Your browser doesn't support javascript.
Show: 20 | 50 | 100
Results 1 - 20 de 20
Filter
1.
BMJ Open ; 11(4): e047134, 2021 04 13.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1455715

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Cardiac rehabilitation (CR) decreases the morbidity and mortality risk among patients with cardiac diseases; however, the impact of CR on patients with diabetes remains underexplored. This is a protocol for a systematic review and meta-analysis methodology to explore if the effect of CR on mortality and morbidity is the same in patients with type 2 diabetes compared with patients without diabetes. METHODS AND ANALYSIS: Interventional and non-interventional studies comparing the effect of CR, for at least 1 month, on all-cause mortality and cardiovascular outcomes including fatal and non-fatal myocardial infarction, revascularisation and rehospitalisation in adults with cardiac diseases will be deemed eligible for inclusion. Studies published between 1990 and 2020 will be searched in PubMed, Embase, Cochrane, CINAHL, Scopus and in registries for randomised controlled trials. Eligible studies will be selected using the Covidence software, and their salient details regarding the design, population, tested interventions and outcomes of interest will be gathered. The quality of studies to be deemed eligible and reviewed will be assessed using the Cochrane Collaboration and National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute's tools. The appraisal process will be based on the study design (interventional and non-interventional). In the meta-analysis step, the pooled effect of CR on the outcomes will be estimated. All meta-analyses will be done using the random-effects model approach (inverse-variance method). I 2 and p value of χ2 statistics will guide the heterogeneity assessment. Subgroup analyses will also be performed. The small study effect will be investigated by generating the funnel plots. The symmetry of the latter will be tested by performing Egger's test. ETHICS AND DISSEMINATION: The systematic review will use data from published literature; hence, no ethical approval will be required. Findings of the systematic review and meta-analysis will be published in peer-reviewed international journals and will be disseminated in local and international scientific meetings. PROSPERO REGISTRATION NUMBER: CRD42020148832.


Subject(s)
Cardiac Rehabilitation , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2 , Myocardial Infarction , Adult , Humans , Meta-Analysis as Topic , Morbidity , Research Design , Systematic Reviews as Topic
2.
BMJ Open ; 11(3): e044888, 2021 03 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1455712

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Type 2 diabetes is a global health priority. People with diabetes are more likely to experience mental health problems relative to people without diabetes. Diabetes guidelines recommend assessment of depression and diabetes distress during diabetes care. This systematic review will examine the effect of routinely assessing and addressing depression and diabetes distress using patient-reported outcome measures in improving outcomes among adults with type 2 diabetes. METHODS AND ANALYSIS: MEDLINE, Embase, CINAHL Complete, PsycInfo, The Cochrane Library and Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials will be searched using a prespecified strategy using a prespecified Population, Intervention, Comparator, Outcomes, Setting and study design strategy. The date range of the search of all databases will be from inception to 3 August 2020. Randomised controlled trials, interrupted time-series studies, prospective and retrospective cohort studies, case-control studies and analytical cross-sectional studies published in peer-reviewed journals in the English language will be included. Two review authors will independently screen abstracts and full texts with disagreements resolved by a third reviewer, if required, using Covidence software. Two reviewers will undertake risk of bias assessment using checklists appropriate to study design. Data will be extracted using prespecified template. A narrative synthesis will be conducted, with a meta-analysis, if appropriate. ETHICS AND DISSEMINATION: Ethics approval is not required for this review of published studies. Presentation of results will follow the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic reviews and Meta-Analyses guidance. Findings will be disseminated via peer-reviewed publication and conference presentations. PROSPERO REGISTRATION NUMBER: CRD42020200246.


Subject(s)
Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2 , Adult , Cross-Sectional Studies , Depression/diagnosis , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/complications , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/therapy , Humans , Meta-Analysis as Topic , Patient Reported Outcome Measures , Prospective Studies , Research Design , Retrospective Studies , Systematic Reviews as Topic
3.
BMJ Open ; 11(6): e050919, 2021 06 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1263926

