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1.
Lancet Diabetes Endocrinol ; 9(5): 293-303, 2021 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1531930

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: In patients with type 2 diabetes, hyperglycaemia is an independent risk factor for COVID-19-related mortality. Associations between pre-infection prescription for glucose-lowering drugs and COVID-19-related mortality in people with type 2 diabetes have been postulated but only investigated in small studies and limited to a few agents. We investigated whether there are associations between prescription of different classes of glucose-lowering drugs and risk of COVID-19-related mortality in people with type 2 diabetes. METHODS: This was a nationwide observational cohort study done with data from the National Diabetes Audit for people with type 2 diabetes and registered with a general practice in England since 2003. Cox regression was used to estimate the hazard ratio (HR) of COVID-19-related mortality in people prescribed each class of glucose-lowering drug, with covariate adjustment with a propensity score to address confounding by demographic, socioeconomic, and clinical factors. FINDINGS: Among the 2 851 465 people with type 2 diabetes included in our analyses, 13 479 (0·5%) COVID-19-related deaths occurred during the study period (Feb 16 to Aug 31, 2020), corresponding to a rate of 8·9 per 1000 person-years (95% CI 8·7-9·0). The adjusted HR associated with recorded versus no recorded prescription was 0·77 (95% CI 0·73-0·81) for metformin and 1·42 (1·35-1·49) for insulin. Adjusted HRs for prescription of other individual classes of glucose-lowering treatment were as follows: 0·75 (0·48-1·17) for meglitinides, 0·82 (0·74-0·91) for SGLT2 inhibitors, 0·94 (0·82-1·07) for thiazolidinediones, 0·94 (0·89-0·99) for sulfonylureas, 0·94 (0·83-1·07) for GLP-1 receptor agonists, 1·07 (1·01-1·13) for DPP-4 inhibitors, and 1·26 (0·76-2·09) for α-glucosidase inhibitors. INTERPRETATION: Our results provide evidence of associations between prescription of some glucose-lowering drugs and COVID-19-related mortality, although the differences in risk are small and these findings are likely to be due to confounding by indication, in view of the use of different drug classes at different stages of type 2 diabetes disease progression. In the context of the COVID-19 pandemic, there is no clear indication to change prescribing of glucose-lowering drugs in people with type 2 diabetes. FUNDING: None.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/mortality , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/complications , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/drug therapy , Hypoglycemic Agents/adverse effects , Aged , COVID-19/complications , Cohort Studies , England , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Proportional Hazards Models
2.
BMJ Open ; 11(3): e044888, 2021 03 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1455712

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Type 2 diabetes is a global health priority. People with diabetes are more likely to experience mental health problems relative to people without diabetes. Diabetes guidelines recommend assessment of depression and diabetes distress during diabetes care. This systematic review will examine the effect of routinely assessing and addressing depression and diabetes distress using patient-reported outcome measures in improving outcomes among adults with type 2 diabetes. METHODS AND ANALYSIS: MEDLINE, Embase, CINAHL Complete, PsycInfo, The Cochrane Library and Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials will be searched using a prespecified strategy using a prespecified Population, Intervention, Comparator, Outcomes, Setting and study design strategy. The date range of the search of all databases will be from inception to 3 August 2020. Randomised controlled trials, interrupted time-series studies, prospective and retrospective cohort studies, case-control studies and analytical cross-sectional studies published in peer-reviewed journals in the English language will be included. Two review authors will independently screen abstracts and full texts with disagreements resolved by a third reviewer, if required, using Covidence software. Two reviewers will undertake risk of bias assessment using checklists appropriate to study design. Data will be extracted using prespecified template. A narrative synthesis will be conducted, with a meta-analysis, if appropriate. ETHICS AND DISSEMINATION: Ethics approval is not required for this review of published studies. Presentation of results will follow the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic reviews and Meta-Analyses guidance. Findings will be disseminated via peer-reviewed publication and conference presentations. PROSPERO REGISTRATION NUMBER: CRD42020200246.


