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1.
Lancet Diabetes Endocrinol ; 9(5): 293-303, 2021 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1531930

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: In patients with type 2 diabetes, hyperglycaemia is an independent risk factor for COVID-19-related mortality. Associations between pre-infection prescription for glucose-lowering drugs and COVID-19-related mortality in people with type 2 diabetes have been postulated but only investigated in small studies and limited to a few agents. We investigated whether there are associations between prescription of different classes of glucose-lowering drugs and risk of COVID-19-related mortality in people with type 2 diabetes. METHODS: This was a nationwide observational cohort study done with data from the National Diabetes Audit for people with type 2 diabetes and registered with a general practice in England since 2003. Cox regression was used to estimate the hazard ratio (HR) of COVID-19-related mortality in people prescribed each class of glucose-lowering drug, with covariate adjustment with a propensity score to address confounding by demographic, socioeconomic, and clinical factors. FINDINGS: Among the 2 851 465 people with type 2 diabetes included in our analyses, 13 479 (0·5%) COVID-19-related deaths occurred during the study period (Feb 16 to Aug 31, 2020), corresponding to a rate of 8·9 per 1000 person-years (95% CI 8·7-9·0). The adjusted HR associated with recorded versus no recorded prescription was 0·77 (95% CI 0·73-0·81) for metformin and 1·42 (1·35-1·49) for insulin. Adjusted HRs for prescription of other individual classes of glucose-lowering treatment were as follows: 0·75 (0·48-1·17) for meglitinides, 0·82 (0·74-0·91) for SGLT2 inhibitors, 0·94 (0·82-1·07) for thiazolidinediones, 0·94 (0·89-0·99) for sulfonylureas, 0·94 (0·83-1·07) for GLP-1 receptor agonists, 1·07 (1·01-1·13) for DPP-4 inhibitors, and 1·26 (0·76-2·09) for α-glucosidase inhibitors. INTERPRETATION: Our results provide evidence of associations between prescription of some glucose-lowering drugs and COVID-19-related mortality, although the differences in risk are small and these findings are likely to be due to confounding by indication, in view of the use of different drug classes at different stages of type 2 diabetes disease progression. In the context of the COVID-19 pandemic, there is no clear indication to change prescribing of glucose-lowering drugs in people with type 2 diabetes. FUNDING: None.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/mortality , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/complications , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/drug therapy , Hypoglycemic Agents/adverse effects , Aged , COVID-19/complications , Cohort Studies , England , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Proportional Hazards Models
2.
Sex Disabil ; : 1-18, 2021 May 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1525567

ABSTRACT

This study was conducted to determine the changes in sexual functioning and alexithymia levels in patients with type 2 diabetes during the COVID-19 pandemic. This descriptive, cross-sectional study was conducted with 162 patients with type 2 diabetes. Data were collected using the Information Form, Toronto Alexithymia Scale, Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale. For 83.3% of the participants, there was a decrease in sexual functioning after diabetes, 69.8% after the COVID-19 pandemic, and 67.2% due to both conditions. The majority of the patients stated the reasons for experiencing sexual problems related to not seeing sexuality as a priority (77.1%), and stress/anxiety experienced during the COVID-19 pandemic (67.9%). Moreover, patients' alexithymia, anxiety, and depression levels were found to be high during the pandemic, when the study was conducted. A positive correlation was identified between alexithymia and anxiety and depression. Further, multiple regression results indicated that about 50% of alexithymia levels could be explained by anxiety and depression levels. The anxiety, depression, and alexithymia scores of those who had decreased sexual functioning before and during the pandemic period were statistically significantly higher than those who did not have any change (p < 0.01). During the COVID-19 pandemic when the study was conducted, high levels of alexithymia, anxiety, and depression were observed in participants, and it was found that their sexual functioning was negatively affected. Healthcare professionals should evaluate their patients in extraordinary situations such as epidemics and pandemics in terms of sexual functioning as well as other vital functions.

3.
Front Cardiovasc Med ; 7: 593061, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1485041

ABSTRACT

Since December 2019, coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) caused by a novel coronavirus has spread all over the world affecting tens of millions of people. Another pandemic affecting the modern world, type 2 diabetes mellitus is among the major risk factors for mortality from COVID-19. Current evidence, while limited, suggests that proper blood glucose control may help prevent exacerbation of COVID-19 even in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus. Under current circumstances where the magic bullet for the disease remains unavailable, it appears that the role of blood glucose control cannot be stressed too much. In this review the profile of each anti-diabetic agent is discussed in relation to COVID-19.