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Cardiothoracic surgical outcomes are poorer in people with diabetes compared with those without diabetes. There are two important uncertainties in the management of people with diabetes undergoing major surgery: (1) how to improve diabetes management in the weeks leading up to an elective procedure and (2) whether that improved management leads to better postoperative outcomes. We previously demonstrated the feasibility of delivering the Optimising Cardiac Surgery ouTcOmes in People with diabeteS (OCTOPuS) intervention, an outpatient intervention delivered by diabetes healthcare professionals for people with suboptimally managed diabetes over 8-12 weeks before elective cardiac surgery. The present study will assess the clinical and cost-effectiveness of the intervention in cardiothoracic centres across the UK. METHODS AND ANALYSIS: A multicentre, parallel group, single-blinded 1:1 individually randomised trial comparing time from surgery until clinically fit for discharge in adults with suboptimally managed type 1 diabetes or type 2 diabetes undergoing elective surgery between the OCTOPuS intervention and usual care (primary endpoint). Secondary endpoints will include actual time from surgery to discharge from hospital; days alive and either out of hospital or judged as clinically fit for discharge; mortality; time on intensive therapy unit (ITU)/ventilator; infections; acute myocardial infarction; change in weight; effect on postoperative renal function and incidence of acute kidney injury; change in HbA1c; frequency and severity of self-reported hypoglycaemia; operations permanently cancelled for suboptimal glycaemic levels; cost-effectiveness; psychosocial questionnaires. The target sample size will be 426 recruited across approximately 15 sites. The primary analysis will be conducted on an intention-to-treat population. A two-sided p value of 0.05 or less will be used to declare statistical significance for all analyses and results will be presented with 95% CIs. ETHICS AND DISSEMINATION: The trial was approved by the South Central-Hampshire A Research Ethics Committee (20/SC/0271). Results will be disseminated through conferences, scientific journals, newsletters, magazines and social media. TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBER: ISRCTN10170306.


Subject(s)
Cardiac Surgical Procedures , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 1 , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2 , Octopodiformes , Adult , Animals , Humans , Multicenter Studies as Topic , Outpatients , Randomized Controlled Trials as Topic
4.
J Diabetes Complications ; 35(8): 107967, 2021 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1253171

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To explore predictors of severe COVID-19 disease in patients with diabetes hospitalized for COVID-19. METHODS: This is a retrospective observational study of adults with diabetes admitted for COVID-19. Bivariate tests and multivariable Cox regression were used to identify risk factors for severe COVID-19, defined as a composite endpoint of intensive care unit admission/intubation or in-hospital death. RESULTS: In 1134 patients with diabetes admitted for COVID-19, more severe disease was associated with older age (HR 1.02, p<0.001), male sex (HR 1.28, p=0.017), Asian race (HR 1.34, p=0.029 [reference: white]), and greater obesity (moderate obesity HR 1.59, p=0.015; severe obesity HR 2.07, p=0.002 [reference: normal body mass index]). Outpatient diabetes medications were not associated with outcomes. CONCLUSIONS: Age, male sex, Asian race, and obesity were associated with increased risk of severe COVID-19 disease in adults with type 2 diabetes hospitalized for COVID-19. SUMMARY: In patients with type 2 diabetes hospitalized for COVID-19 disease, we observed that age, male sex, Asian race, and obesity predicted severe COVID-19 outcomes of intensive care unit admission, intubation, or in-hospital death. The risk conferred by obesity increased with worsening obesity. Outpatient diabetes medications were not observed to be significant predictors of study outcomes.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/epidemiology , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/diagnosis , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/epidemiology , Patient Admission/statistics & numerical data , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Body Mass Index , COVID-19/pathology , COVID-19/therapy , Comorbidity , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/complications , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/therapy , Female , Humans , Intensive Care Units/statistics & numerical data , Male , Middle Aged , New York/epidemiology , Obesity/complications , Obesity/diagnosis , Obesity/epidemiology , Obesity/therapy , Prognosis , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , Severity of Illness Index
5.
Diabet Med ; 38(9): e14611, 2021 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1247167

ABSTRACT

AIM: To examine psychosocial and behavioural impacts of the novel coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic and lockdown restrictions among adults with type 2 diabetes. METHODS: Participants enrolled in the PRogrEssion of DIabetic ComplicaTions (PREDICT) cohort study in Melbourne, Australia (n = 489 with a baseline assessment pre-2020) were invited to complete a phone/online follow-up assessment in mid-2020 (i.e., amidst COVID-19 lockdown restrictions). Repeated assessments that were compared with pre-COVID-19 baseline levels included anxiety symptoms (7-item Generalised Anxiety Disorder scale [GAD-7]), depressive symptoms (8-item Patient Health Questionnaire [PHQ-8]), diabetes distress (Problem Areas in Diabetes scale [PAID]), physical activity/sedentary behaviour, alcohol consumption and diabetes self-management behaviours. Additional once-off measures at follow-up included COVID-19-specific worry, quality of life (QoL), and healthcare appointment changes (telehealth engagement and appointment cancellations/avoidance). RESULTS: Among 470 respondents (96%; aged 66 ± 9 years, 69% men), at least 'moderate' worry about COVID-19 infection was reported by 31%, and 29%-73% reported negative impacts on QoL dimensions (greatest for: leisure activities, feelings about the future, emotional well-being). Younger participants reported more negative impacts (p < 0.05). Overall, anxiety/depressive symptoms were similar at follow-up compared with pre-COVID-19, but diabetes distress reduced (p < 0.001). Worse trajectories of anxiety/depressive symptoms were observed among those who reported COVID-19-specific worry or negative QoL impacts (p < 0.05). Physical activity trended lower (~10%), but sitting time, alcohol consumption and glucose-monitoring frequency remained unchanged. 73% of participants used telehealth, but 43% cancelled a healthcare appointment and 39% avoided new appointments despite perceived need. CONCLUSIONS: COVID-19 lockdown restrictions negatively impacted QoL, some behavioural risk factors and healthcare utilisation in adults with type 2 diabetes. However, generalised anxiety and depressive symptoms remained relatively stable.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19/psychology , Communicable Disease Control/methods , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/psychology , Health Behavior , Psychology/statistics & numerical data , Aged , Anxiety/epidemiology , Australia/epidemiology , COVID-19/epidemiology , Cohort Studies , Depression/epidemiology , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/epidemiology , Exercise/psychology , Female , Humans , Male , Mental Health/statistics & numerical data , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Patient Isolation/psychology , Quality of Life/psychology , SARS-CoV-2 , Social Isolation/psychology
6.
Rev Clin Esp ; 222(4): 229-232, 2022 Apr.
Article in Spanish | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1211127