Subject(s)
Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2 , Adult , Cross-Sectional Studies , Depression/diagnosis , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/complications , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/therapy , Humans , Meta-Analysis as Topic , Patient Reported Outcome Measures , Prospective Studies , Research Design , Retrospective Studies , Systematic Reviews as Topic
3.
Rehabilitacion (Madr) ; 55(4): 282-290, 2021.
Article in Spanish | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1454497

ABSTRACT

One of the main roles of the prescription of physical activity for people with type 2 diabetes is to reduce hyperglycemia. The beneficial effect of physical training on glycemic levels is considered as the sum of the effects of each exercise session. A better understanding of acute responses to exercise, through short-term glycemic variability, could explain the differences in the results of distinct training protocols. The objective of this study was to analyze the scientific information on different exercise protocols and their association with short-term glycemic variability in patients with type 2 diabetes. A systematic review of studies published in English and Spanish was carried out. The databases used were PubMed, Cochrane, ScienceDirect, and Medline. Only studies conducted in adults (older than 18 years) were included. A total of 36 studies were identified, which were analyzed and completed using the Covidence® platform. The final analysis included 10 articles with 296 patients. The 10 included articles were divided according to the type of intervention protocol used: group 1, acute exercise, and group 2, training. Significant differences were found in glycemic variability in 71.4% of the articles in group 1 and in 100% of the articles included in group 2. Positive effects of acute exercise and physical training on short-term glycemic variability were demonstrated. The findings were more pronounced in the intervention protocols than in physical training.


Subject(s)
Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2 , Hyperglycemia , Adult , Blood Glucose , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/therapy , Exercise , Humans , Hyperglycemia/prevention & control
4.
Ghana Med J ; 54(4 Suppl): 52-61, 2020 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1436195

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Since the declaration of COVID-19 by the World Health Organisation (WHO) as a global pandemic on 11th March 2020, the number of deaths continue to increase worldwide. Reports on its pathologic manifestations have been published with very few from the Sub-Saharan African region. This article reports autopsies on COVID-19 patients from the Ga-East and the 37 Military Hospitals to provide pathological evidence for better understanding of COVID-19 in Ghana. METHODS: Under conditions required for carrying out autopsies on bodies infected with category three infectious agents, with few modifications, complete autopsies were performed on twenty patients with ante-mortem and/or postmortem RT -PCR confirmed positive COVID-19 results, between April and June, 2020. RESULTS: There were equal proportion of males and females. Thirteen (65%) of the patients were 55years or older with the same percentage (65%) having Type II diabetes and/or hypertension. The most significant pathological feature found at autopsy was diffuse alveolar damage. Seventy per cent (14/20) had associated thromboemboli in the lungs, kidneys and the heart. Forty per cent (6/15) of the patients that had negative results for COVID-19 by the nasopharyngeal swab test before death had positive results during postmortem using bronchopulmonary specimen. At autopsy all patients were identified to have pre-existing medical conditions. CONCLUSION: Diffuse alveolar damage was a key pathological feature of deaths caused by COVID-19 in all cases studied with hypertension and diabetes mellitus being major risk factors. Individuals without co-morbidities were less likely to die or suffer severe disease from SARS-CoV-2. FUNDING: None declared.


Subject(s)
Autopsy/statistics & numerical data , COVID-19/pathology , Hospitals, Military/statistics & numerical data , Hospitals, Municipal/statistics & numerical data , SARS-CoV-2 , COVID-19/mortality , COVID-19 Testing/methods , COVID-19 Testing/statistics & numerical data , Comorbidity , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/mortality , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/virology , Female , Ghana/epidemiology , Humans , Hypertension/mortality , Hypertension/virology , Lung/pathology , Lung/virology , Male , Middle Aged , Pulmonary Alveoli/pathology , Pulmonary Alveoli/virology , Risk Factors
5.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 18(7)2021 03 31.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1378276