4.
BMJ Open ; 11(4): e047134, 2021 04 13.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1455715

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Cardiac rehabilitation (CR) decreases the morbidity and mortality risk among patients with cardiac diseases; however, the impact of CR on patients with diabetes remains underexplored. This is a protocol for a systematic review and meta-analysis methodology to explore if the effect of CR on mortality and morbidity is the same in patients with type 2 diabetes compared with patients without diabetes. METHODS AND ANALYSIS: Interventional and non-interventional studies comparing the effect of CR, for at least 1 month, on all-cause mortality and cardiovascular outcomes including fatal and non-fatal myocardial infarction, revascularisation and rehospitalisation in adults with cardiac diseases will be deemed eligible for inclusion. Studies published between 1990 and 2020 will be searched in PubMed, Embase, Cochrane, CINAHL, Scopus and in registries for randomised controlled trials. Eligible studies will be selected using the Covidence software, and their salient details regarding the design, population, tested interventions and outcomes of interest will be gathered. The quality of studies to be deemed eligible and reviewed will be assessed using the Cochrane Collaboration and National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute's tools. The appraisal process will be based on the study design (interventional and non-interventional). In the meta-analysis step, the pooled effect of CR on the outcomes will be estimated. All meta-analyses will be done using the random-effects model approach (inverse-variance method). I 2 and p value of χ2 statistics will guide the heterogeneity assessment. Subgroup analyses will also be performed. The small study effect will be investigated by generating the funnel plots. The symmetry of the latter will be tested by performing Egger's test. ETHICS AND DISSEMINATION: The systematic review will use data from published literature; hence, no ethical approval will be required. Findings of the systematic review and meta-analysis will be published in peer-reviewed international journals and will be disseminated in local and international scientific meetings. PROSPERO REGISTRATION NUMBER: CRD42020148832.


Subject(s)
Cardiac Rehabilitation , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2 , Myocardial Infarction , Adult , Humans , Meta-Analysis as Topic , Morbidity , Research Design , Systematic Reviews as Topic
5.
Rehabilitacion (Madr) ; 55(4): 282-290, 2021.
Article in Spanish | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1454497

ABSTRACT

One of the main roles of the prescription of physical activity for people with type 2 diabetes is to reduce hyperglycemia. The beneficial effect of physical training on glycemic levels is considered as the sum of the effects of each exercise session. A better understanding of acute responses to exercise, through short-term glycemic variability, could explain the differences in the results of distinct training protocols. The objective of this study was to analyze the scientific information on different exercise protocols and their association with short-term glycemic variability in patients with type 2 diabetes. A systematic review of studies published in English and Spanish was carried out. The databases used were PubMed, Cochrane, ScienceDirect, and Medline. Only studies conducted in adults (older than 18 years) were included. A total of 36 studies were identified, which were analyzed and completed using the Covidence® platform. The final analysis included 10 articles with 296 patients. The 10 included articles were divided according to the type of intervention protocol used: group 1, acute exercise, and group 2, training. Significant differences were found in glycemic variability in 71.4% of the articles in group 1 and in 100% of the articles included in group 2. Positive effects of acute exercise and physical training on short-term glycemic variability were demonstrated. The findings were more pronounced in the intervention protocols than in physical training.


Subject(s)
Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2 , Hyperglycemia , Adult , Blood Glucose , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/therapy , Exercise , Humans , Hyperglycemia/prevention & control
6.
Pharmacol Res ; 169: 105665, 2021 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1433725