ABSTRACT

Patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) are at increased risk for severe coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) and related mortality. Glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor agonists (GLP-1-RAs) have significant cardiovascular and renal benefits for patients with T2DM and related comorbidities. Their anti-inflammatory properties could be beneficial in these patients. This work provides less-biased estimates regarding the risk for respiratory tract infections and acute respiratory distress syndrome by performing the first significant meta-analysis of cardiovascular outcome trials in the literature. Notably, GLP-1-RAs do not seem to increase the risk for respiratory tract infection, pneumonia, or acute respiratory distress syndrome in patients with T2DM and cardiovascular comorbidities.

7.
Diabetes Res Clin Pract ; 173: 108674, 2021 Mar.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1188452

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: The DAR Global survey of Ramadan-fasting during the COVID-19 pandemic aimed to describe the characteristics and care in participants with type 2 diabetes (T2D) with a specific comparison between those <65 years and ≥65 years. METHODS: Participants were consented to answer a physician-administered questionnaire following Ramadan 2020. Impact of COVID-19 on the decision of fasting, intentions to fast and duration of Ramadan and Shawal fasting, hypoglycaemia and hyperglycaemia events were assessed. Specific analysis comparing age categories of <65 years and ≥65 years were performed. RESULTS: Among the 5865 participants, 22.5% were ≥65 years old. Concern for COVID-19 affected fasting decision for 7.6% (≥65 years) vs 5.4% (<65 years). More participants ≥65 years old did not fast (28.8% vs 12.7%, <65 years). Of the 83.6%, participants fulfilling Ramadan-fasting, 94.8% fasted ≥15 days and 12.6% had to break fast due to diabetes-related illness. The average number of days fasting within and post-Ramadan were 27 and 6 days respectively, regardless of age. Hypoglycaemia and hyperglycaemia occurred in 15.7% and 16.3% of participants respectively, with 6.5% and 7.4% requiring hospital care respectively. SMBG was performed in 73.8% of participants and 43.5% received Ramadan-focused education. CONCLUSION: During the COVID-19 pandemic, universally high rates of Ramadan-fasting were observed regardless of fasting risk level. Glycemic complications occurred frequently with older adults requiring higher rates of acute hospital care. Risk stratification is essential followed by pre-Ramadan interventions, Ramadan-focused diabetes education and self-monitoring to reduce and prevent complications, with particular emphasis in older adults.


Subject(s)
Aging/physiology , COVID-19/epidemiology , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/epidemiology , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/therapy , Fasting/physiology , Islam , Adult , Age Factors , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Blood Glucose/analysis , Blood Glucose/metabolism , Cross-Sectional Studies , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/blood , Female , Health Knowledge, Attitudes, Practice , Humans , Hypoglycemic Agents/therapeutic use , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , Surveys and Questionnaires
8.
Horm Res Paediatr ; 94(1-2): 71-75, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1166621