ABSTRACT

Few studies have considered more than one behavior, despite the tendency towards multiple behaviors, and there are none that have focused on a Latino population. We determined the concurrence of four unhealthy behaviors related to glycemic control and identified common cognitive factors at advanced stages of readiness for change in patients with type 2 diabetes treated in primary care. A cross-sectional study was carried out during August-December 2018 in northeastern Mexico. We consecutively included patients between 20 and 70 years who were without medical contraindication, physical impediment against exercise, pregnancy and edentulism, among other selection criteria (n = 407). Stages of behavior were measured according to the Transtheoretical Model. Pros, cons, self-efficacy, susceptibility, and severity data were collected by interview. Statistical analysis consisted of descriptive statistics and multiple logistic regression. A total of 36.7% exhibited more than one unhealthy behavior in precontemplation or contemplation (no interest or some interest in changing consumption of refined sugars and saturated fats, exercise, or oral hygiene behavior). Cons (p < 0.05) and self-efficacy (p < 0.001) were common to all four unhealthy behaviors, independent of potential confounders. Studies like ours facilitate the recognition of individuals with multiple unhealthy behaviors who share equivalent profiles of readiness for change before implementing public health programs.


Subject(s)
Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2 , Cross-Sectional Studies , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/epidemiology , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/therapy , Exercise , Health Behavior , Humans , Mexico , Self Efficacy
6.
Diabetes Obes Metab ; 23 Suppl 1: 3-16, 2021 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1324985

ABSTRACT

Obesity is a chronic multisystem disease associated with increased morbidity and mortality. The increasing prevalence of obesity makes it a major healthcare challenge across both developed and developing countries. Traditional measures such as body mass index do not always identify individuals at increased risk of comorbidities, yet continue to be used in deciding who qualifies for weight loss treatment. A better understanding of how obesity is associated with comorbidities, in particular non-metabolic conditions, is needed to identify individuals at risk in order to prioritize treatment. For metabolic disorders such as type 2 diabetes (T2D), weight loss can prevent T2D in individuals with prediabetes. It can improve and reverse T2D if weight loss is achieved early in the course of the disease. However, access to effective weight loss treatments is a significant barrier to improved health for people with obesity. In the present paper, we review the rising prevalence of obesity and why it should be classed as a multisystem disease. We will discuss potential mechanisms underlying its association with various comorbidities and how these respond to treatment, with a particular focus on cardiometabolic disease, malignancy and mental health.


Subject(s)
Bariatric Surgery , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2 , Prediabetic State , Body Mass Index , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/complications , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/epidemiology , Humans , Obesity/complications , Obesity/epidemiology , Weight Loss
7.
JMIR Diabetes ; 6(3): e25820, 2021 Jul 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1311338

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: With increasing type 2 diabetes prevalence, there is a need for effective programs that support diabetes management and improve type 2 diabetes outcomes. Mobile health (mHealth) interventions have shown promising results. With advances in wearable sensors and improved integration, mHealth programs could become more accessible and personalized. OBJECTIVE: The study aimed to evaluate the feasibility, acceptability, and effectiveness of a personalized mHealth-anchored intervention program in improving glycemic control and enhancing care experience in diabetes management. The program was coincidentally implemented during the national-level lockdown for COVID-19 in Singapore, allowing for a timely study of the use of mHealth for chronic disease management. METHODS: Patients with type 2 diabetes or prediabetes were enrolled from the Singapore Armed Forces and offered a 3-month intervention program in addition to the usual care they received. The program was standardized to include (1) in-person initial consultation with a clinical dietitian; (2) in-person review with a diabetes specialist doctor; (3) 1 continuous glucose monitoring device; (4) access to the mobile app for dietary intake and physical activity tracking, and communication via messaging with the dietitian and doctor; and (5) context-sensitive digital health coaching over the mobile app. Medical support was rendered to the patients on an as-needed basis when they required advice on adjustment of medications. Measurements of weight, height, and glycated hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) were conducted at 2 in-person visits at the start and end of the program. At the end of the program, patients were asked to complete a short acceptability feedback survey to understand the motivation for joining the program, their satisfaction, and suggestions for improvement. RESULTS: Over a 4-week recruitment period, 130 individuals were screened, the enrollment target of 30 patients was met, and 21 patients completed the program and were included in the final analyses; 9 patients were lost to follow-up (full data were not available for the final analyses). There were no differences in the baseline characteristics between patients who were included and excluded from the final analyses (age category: P=.23; gender: P=.21; ethnicity: P>.99; diabetes status category: P=.52, medication adjustment category: P=.65; HbA1c category: P=.69; BMI: P>.99). The 21 patients who completed the study rated a mean of 9.0 out of 10 on the Likert scale for both satisfaction questions. For the Yes-No question on benefit of the program, all of the patients selected "Yes." Mean HbA1c decreased from 7.6% to 7.0% (P=.004). There were no severe hypoglycemia events (glucose level <3.0 mmol/L) reported. Mean weight decreased from 76.8 kg to 73.9 kg (P<.001), a mean decrease of 3.5% from baseline weight. Mean BMI decreased from 27.8 kg/m2 to 26.7 kg/m2 (P<.001). CONCLUSIONS: The personalized mHealth program was feasible, acceptable, and produced significant reductions in HbA1c (P=.004) and body weight (P<.001) in individuals with type 2 diabetes. Such mHealth programs could overcome challenges posed to chronic disease management by COVID-19, including disruptions to in-person health care access.