ABSTRACT

Previous studies have reported that vitamin C supplementation may decrease lipid profile in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). This systematic review and meta-analysis evaluated the influence of vitamin C supplementation on lipid profile in patients with T2DM. Studies examining the effects of vitamin C supplementation on lipid profile in patients with T2DM, published up to November 2020, were identified through PubMed, SCOPUS, and Embase databases. 15 studies, including 872 participants, were included and analyzed using a random-effects model to calculate weighted mean differences (WMDs) with 95% confidence intervals (CI). Findings from 15 studies indicated that vitamin C supplementation significantly decreased Triglyceride (TG) (WMD: -16.48 mg/dl, 95% CI (-31.89, -1.08), P < 0.001) and total cholesterol (TC) (WMD: -13.00 mg/dl, 95% CI (-23.10, -2.91), P < 0.001) in patients with T2DM. However, vitamin C supplementation failed to improve LDL and HDL. The meta-regression analysis suggested that lipid profile improvement was affected by duration of vitamin C treatment. Dose-response analysis showed that vitamin C supplementation changed LDL significantly based on vitamin C dose. According to our findings, vitamin C supplementation significantly improved lipid profile via decreases in TG and TC. However, vitamin C failed to affect LDL and HDL in diabetic populations. It appears that vitamin C supplementation is more beneficial to lipid profile in long-term vs. short term interventions.


Subject(s)
Ascorbic Acid/therapeutic use , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/drug therapy , Lipids/blood , Ascorbic Acid/administration & dosage , Ascorbic Acid/pharmacology , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/blood , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/metabolism , Dietary Supplements , Dose-Response Relationship, Drug , Humans , Lipid Metabolism/drug effects
7.
Ghana Med J ; 54(4 Suppl): 117-120, 2020 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1436205

ABSTRACT

This is a case report of a 55-year-old man with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus who presented with progressive breathlessness, chest pain and hyperglycaemia. An initial impression of a chest infection was made. Management was initiated with antibiotics, but this was unsuccessful, and he continued to desaturate. A screen for Coronavirus Disease of 2019 (COVID-19) returned positive. There was no prodrome of fever or flu-like illness or known contact with a patient known to have COVID-19. This case is instructive as he didn't fit the typical case definition for suspected COVID-19. There is significant community spread in Ghana, therefore COVID-19 should be a differential diagnosis in patients who present with hyperglycaemia and respiratory symptoms in the absence of a febrile illness. Primary care doctors must have a high index of suspicion in cases of significant hyperglycaemia and inability to maintain oxygen saturation. Patients known to have diabetes and those not known to have diabetes may develop hyperglycaemia subsequent to COVID-19. A high index of suspicion is crucial for early identification, notification for testing, isolation, treatment, contact tracing and possible referral or coordination of care with other specialists. Early identification will protect healthcare workers and patients alike from cross-infection.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Testing , COVID-19/diagnosis , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/virology , SARS-CoV-2 , COVID-19/virology , Chest Pain/diagnosis , Chest Pain/virology , Diagnosis, Differential , Dyspnea/diagnosis , Dyspnea/virology , Ghana , Humans , Hyperglycemia/diagnosis , Hyperglycemia/virology , Male , Middle Aged , Primary Health Care , Urban Health Services
8.
Ghana Med J ; 54(4 Suppl): 52-61, 2020 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1436195

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Since the declaration of COVID-19 by the World Health Organisation (WHO) as a global pandemic on 11th March 2020, the number of deaths continue to increase worldwide. Reports on its pathologic manifestations have been published with very few from the Sub-Saharan African region. This article reports autopsies on COVID-19 patients from the Ga-East and the 37 Military Hospitals to provide pathological evidence for better understanding of COVID-19 in Ghana. METHODS: Under conditions required for carrying out autopsies on bodies infected with category three infectious agents, with few modifications, complete autopsies were performed on twenty patients with ante-mortem and/or postmortem RT -PCR confirmed positive COVID-19 results, between April and June, 2020. RESULTS: There were equal proportion of males and females. Thirteen (65%) of the patients were 55years or older with the same percentage (65%) having Type II diabetes and/or hypertension. The most significant pathological feature found at autopsy was diffuse alveolar damage. Seventy per cent (14/20) had associated thromboemboli in the lungs, kidneys and the heart. Forty per cent (6/15) of the patients that had negative results for COVID-19 by the nasopharyngeal swab test before death had positive results during postmortem using bronchopulmonary specimen. At autopsy all patients were identified to have pre-existing medical conditions. CONCLUSION: Diffuse alveolar damage was a key pathological feature of deaths caused by COVID-19 in all cases studied with hypertension and diabetes mellitus being major risk factors. Individuals without co-morbidities were less likely to die or suffer severe disease from SARS-CoV-2. FUNDING: None declared.