ABSTRACT

Emerging data demonstrate that comorbid conditions and older age are contributing factors to COVID-19 severity in children. Studies involving youth with COVID-19 and diabetes are lacking. We report the case of a critically ill adolescent male with obesity, type 2 diabetes, and COVID-19 who presented with hyperglycemic hyperosmolar syndrome (HHS). This case highlights a challenge for clinicians in distinguishing severe complications of COVID-19 from those seen in HHS. Youth with obesity and type 2 diabetes may represent a high-risk group for severe COVID-19 disease, an entity that to date has been well-recognized in adults but remains rare in children and adolescents.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Hyperglycemic Hyperosmolar Nonketotic Coma/epidemiology , SARS-CoV-2 , Adolescent , African Americans , COVID-19/diagnosis , Comorbidity , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/complications , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/epidemiology , Diabetic Ketoacidosis/epidemiology , Diagnosis, Differential , Fatal Outcome , Humans , Hyperglycemic Hyperosmolar Nonketotic Coma/diagnosis , Male , Obesity/complications , Obesity/epidemiology , Severity of Illness Index
9.
Pilot Feasibility Stud ; 7(1): 76, 2021 Mar 19.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1143272

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: People with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) generally spend a large amount of time sitting. This increases their risk of cardiovascular disease, premature mortality, diabetes-related complications and mental health problems. There is a paucity of research that has evaluated interventions aimed at reducing and breaking up sitting in people with T2DM. The primary aim of this study is to assess the feasibility of delivering and evaluating a tailored intervention to reduce and break up sitting in ambulatory adults with T2DM. METHODS: This is a mixed-methods randomised controlled feasibility trial. Participants (n=70) with T2DM aged 18-85 years who sit ≥7 h/day and are able to ambulate independently will be randomly allocated to receive the REgulate your SItting Time (RESIT) intervention or usual care (control group) for 24 weeks. RESIT is a person-focused intervention that delivers a standardised set of behaviour change techniques to the participants, but the mode through which they are delivered can vary depending on the tools selected by each participant. The intervention includes an online education programme, health coach support, and a range of self-selected tools (smartphone apps, computer-prompt software, and wearable devices) that deliver behaviour change techniques such as self-monitoring of sitting and providing prompts to break up sitting. Measures will be taken at baseline, 12 and 24 weeks. Eligibility, recruitment, retention and data completion rates will be used to assess trial feasibility. Sitting, standing and stepping will be measured using a thigh-worn activity monitor. Cardiometabolic health, physical function, psychological well-being, sleep and musculoskeletal symptoms will also be assessed. A process evaluation will be conducted including evaluation of intervention acceptability and fidelity. DISCUSSION: This study will identify the feasibility of delivering a tailored intervention to reduce and break up sitting in ambulatory adults with T2DM and evaluating it through a randomised controlled trial (RCT) design. The findings will inform a fully powered RCT to evaluate the effectiveness of the intervention. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ISRCTN, ISRCTN14832389 ; Registered 6 August 2020.

10.
Acta Diabetol ; 58(7): 899-909, 2021 Jul.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1135165

ABSTRACT

AIMS: To assess the impact of teleintervention on mental health parameters in type 2 diabetes patients during the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic. METHODS: This is a controlled randomized trial for a multidisciplinary telehealth intervention in Southern Brazil, with social distancing measures. Adults aged 18 years or older with previous diagnosis of type 2 diabetes were included in the study. The intervention performed was a set of strategies to help patients stay healthy during the COVID-19 pandemic and included the maintaining of telephone contacts and providing educational materials on issues related to mental health, healthy habits, and diabetes care. The primary outcome was a positive screening for mental health disorders (Self-Reporting Questionnaire) after 16 weeks of intervention. A positive screening for mental health disorders was considered when the survey scored greater than or equal to 7. Secondary outcomes included a positive screening for diabetes-related emotional distress (Problem Areas in Diabetes), eating (Eating Attitudes Test), and sleep disorders (Mini Sleep Questionnaire). Comparisons with χ2 tests for dichotomous outcomes, along with the Mann-Whitney U test, was used for between group analyses. RESULTS: A total of 91 individuals agreed to participate (46 intervention group and 45 control group). There were no differences in demographic and clinical data at baseline. After 16 weeks of follow-up, a positive screening for mental health disorders was found in 37.0% of participants in the intervention group vs. 57.8% in the control group (P = 0.04). Diabetes-related emotional distress was found in 21.7% of participants in the intervention group vs. 42.2% in the control group (P = 0.03). No differences were found between groups with regard to eating and sleep disorders. CONCLUSION: This study demonstrated that maintaining remote connections with health professionals during social distancing and quarantine have the potential to reduce the prevalence of positive screening for mental health disorders and diabetes-related emotional distress in adults with type 2 diabetes.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/psychology , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/therapy , Telemedicine/methods , Adult , Aged , Brazil/epidemiology , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/epidemiology , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/psychology , Female , Humans , Interdisciplinary Communication , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Patient Care Team/organization & administration , Prevalence , Psychological Distress , Quarantine , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , Self Report , Surveys and Questionnaires , Telemedicine/organization & administration
11.
Diabet Med ; 38(10): e14549, 2021 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1109524

