IgG was still positive on day 50 of life. The sequential dynamic changes in antibody levels in the neonate were consistent with those in his mother. One-step reverse transcriptase droplet digital PCR testing for SARS-CoV-2 nucleic acid in throat and anal swabs showed positive results (750 and 892copies/ml) on day 7 of life and negative results on day 14 of life. The neonate had no symptoms of COVID-19. This report enables us to re-evaluate the significance of IgM detection in intrauterine SARS-CoV-2 infection and presents a favorable prognosis for the neonate with long-term exposure to maternal COVID-19, despite a high possibility of intrauterine infection.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus , Coronavirus Infections/transmission , Infectious Disease Transmission, Vertical , Pneumonia, Viral/transmission , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/virology , Adult , Antibodies, Viral/immunology , Betacoronavirus/immunology , COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Female , Humans , Infant , Male , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/virology , Pregnancy , SARS-CoV-2
11.
Ann Med Surg (Lond) ; 57: 14-16, 2020 Sep.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-639982

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Limited information is available about COVID-19 infections among health care workers. Sensitive detection of COVID-19 cases in health care workers is crucial for hospital infection prevention policy, particularly for those who work with vulnerable patients. The aim of this study is to describe the prevalence of positive COVID-19 among asymptomatic health care workers who took care of patients with COVID-19 during the pandemic. METHODS: This retrospective study included all health care workers at King Abdullah University Hospital who take care of patients infected with COVID-19 patients from March 18, 2020 to April 29, 2020. They were tested for COVID-19 infection by use of real-time reverse-transcriptase rRT-PCR on samples from nasopharyngeal swabs. RESULTS: A total number of 370 health care workers were screened. The majority were nurses followed by physicians and other personnel. This study showed that all asymptomatic health care workers were tested negative for COVID-19Q. CONCLUSION: Unexpectedly, the prevalence of positive COVID-19 among asymptomatic health care workers who take care of patients infected with the novel coronavirus was 0%. This result must be cautiously interpreted. Further studies are needed in order to find effective strategy of screening health care workers to insure a safe working environment.

12.
Allergy Asthma Proc ; 41(4): 296-300, 2020 07 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-628344

ABSTRACT

Underlying lung disease, especially asthma, has recently been found to be associated with a higher risk of hospitalization with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) infection. Inhaled corticosteroids (ICS) are the most commonly used controller medications in patients with asthma. It is unclear whether ICS use increases the risk for severe COVID-19 infection. At the current time, asthma organizations are still recommending the continued use of ICS and other asthma medications to minimize the risk of uncontrolled asthma. However, for patients with asthma and who have recovered from COVID-19 infection, the timing of resumption of asthma therapy is equally uncertain. Pulmonary function testing and exhaled oral nitric oxide testing are aerosol-generating procedures and are currently being severely restricted at most health-care facilities. We presented a case of a patient with cough-variant asthma who developed severe COVID-19 associated acute respiratory distress syndrome with the need for intubation and prolonged mechanical ventilation. We highlighted the potential utility of using COVID-19 RNA detection as well as immunoglobulin G antibody testing to help guide the timing of resumption of asthma therapy.


Subject(s)
Adrenal Cortex Hormones/therapeutic use , Asthma/complications , Asthma/drug therapy , Coronavirus Infections/complications , Pneumonia, Viral/complications , Adrenal Cortex Hormones/administration & dosage , Adrenal Cortex Hormones/adverse effects , Adult , Algorithms , Asthma/diagnosis , Betacoronavirus/drug effects , Betacoronavirus/genetics , Biomarkers , COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections/diagnosis , Coronavirus Infections/therapy , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Disease Management , Humans , Male , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnosis , Pneumonia, Viral/therapy , Pneumonia, Viral/virology , Respiratory Function Tests , SARS-CoV-2 , Treatment Outcome
13.
J Virol Methods ; 283: 113919, 2020 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-598595

ABSTRACT

The purpose of this study was to investigate the feasibility of serological total antibody tests combined with RT-PCR for detection of SARS-COV-2. We conducted a retrospective study in which 375 patients were enrolled during the outbreak of SARS-COV-2 from 25th January to 16th March 2020. Patients were divided into a COVID-19 group (n = 141) and a control group (n = 234). Serum samples and throat swabs were collected from 375 patients for total antibody testing against SARS-COV-2 and RT-PCR analysis, respectively. The results indicated that diagnostic sensitivity and specificity were 95.7 % and 98.7 %, 92.2 % and 100 % by total antibody tests and RT-PCR, respectively. The sensitivity and specificity of total antibody tests combined with RT-PCR were 98.6 % and 98.7 %. The sensitivity of the combined method was significantly higher than RT-PCR (X2 = 5.16, P < 0.05), and similar to that of total antibody tests (X2 = 1.15, P> 0.05). This study supported the advantage of the combined method for detection of SARS-COV-2 with a high degree of sensitivity and specificity, as a useful tool for accurate diagnosis and timely treatment of suspected patients, epidemiological investigation, as well as monitoring ongoing outbreaks of infections with SARS-COV-2.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Viral/blood , Betacoronavirus/immunology , Coronavirus Infections/diagnosis , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnosis , Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction/methods , Serologic Tests/methods , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Antibodies, Viral/immunology , COVID-19 , Case-Control Studies , China , Coronavirus Infections/immunology , Female , Humans , Immunoassay/methods , Luminescent Measurements/methods , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/immunology , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Sensitivity and Specificity , Young Adult
14.
J Med Virol ; 92(4): 408-417, 2020 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2

ABSTRACT

Respiratory tract viral infection caused by viruses or bacteria is one of the most common diseases in human worldwide, while those caused by emerging viruses, such as the novel coronavirus, 2019-nCoV that caused the pneumonia outbreak in Wuhan, China most recently, have posed great threats to global public health. Identification of the causative viral pathogens of respiratory tract viral infections is important to select an appropriate treatment, save people's lives, stop the epidemics, and avoid unnecessary use of antibiotics. Conventional diagnostic tests, such as the assays for rapid detection of antiviral antibodies or viral antigens, are widely used in many clinical laboratories. With the development of modern technologies, new diagnostic strategies, including multiplex nucleic acid amplification and microarray-based assays, are emerging. This review summarizes currently available and novel emerging diagnostic methods for the detection of common respiratory viruses, such as influenza virus, human respiratory syncytial virus, coronavirus, human adenovirus, and human rhinovirus. Multiplex assays for simultaneous detection of multiple respiratory viruses are also described. It is anticipated that such data will assist researchers and clinicians to develop appropriate diagnostic strategies for timely and effective detection of respiratory virus infections.


Subject(s)
Adenovirus Infections, Human/diagnosis , Clinical Laboratory Techniques , Coronavirus Infections/diagnosis , Influenza, Human/diagnosis , Picornaviridae Infections/diagnosis , Respiratory Syncytial Virus Infections/diagnosis , Respiratory Tract Infections/diagnosis , COVID-19 Testing , Humans , Immunoassay , Immunologic Tests , Multiplex Polymerase Chain Reaction , Nucleic Acid Amplification Techniques , Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction , Rhinovirus , Viruses/growth & development , Viruses/isolation & purification
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