Subject(s)
Autopsy/statistics & numerical data , COVID-19/pathology , Hospitals, Military/statistics & numerical data , Hospitals, Municipal/statistics & numerical data , SARS-CoV-2 , COVID-19/mortality , COVID-19 Testing/methods , COVID-19 Testing/statistics & numerical data , Comorbidity , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/mortality , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/virology , Female , Ghana/epidemiology , Humans , Hypertension/mortality , Hypertension/virology , Lung/pathology , Lung/virology , Male , Middle Aged , Pulmonary Alveoli/pathology , Pulmonary Alveoli/virology , Risk Factors
9.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 18(7)2021 03 31.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1378276

ABSTRACT

Few studies have considered more than one behavior, despite the tendency towards multiple behaviors, and there are none that have focused on a Latino population. We determined the concurrence of four unhealthy behaviors related to glycemic control and identified common cognitive factors at advanced stages of readiness for change in patients with type 2 diabetes treated in primary care. A cross-sectional study was carried out during August-December 2018 in northeastern Mexico. We consecutively included patients between 20 and 70 years who were without medical contraindication, physical impediment against exercise, pregnancy and edentulism, among other selection criteria (n = 407). Stages of behavior were measured according to the Transtheoretical Model. Pros, cons, self-efficacy, susceptibility, and severity data were collected by interview. Statistical analysis consisted of descriptive statistics and multiple logistic regression. A total of 36.7% exhibited more than one unhealthy behavior in precontemplation or contemplation (no interest or some interest in changing consumption of refined sugars and saturated fats, exercise, or oral hygiene behavior). Cons (p < 0.05) and self-efficacy (p < 0.001) were common to all four unhealthy behaviors, independent of potential confounders. Studies like ours facilitate the recognition of individuals with multiple unhealthy behaviors who share equivalent profiles of readiness for change before implementing public health programs.


Subject(s)
Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2 , Cross-Sectional Studies , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/epidemiology , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/therapy , Exercise , Health Behavior , Humans , Mexico , Self Efficacy
10.
JMIR Diabetes ; 6(3): e25820, 2021 Jul 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1311338

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: With increasing type 2 diabetes prevalence, there is a need for effective programs that support diabetes management and improve type 2 diabetes outcomes. Mobile health (mHealth) interventions have shown promising results. With advances in wearable sensors and improved integration, mHealth programs could become more accessible and personalized. OBJECTIVE: The study aimed to evaluate the feasibility, acceptability, and effectiveness of a personalized mHealth-anchored intervention program in improving glycemic control and enhancing care experience in diabetes management. The program was coincidentally implemented during the national-level lockdown for COVID-19 in Singapore, allowing for a timely study of the use of mHealth for chronic disease management. METHODS: Patients with type 2 diabetes or prediabetes were enrolled from the Singapore Armed Forces and offered a 3-month intervention program in addition to the usual care they received. The program was standardized to include (1) in-person initial consultation with a clinical dietitian; (2) in-person review with a diabetes specialist doctor; (3) 1 continuous glucose monitoring device; (4) access to the mobile app for dietary intake and physical activity tracking, and communication via messaging with the dietitian and doctor; and (5) context-sensitive digital health coaching over the mobile app. Medical support was rendered to the patients on an as-needed basis when they required advice on adjustment of medications. Measurements of weight, height, and glycated hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) were conducted at 2 in-person visits at the start and end of the program. At the end of the program, patients were asked to complete a short acceptability feedback survey to understand the motivation for joining the program, their satisfaction, and suggestions for improvement. RESULTS: Over a 4-week recruitment period, 130 individuals were screened, the enrollment target of 30 patients was met, and 21 patients completed the program and were included in the final analyses; 9 patients were lost to follow-up (full data were not available for the final analyses). There were no differences in the baseline characteristics between patients who were included and excluded from the final analyses (age category: P=.23; gender: P=.21; ethnicity: P>.99; diabetes status category: P=.52, medication adjustment category: P=.65; HbA1c category: P=.69; BMI: P>.99). The 21 patients who completed the study rated a mean of 9.0 out of 10 on the Likert scale for both satisfaction questions. For the Yes-No question on benefit of the program, all of the patients selected "Yes." Mean HbA1c decreased from 7.6% to 7.0% (P=.004). There were no severe hypoglycemia events (glucose level <3.0 mmol/L) reported. Mean weight decreased from 76.8 kg to 73.9 kg (P<.001), a mean decrease of 3.5% from baseline weight. Mean BMI decreased from 27.8 kg/m2 to 26.7 kg/m2 (P<.001). CONCLUSIONS: The personalized mHealth program was feasible, acceptable, and produced significant reductions in HbA1c (P=.004) and body weight (P<.001) in individuals with type 2 diabetes. Such mHealth programs could overcome challenges posed to chronic disease management by COVID-19, including disruptions to in-person health care access.