ABSTRACT

AIMS: Restrictions during the COVID-19 crisis will have impacted on opportunities to be active. We aimed to (a) quantify the impact of COVID-19 restrictions on accelerometer-assessed physical activity and sleep in people with type 2 diabetes and (b) identify predictors of physical activity during COVID-19 restrictions. METHODS: Participants were from the UK Chronotype of Patients with type 2 diabetes and Effect on Glycaemic Control (CODEC) observational study. Participants wore an accelerometer on their wrist for 8 days before and during COVID-19 restrictions. Accelerometer outcomes included the following: overall physical activity, moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA), time spent inactive, days/week with ≥30-minute continuous MVPA and sleep. Predictors of change in physical activity taken pre-COVID included the following: age, sex, ethnicity, body mass index (BMI), socio-economic status and medical history. RESULTS: In all, 165 participants (age (mean±S.D = 64.2 ± 8.3 years, BMI=31.4 ± 5.4 kg/m2 , 45% women) were included. During restrictions, overall physical activity was lower by 1.7 mg (~800 steps/day) and inactive time 21.9 minutes/day higher, but time in MVPA and sleep did not statistically significantly change. In contrast, the percentage of people with ≥1 day/week with ≥30-minute continuous MVPA was higher (34% cf. 24%). Consistent predictors of lower physical activity and/or higher inactive time were higher BMI and/or being a woman. Being older and/or from ethnic minorities groups was associated with higher inactive time. CONCLUSIONS: Overall physical activity, but not MVPA, was lower in adults with type 2 diabetes during COVID-19 restrictions. Women and individuals who were heavier, older, inactive and/or from ethnic minority groups were most at risk of lower physical activity during restrictions.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/prevention & control , Communicable Disease Control , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/physiopathology , Motor Activity/physiology , Sleep/physiology , Accelerometry , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , COVID-19/epidemiology , Communicable Disease Control/methods , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/epidemiology , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/therapy , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , Young Adult
12.
Diabetes Care ; 44(1): 50-57, 2021 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1067598

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To describe the relationship between type 2 diabetes and all-cause mortality among adults with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) in the critical care setting. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: This was a nationwide retrospective cohort study in people admitted to hospital in England with COVID-19 requiring admission to a high dependency unit (HDU) or intensive care unit (ICU) between 1 March 2020 and 27 July 2020. Cox proportional hazards models were used to estimate 30-day in-hospital all-cause mortality associated with type 2 diabetes, with adjustment for age, sex, ethnicity, obesity, and other major comorbidities (chronic respiratory disease, asthma, chronic heart disease, hypertension, immunosuppression, chronic neurological disease, chronic renal disease, and chronic liver disease). RESULTS: A total of 19,256 COVID-19-related HDU and ICU admissions were included in the primary analysis, including 13,809 HDU (mean age 70 years) and 5,447 ICU (mean age 58 years) admissions. Of those admitted, 3,524 (18.3%) had type 2 diabetes and 5,077 (26.4%) died during the study period. Patients with type 2 diabetes were at increased risk of death (adjusted hazard ratio [aHR] 1.23 [95% CI 1.14, 1.32]), and this result was consistent in HDU and ICU subsets. The relative mortality risk associated with type 2 diabetes decreased with higher age (age 18-49 years aHR 1.50 [95% CI 1.05, 2.15], age 50-64 years 1.29 [1.10, 1.51], and age ≥65 years 1.18 [1.09, 1.29]; P value for age-type 2 diabetes interaction = 0.002). CONCLUSIONS: Type 2 diabetes may be an independent prognostic factor for survival in people with severe COVID-19 requiring critical care treatment, and in this setting the risk increase associated with type 2 diabetes is greatest in younger people.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/mortality , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/complications , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/mortality , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Cohort Studies , Comorbidity , Critical Care/statistics & numerical data , England/epidemiology , Female , Hospital Mortality , Hospitalization , Humans , Intensive Care Units , Kidney Failure, Chronic/complications , Male , Middle Aged , Prognosis , Proportional Hazards Models , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2 , Young Adult
13.
Diabetes Metab Syndr ; 14(6): 1815-1819, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1059525