11.
Pharmaceuticals (Basel) ; 14(2)2021 Feb 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1299464

ABSTRACT

Metformin, one of the oldest oral antidiabetic agents and still recommended by almost all current guidelines as the first-line treatment for type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), has become the medication with steadily increasing potential therapeutic indications. A broad spectrum of experimental and clinical studies showed that metformin has a pleiotropic activity and favorable effect in different pathological conditions, including prediabetes, type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) and gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM). Moreover, there are numerous studies, meta-analyses and population studies indicating that metformin is safe and well tolerated and may be associated with cardioprotective and nephroprotective effect. Recently, it has also been reported in some studies, but not all, that metformin, besides improvement of glucose homeostasis, may possibly reduce the risk of cancer development, inhibit the incidence of neurodegenerative disease and prolong the lifespan. This paper presents some arguments supporting the initiation of metformin in patients with newly diagnosed T2DM, especially those without cardiovascular risk factors or without established cardiovascular disease or advanced kidney insufficiency at the time of new guidelines favoring new drugs with pleotropic effects complimentary to glucose control. Moreover, it focuses on the potential beneficial effects of metformin in patients with T2DM and coexisting chronic diseases.

12.
Pol Arch Intern Med ; 131(5): 455-463, 2021 05 25.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1273728

ABSTRACT

The current COVID-19 pandemic continues for over eleven months. Several nutritional and behavioural aspects have been associated with an increased inflammatory state, or oxidative stress, which could negatively affect the course of COVID-19. As research has shown, metabolic diseases, including obesity, or type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), in which proper diet is especially important, increase the risk of the COVID-19 infection and can exacerbate its course. This should be taken into account particularly in the areas with high prevalence of obesity and T2DM, such as the Western countries. In our paper, we have briefly summarised the harmful and beneficial nutritional and behavioural aspects, essential during the COVID-19 pandemic, which are present in particular among patients suffering from obesity and T2DM.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2 , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/epidemiology , Humans , Obesity/complications , Obesity/epidemiology , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2
13.
J Investig Med High Impact Case Rep ; 9: 23247096211021231, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1259169

ABSTRACT

We report 11 cases of combined diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA) and hyperglycemic hyperosmolar nonketotic coma (HHNK) in coronavirus 2019 patients who presented to our institution in New Jersey, USA. The median age was 47 years (range 12-88 years). Out of the 11 patients, 7 were male and 4 were female. Out of 11 patients, 8 had type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM), 2 had undiagnosed DM, and 1 had type 1 DM. Presenting complaints included altered mental status, weakness, shortness of breath, cough, fever, vomiting, abdominal pain, chest pain, and foot pain. Out of 11 patients, pneumonia was diagnosed at presentation in 8 patients, while in 3 patients, chest X-ray was clear. Median value of initial glucose on presentation was 974 mg/dL (range 549-1556 mg/dL), and hemoglobin A1c on presentation was 13.8%. The median value of anion gap was 34 mEq/L. Out of the 11 patients, ketonemia was moderate in 6 patients, large in 3, and small in 2 patients. Acute kidney injury (AKI) occurred in 9 patients and 2 patients required renal replacement therapy. Out of the 11 patients, 6 required mechanical ventilation and 7 patients died. All the 6 patients requiring mechanical ventilation died. Our case series shows COVID-19 infection can precipitate acute metabolic complications in known DM patients or as first manifestation in undiagnosed DM patients. Patients can present with DKA/HHNK symptoms and/or respiratory symptoms. Mechanical ventilation is a poor prognostic factor. Further studies are needed to characterize prognostic factors associated with mortality in this vulnerable patient population.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , Diabetic Ketoacidosis/complications , Hyperglycemic Hyperosmolar Nonketotic Coma/complications , Acute Kidney Injury/etiology , Acute Kidney Injury/therapy , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , COVID-19/therapy , Child , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 1/complications , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/complications , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Renal Replacement Therapy , Respiration, Artificial , SARS-CoV-2 , Treatment Outcome , Young Adult
14.
Omega (Westport) ; : 302228211020602, 2021 Jun 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1259082

ABSTRACT

This study was conducted to examine the effect of attitude to death on self-management in patients with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus during the COVID-19 pandemic. This study was carried out in a descriptive and correlational type with the participation of n = 103 type 2 diabetes mellitus patients registered in the Internal Medicine Unit at a University Hospital. Personal Information Form, Death Attitude Profile-Revised (DAP-R), Diabetes Self-Management Questionnaire and Fear of COVID-19 Scale were used in data collection. According to the results of the study, it was determined that diabetes patients' fear of COVID-19 increased their fear of death and self-management. Similarly, neuropathy and nephropathy developed in these patients. In addition, it was determined that the diabetic patients who worked 6-7 days a week outside the home had higher levels of fear. It was found that those with high fear were more attentive to social distancing, wearing masks and hand sanitizer use. Staying at home is also not always possible for patients with chronic diseases, and people struggle with COVID-19 by working in crowded workspaces. It is necessary to recognize the struggle of patients with chronic diseases and provide social, economic and psychological support.

15.
J Diabetes Complications ; 35(8): 107967, 2021 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1253171

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To explore predictors of severe COVID-19 disease in patients with diabetes hospitalized for COVID-19. METHODS: This is a retrospective observational study of adults with diabetes admitted for COVID-19. Bivariate tests and multivariable Cox regression were used to identify risk factors for severe COVID-19, defined as a composite endpoint of intensive care unit admission/intubation or in-hospital death. RESULTS: In 1134 patients with diabetes admitted for COVID-19, more severe disease was associated with older age (HR 1.02, p<0.001), male sex (HR 1.28, p=0.017), Asian race (HR 1.34, p=0.029 [reference: white]), and greater obesity (moderate obesity HR 1.59, p=0.015; severe obesity HR 2.07, p=0.002 [reference: normal body mass index]). Outpatient diabetes medications were not associated with outcomes. CONCLUSIONS: Age, male sex, Asian race, and obesity were associated with increased risk of severe COVID-19 disease in adults with type 2 diabetes hospitalized for COVID-19. SUMMARY: In patients with type 2 diabetes hospitalized for COVID-19 disease, we observed that age, male sex, Asian race, and obesity predicted severe COVID-19 outcomes of intensive care unit admission, intubation, or in-hospital death. The risk conferred by obesity increased with worsening obesity. Outpatient diabetes medications were not observed to be significant predictors of study outcomes.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/epidemiology , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/diagnosis , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/epidemiology , Patient Admission/statistics & numerical data , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Body Mass Index , COVID-19/pathology , COVID-19/therapy , Comorbidity , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/complications , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/therapy , Female , Humans , Intensive Care Units/statistics & numerical data , Male , Middle Aged , New York/epidemiology , Obesity/complications , Obesity/diagnosis , Obesity/epidemiology , Obesity/therapy , Prognosis , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , Severity of Illness Index
16.
Adv Ther ; 38(6): 3314-3324, 2021 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1252245