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Lockdown during the COVID-19 pandemic imposed many restrictions on the public. Loss of continuum of care along with improper lifestyle was expected to worsen glycemic control in people with type 2 diabetes (T2D). We aimed to identify the effects of lockdown on their glycemic status, lifestyle changes and psychosocial health. METHODS: The pre- and post-lockdown data of 110 adults with T2D who were under regular follow up was collected by direct interview during their visit to the diabetes clinic. The variables analyzed included demographic data, HbA1c, body weight, lifestyle changes, psychosocial factors and use of technology. RESULT: The overall physical activity and dietary adherence remained unchanged in more than 80% of the participants. There was increased consumption of vegetables (80.9%), fruits (42.7%), and decreased unhealthy snacking (63%). 90% of them had access to medications. No significant change was noted in the mean HbA1c and body weight before and after lockdown. Most of them (99%) watched television and 73.6% of them spent time with their family members. Those with mental stress and poor sleep had unhealthy dietary habits. Poor glycemic control was seen in those with less physical activity and an unhealthy diet. CONCLUSION: Lockdown did not cause a major change in the overall glycemic control. Measures to promote healthy lifestyle practices along with ways to reduce psychosocial stress must be implemented for better T2D management during such restricted times.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Communicable Disease Control , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/therapy , Diet/statistics & numerical data , Exercise , Hypoglycemic Agents/therapeutic use , Mental Health , Stress, Psychological/psychology , Age Factors , Aged , Cross-Sectional Studies , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/metabolism , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/psychology , Family , Female , Fruit , Glycated Hemoglobin A/metabolism , Health Services Accessibility , Humans , India , Life Style , Male , Middle Aged , SARS-CoV-2 , Sex Factors , Snacks , Surveys and Questionnaires , Television , Vegetables
14.
Case Rep Infect Dis ; 2020: 8878069, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1021161

ABSTRACT

Background. Mycobacterium neoaurum is a rapidly growing nontuberculosis mycobacterium (NTM) that was first isolated from soil in 1972 and is ubiquitous in soil, water, and dust. The first reported case of human infection by M. neoaurum was published in 1988, presenting as a Hickman catheter-related bacteremia in a patient with ovarian cancer. M. neoaurum has since been recognized as a source of predominantly opportunistic bloodstream infections in immunocompromised hosts. We report the case of an adult diabetic male with M. neoaurum bloodstream infection secondary to an infected venous-access port that had been implanted nearly six years prior for temporary chemotherapy. Case Presentation. A 66-year-old male with schizophrenia, type 2 diabetes mellitus, and a history of excision and chemotherapy to treat adenocarcinoma of the colon 6 years prior, presented with fever and behavioral changes. He was found to have a M. neoaurum bloodstream infection secondary to his implanted subclavian port. Multiple preoperative blood cultures, as well as the removed catheter tip culture, were positive for M. neoaurum. The patient's condition improved to near premorbid levels after port removal and 6 weeks of targeted antimicrobial therapy. Discussion and Conclusions. Bloodstream infections due to rapidly growing NTM, such as M. neoaurum, have been infrequently reported; however, improved isolation and identification techniques based on genomic testing are resulting in a more in-depth recognition of these widely scattered environmental microbes in human infections. Nonetheless, lengthy identification and susceptibility processes remain a diagnostic and treatment barrier. Patients such as ours who have a history of malignancy and an indwelling foreign body have most often been reported as acquiring M. neoaurum bacteremia. Fortunately, device removal and appropriate antimicrobial therapy guided by susceptibility data is often enough to manage these atypical mycobacterial infections.

15.
Cureus ; 12(11): e11805, 2020 Nov 30.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1011762

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has been announced as a pandemic worldwide. The respiratory tract is a target organ system, where infection can result in serious complications, like acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). Management of this condition is more challenging in individuals with diabetes who developed diabetic ketoacidosis. We report a case of a 59-year-old male with type 2 diabetes who presented with productive cough, chills, and shortness of breath for four days. On examination, the patient was hypoxemic with bilateral crackles on lung auscultation. The patient's biochemistry was significant for glucose 387 mg/dL, pH 7.25, positive urine ketones, and lactic acid dehydrogenase (LDH) 325 U/L. An initial chest x-ray showed bilateral peripheral pulmonary infiltrates. The patient was subsequently intubated on the first day for worsening hypoxia due to severe ARDS. He was concomitantly treated for diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA) and hypotension with fluid resuscitation and intravenous insulin. On the same day, his hypoxia worsened with an increase in pulmonary infiltrates, so we stopped intravenous fluids and initiated norepinephrine for 24 hours. His intravenous insulin was initially started at 12 units/hour with subsequent titration down to an average of 5 units/hour. His mechanical ventilation settings followed ARDS guidelines with tidal volume 6 ml/kg based on ideal body weight. Positive COVID-19 was detected from real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). After maintaining a negative fluid balance, we were able to extubate in 72 hours. DKA was resolved in 46 hours. In conclusion, type 2 diabetes is rarely affected by DKA, but can be found in up to 27% of cases. There are reports of ARDS as a serious complication in severe DKA in adults and children, yet no data for concomitant DKA and ARDS has been published. We propose that DKA management in COVID-19 patients with ARDS may be similar to the paradigm utilized for other volume restriction in patients with congestive heart failure and end-stage renal failure.