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA) is an acute complication associated with poorly managed or undiagnosed diabetes. DKA is associated with significant morbidity, mortality, and healthcare costs, but can be prevented with appropriate management of diabetes. The FreeStyle Libre is flash glucose monitoring device that measures glucose levels in the interstitial subcutaneous tissue and has been shown to reduce HbA1c, time in hypoglycemia and hyperglycemia, as well as improve health-related quality of life. METHODS: A retrospective chart review of patients with type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) and recurrent DKA and who initiated FreeStyle Libre (Abbott Diabetes Care, Alameda, CA, USA) was conducted. DKA frequency and severity, glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c), and frequency of blood glucose monitoring were compared between the 2-year period before FreeStyle Libre initiation and the 2-year period after FreeStyle Libre initiation. RESULTS: A total of 47 patients with T1DM with recurrent DKA were included. FreeStyle Libre was associated with a reduction in the frequency of DKA events, with a mean of 0.2 (standard deviation [SD] 0.4) events per person during the 2 years after FreeStyle Libre initiation versus 2.9 (SD 0.9) during the 2 years before FreeStyle Libre initiation. Severity of DKA events was also reduced, with fewer severe (before mean 0.3 [SD 0.5] versus after 0.0 [SD 0.0]; p < 0.001) DKA events. A reduction in HbA1c (mean 7.4% [SD 0.5] after versus 9.9% [SD 1.2] before [p < 0.001]) and an increase in frequency of blood glucose testing (mean 8.1 scans/day [SD 1.7] after versus 2.2 finger-pricks/day [SD 0.7] at before [p < 0.001]) were also observed. CONCLUSION: FreeStyle Libre is associated with a reduction in the frequency and severity of DKA events, reduction in HbA1c, and increase in frequency of blood glucose testing in patients with T1DM and recurrent DKA. The use of such a glucose monitoring tool can help to reduce the burden of morbidity, mortality, and healthcare costs associated with complications of diabetes.


Subject(s)
Diabetes Mellitus, Type 1 , Diabetic Ketoacidosis , Blood Glucose , Blood Glucose Self-Monitoring , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 1/complications , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 1/epidemiology , Diabetic Ketoacidosis/epidemiology , Humans , Quality of Life , Retrospective Studies
17.
Diabetes Ther ; 11(12): 2829-2844, 2020 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1252260

ABSTRACT

Diabetes mellitus affects over 463 million individuals worldwide. Religious activities such as the Hajj pilgrimage have a major impact on patients with diabetes mellitus, including increasing the risk of hyperglycaemia and hypoglycaemia. This increased risk is due to dietary changes and intense physical activity during pilgrimage while being on antidiabetic medications. Approximately 20% of the pilgrims with underlying illnesses who visit Mecca are diabetic, and complications, such as diabetic ketoacidosis, nonketotic hyperosmolar state, and fatigue/unconsciousness due to hypoglycaemia, have been observed among these patients. Diabetic patients are also at a high risk for foot complications and infections. To avoid any aggravation of the diabetes, a complete biochemical evaluation of the patient must be conducted before Hajj, and the patients must be provided contextualized educational guidance to avert these potential health challenges. This counselling should include the importance of carrying with them at all time their relevant medical history, summaries of the current treatment regimen and emergency snacks. In addition, to reduce the risk of hypoglycaemia, the dosage of insulin should be reduced in selected patients by 20% and that of sulfonylurea should be reduced as needed. Basal insulin and glucagon-like peptide 1 receptor agonists are associated with fewer complications and can be preferentially prescribed. Those patients with type 1 diabetes can continue with the use of insulin pump with suitable education prior to Hajj. For the prevention of foot problems, the use of padded socks and well-fitting shoes is recommended along with an insistence on not walking barefoot. After Hajj, the patient must be followed up, and necessary investigations must be made along with readjustment of insulin dosage in those patients for whom it was reduced. Until the pandemic situation abates, all diabetic patients should avoid making the Hajj journey.

18.
Diabetes Ther ; 11(12): 2775-2790, 2020 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1252259

ABSTRACT

With the availability of second-generation basal insulin analogs, insulin degludec (100 and 200 units/ml [degludec]) and insulin glargine 300 units/ml (glargine U300), clinicians now have long-acting, efficacious treatment options with stable pharmacokinetic profiles and associated low risks of hypoglycemia that may be desirable for many patients with type 2 diabetes. In this narrative review, we summarize the current evidence on glycemic control in hospitalized patients and review the pharmacokinetic properties of degludec and glargine U300 in relation to the challenges these may pose during the hospitalization of patients with type 2 diabetes who are receiving outpatient regimens involving these newer insulins. Their increased use in clinical practice requires that hospital healthcare professionals (HCPs) have appropriate protocols to transfer patients from these second-generation insulins to formulary insulin on admission, and ensure the safe discharge of patients and transition back to degludec or glargine U300. However, there is no guidance available on this. Based on the authors' clinical experience, we identify key issues to consider when arranging hospital care of such patients. We also summarize the limited available evidence on the potential utility of these second-generation basal insulin analogs in the non-critical inpatient setting and identify avenues for future research. To address current knowledge gaps, it is important that HCPs are educated about the differences between standard formulary insulins and second-generation insulins, and the importance of clear communication during patient transitions.