16.
Diabetes Metab Syndr ; 14(6): 2211-2217, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-954801

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND AND AIMS: New data has emerged regarding higher risk of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), and its severity and complications in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). However, there is a dearth of evidence regarding type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM). This article explores the possibility of COVID 19 induced diabetes and highlights a potential bidirectional link between COVID 19 and T1DM. METHODS: A literature search was performed with Medline (PubMed), Scopus, and Google Scholar electronic databases till October 2020, using relevant keywords (COVID-19 induced diabetes; COVID-19 and type 1 diabetes; COVID-19 induced DKA; new-onset diabetes after SARS-CoV-2 infection) to extract relevant studies describing relationship between COVID-19 and T1DM. RESULTS: Past lessons and new data teach us that severe acute respiratory syndrome coronaviruses (SARS-CoV and SARS-CoV-2) can enter islet cells via angiotensin converting enzyme-2 (ACE-2) receptors and cause reversible ß-cell damage and transient hyperglycemia. There have been postulations regarding the potential new-onset T1DM triggered by COVID-19. This article reviews the available evidence regarding the impact and interlink between COVID-19 and Τ1DM. We also explore the mechanisms behind the viral etiology of Τ1DM. CONCLUSIONS: SARS-CoV-2 can trigger severe diabetic ketoacidosis at presentation in individuals with new-onset diabetes. However, at present, there is no hard evidence that SARS-CoV-2 induces T1DM on it's own accord. Long term follow-up of children and adults presenting with new-onset diabetes during this pandemic is required to fully understand the type of diabetes induced by COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/mortality , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 1/diagnosis , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 1/mortality , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/antagonists & inhibitors , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme Inhibitors/pharmacology , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme Inhibitors/therapeutic use , COVID-19/drug therapy , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 1/drug therapy , Humans
17.
Adv Exp Med Biol ; 1307: 85-114, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-935228

ABSTRACT

Emergency admissions due to acute metabolic crisis in patients with diabetes remain some of the most common and challenging conditions. DKA (Diabetic Ketoacidosis), HHS (Hyperglycaemic Hyperosmolar State) and recently focused EDKA (Euglycaemic Diabetic Ketoacidosis) are life-threatening different entities. DKA and HHS have distinctly different pathophysiology but basic management protocols are the same. EDKA is just like DKA but without hyperglycaemia. T1D, particularly children are vulnerable to DKA and T2D, particularly elderly with comorbidities are vulnerable to HHS. But these are not always the rule, these acute conditions are often occur in different age groups with diabetes. It is essential to have a coordinated care from the multidisciplinary team to ensure the timely delivery of right treatment. DKA and HHS, in many instances can present as a mixed entity as well. Mortality rate is higher for HHS than DKA but incidences of DKA are much higher than HHS. The prevalence of HHS in children and young adults are increasing due to exponential growth of obesity and increasing T2D cases in this age group. Following introduction of SGLT2i (Sodium-GLucose co-Transporter-2 inhibitor) for T2D and off-label use in T1D, some incidences of EDKA has been reported. Healthcare professionals should be more vigilant during acute illness in diabetes patients on SGLT2i without hyperglycaemia to rule out EDKA. Middle aged, mildly obese and antibody negative patients who apparently resemble as T2D without any precipitating causes sometime end up with DKA which is classified as KPD (Ketosis-prone diabetes). Many cases can be prevented by following 'Sick day rules'. Better access to medical care, structured diabetes education to patients and caregivers are key measures to prevent acute metabolic crisis.


Subject(s)
Diabetic Ketoacidosis , Hyperglycemia , Aged , Child , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 1 , Diabetic Ketoacidosis/diagnosis , Diabetic Ketoacidosis/epidemiology , Diabetic Ketoacidosis/therapy , Emergencies , Humans , Middle Aged , Obesity/complications , Sodium-Glucose Transporter 2 Inhibitors/therapeutic use , Young Adult
18.
Pediatr Diabetes ; 22(2): 202-206, 2021 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-934041

ABSTRACT

The severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-Cov-2), responsible for the coronavirus disease COVID-19, was first identified in Wuhan, China in December 2019. Diabetes, as well as other cardiovascular comorbidities, has been recognized as a major risk factor for outcomes and mortality in adults with COVID-19, particularly in the elderly with type 2 diabetes. Based on these conclusions, COVID-19 data on adults have been generalized to youth with diabetes. Nevertheless, experience from pediatric diabetes practices in China (Wuhan), Italy, Spain (Catalonia), and the United States (San Francisco Bay Area) consistently report only a single severe case of COVID-19 in a 20-year-old female youth with type 1 diabetes (T1D) that was hospitalized for bilateral pneumonia and was subsequently discharged without complications. In Italy, information on COVID-19 in all children with diabetes is collected on a weekly basis and those with positive swab test or infection-related symptoms reported to a dedicated national registry. Of a total of 15 500 children tested, 11 subjects with T1D (age 8-17y) tested positive for COVID-19; 6/11 were asymptomatic and the rest presented with mild symptoms. In the rest of locations, youths with T1D diagnosed with COVID-19 were based on clinical suspicion and a confirmatory PCR test (Wuhan:0; Catalonia-HSJD:3; California-Stanford:2). All of them were asymptomatic or had a mild course. We suggest that COVID-19 data from adults should not be generalized to children, adolescents, and youth with diabetes as their outcomes and prognosis seem to be similar to their non-diabetic-peers and consistently milder than adults with diabetes.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Diabetes Mellitus/epidemiology , Hospitalization/statistics & numerical data , SARS-CoV-2 , Adolescent , Child , Comorbidity , Diabetes Mellitus/therapy , Global Health , Humans , Pandemics , Risk Factors
19.
Diabetes Res Clin Pract ; 172: 108538, 2021 Feb.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-921877

ABSTRACT

This retrospective study aimed to characterize comorbidities and associated with mortality among hospitalized adults with Covid-19 managed as perthe Saudi Ministry of Health protocol in a specialized tertiary hospital in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. Medical records of 300 adult patients with PCR-confirmed SARS-CoV2 infection and admitted in King Salman Hospital (KSH) from May 1 to July 31, 2020 were included. Medical history, management and outcomes were noted. Males significantly outnumber females (259 versus 41). South Asians comprise 41% of all admitted patients. Mortality rate was 10% and highest among Saudi males (28.9%). Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) was the most common comorbidity (45.7%). Almost all patients (99%) had pneumonia. Patients > 50 years were three times more likely to die (confidence interval, CI 1.3-6.9; p = 0.01) from Covid-19. Congestive heart failure (odds ratio OR 19.4, CI-1.5-260.0; p = 0.02) and acute kidney injury (OR 11.7, CI-4.7-28.6; p < 0.001) were significantly associated with higher mortality. Dexamethasone use significantly improved the final outcome based on net reclassification improvement (NRI) and integrated discrimination improvement (IDI) (p < 0.05). In this single-center study, T2DM was very common among hospitalized Covid-19 patients. Patients > 50 years, those with congestive heart failure and acute kidney injury are at higher risk for worse Covid-19 outcome.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/epidemiology , Disease Management , Hospitals, Special/statistics & numerical data , SARS-CoV-2 , Tertiary Care Centers/statistics & numerical data , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , COVID-19/therapy , Comorbidity , Female , Hospitalization/trends , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Prevalence , Retrospective Studies , Saudi Arabia/epidemiology , Young Adult
20.
J Diabetes Complications ; 34(12): 107748, 2020 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-837528

ABSTRACT

AIMS: To describe the effects of the COVID-19 pandemic on adults with T1D or T2D in the U.S. METHODS: Participants, recruited from the Taking Control of Your Diabetes Research Registry, were ≥19 years old and diagnosed with either T1D or T2D for ≥12 months. Participants completed an online survey on a HIPAA-protected platform. RESULTS: Completed surveys were received from 763 T1Ds and 619 T2Ds. Average T1D age was 53.3 (SD = 15.3); average T2D age was 64.9 (SD = 10.3). Both samples were predominantly female, non-Hispanic white and well-educated. Average self-reported HbA1c was 6.9 (SD = 1.0; 52 mmol/mol) for T1Ds and 7.1 (SD = 1.1; 54 mmol/mol) for T2Ds. About 40% of respondents reported that all of their diabetes healthcare appointments at the time were cancelled or postponed, 40% reported a switch to telehealth appointments and almost half reported lower overall satisfaction with these visits (compared to pre-pandemic). There were widespread increases in general and diabetes-related stress and social isolation, and negative effects on disease management. About 25% reported increases in highs, lows, and glucose variability in both groups. CONCLUSION: There has been a substantive increase in level of diabetes-related and general life stress and social isolation due to the pandemic, with a significant impact on disease management.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/psychology , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 1/psychology , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 1/therapy , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/psychology , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/therapy , SARS-CoV-2 , Adult , Aged , Cohort Studies , Delivery of Health Care/statistics & numerical data , Female , Glycated Hemoglobin A/analysis , Health Services Accessibility/statistics & numerical data , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Social Isolation/psychology , Stress, Psychological/epidemiology , Surveys and Questionnaires , Telemedicine
SELECTION OF CITATIONS
SEARCH DETAIL