19.
Immunopharmacol Immunotoxicol ; 43(3): 265-270, 2021 Jun.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1246577

ABSTRACT

Understanding the exact role of current drugs in Covid-19 disease is essential in the era of global pandemics. Metformin which prescribed as the first-line treatment of type 2 diabetes has beneficial effects on Sars-cov2 infection. These effects are including regulation of immune system, Renin-Angiotensin System and Dipeptidyl Peptidase 4 function in Covid-19 infection. It also activates ACE2, the main receptor of Sars-cov2, in the epithelial cells of respiratory tissue through AMPK signaling and subsequently decreases the rate of viral adhesion. Metformin also declines the adherence of Sars-cov2 to DPP4 (the other receptor of the virus) on T cells. Hence, regulatory effects of metformin on membranous ACE2, and DPP4 can modulate immune reaction against Sars-cov2. Also, immunometabolic effects of metformin on inflammatory cells impair hyper-reactive immune response against the virus through reduction of glycolysis and propagation of mitochondrial oxidation. Metformin also decreases platelet aggravation and risk of thrombosis. In this article, we argue that metformin has beneficial effects on Covid-19 infection in patients with type 2 diabetes and insulin resistance. This opinion should be investigated in future clinical trials.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/drug therapy , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2 , Drug Repositioning , Insulin Resistance , Metformin/therapeutic use , SARS-CoV-2 , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/complications , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/drug therapy , Humans
20.
Jpn J Ophthalmol ; 65(4): 515-525, 2021 Jul.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1245663

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: To present the different clinical manifestations of rhino-orbital mucormycosis (ROM) co-infection in severe COVID-19 patients. STUDY DESIGN: Prospective observational clinical study METHODS: Among 32,814 patients hospitalized with the diagnosis of COVID-19 between March 2020 and December 2020 in our center, eleven microbiologically confirmed ROM co-infection cases in severe COVID-19 patients were evaluated. RESULTS: There were nine men and two women with a mean age of 73.1 ± 7.7 years. Eight patients had uncontrolled type 2 diabetes with a mean diagnosis duration of 12.1 ± 4.4 years. All patients had COVID-19-associated acute respiratory distress syndrome and received corticosteroids. The mean time interval between COVID-19 diagnosis and ROM diagnosis was 14.4 ± 4.3 days. Seven patients (63.6%) had orbital apex syndrome, and four patients (36.4%) presented with orbital cellulitis. Endophthalmitis was detected in 54.5% of patients, and two of these patients developed retinoschisis. CT scan/MRI revealed sino-orbital involvement in all patients, and three of these had cerebral involvement at initial presentation. All patients received intravenous and retrobulbar liposomal amphotericin B and had undergone radical debridement of involved sinuses. Intravitreal liposomal amphotericin B injected in patients with endophthalmitis. Despite all measures, 63.6% of patients expired. CONCLUSIONS: Severe COVID-19 is associated with a significant incidence of ROM with higher mortality rates due to immune dysregulation and the widespread use of steroids. Physicians should be aware of the possibility of this infection in patients with COVID-19. An aggressive multidisciplinary approach can help to reduce mortality.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/diagnosis , Endophthalmitis/diagnosis , Eye Infections, Fungal/diagnosis , Mucormycosis/diagnosis , Orbital Cellulitis/diagnosis , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Antifungal Agents/administration & dosage , Antifungal Agents/therapeutic use , COVID-19 Testing , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2 , Endophthalmitis/drug therapy , Endophthalmitis/epidemiology , Eye Infections, Fungal/drug therapy , Eye Infections, Fungal/epidemiology , Female , Humans , Male , Mucormycosis/drug therapy , Mucormycosis/epidemiology , Orbital Cellulitis/drug therapy , Orbital Cellulitis/epidemiology , Orbital Diseases/diagnosis , Orbital Diseases/drug therapy , SARS-CoV-2
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