9.
BMJ Open ; 11(6): e050919, 2021 06 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1263926

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Cardiothoracic surgical outcomes are poorer in people with diabetes compared with those without diabetes. There are two important uncertainties in the management of people with diabetes undergoing major surgery: (1) how to improve diabetes management in the weeks leading up to an elective procedure and (2) whether that improved management leads to better postoperative outcomes. We previously demonstrated the feasibility of delivering the Optimising Cardiac Surgery ouTcOmes in People with diabeteS (OCTOPuS) intervention, an outpatient intervention delivered by diabetes healthcare professionals for people with suboptimally managed diabetes over 8-12 weeks before elective cardiac surgery. The present study will assess the clinical and cost-effectiveness of the intervention in cardiothoracic centres across the UK. METHODS AND ANALYSIS: A multicentre, parallel group, single-blinded 1:1 individually randomised trial comparing time from surgery until clinically fit for discharge in adults with suboptimally managed type 1 diabetes or type 2 diabetes undergoing elective surgery between the OCTOPuS intervention and usual care (primary endpoint). Secondary endpoints will include actual time from surgery to discharge from hospital; days alive and either out of hospital or judged as clinically fit for discharge; mortality; time on intensive therapy unit (ITU)/ventilator; infections; acute myocardial infarction; change in weight; effect on postoperative renal function and incidence of acute kidney injury; change in HbA1c; frequency and severity of self-reported hypoglycaemia; operations permanently cancelled for suboptimal glycaemic levels; cost-effectiveness; psychosocial questionnaires. The target sample size will be 426 recruited across approximately 15 sites. The primary analysis will be conducted on an intention-to-treat population. A two-sided p value of 0.05 or less will be used to declare statistical significance for all analyses and results will be presented with 95% CIs. ETHICS AND DISSEMINATION: The trial was approved by the South Central-Hampshire A Research Ethics Committee (20/SC/0271). Results will be disseminated through conferences, scientific journals, newsletters, magazines and social media. TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBER: ISRCTN10170306.


Subject(s)
Cardiac Surgical Procedures , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 1 , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2 , Octopodiformes , Adult , Animals , Humans , Multicenter Studies as Topic , Outpatients , Randomized Controlled Trials as Topic
11.
Diabet Med ; 38(9): e14616, 2021 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1249409

ABSTRACT

The National Diabetes Audit (NDA) collates and analyses data on the quality and variation in clinical care and outcomes for people with diabetes. It also provides opportunities to assess trends, determinants, and outcomes of diabetes to help guide clinical and public health priorities. COHORT: Between 1 January 2003 and 31 March 2020, a total of 5,280,885 people diagnosed with diabetes were included in at least one NDA data collection. To this date, median follow-up was 12 and 8 years for people with type 1 diabetes and type 2 diabetes respectively. Comparisons with the 2019/20 Quality and Outcomes Framework show it included 98% of adults in England and Wales with diagnosed type 1 and type 2 diabetes. Data include demographic characteristics (age, sex, ethnicity, age at diagnosis, deprivation), risk factors (HbA1c , blood pressure, cholesterol, body mass index, smoking status) diabetic and cardiovascular complications and deaths. SECONDARY ANALYSIS: Secondary analyses have included comparisons of HbA1c and blood pressure measurements in cohorts with similar characteristics to the Epidemiology of Diabetes Interventions and Complications study and the UK Prospective Diabetes Study; COVID-19 related mortality in people with type 1 and type 2 diabetes and incidence of type 2 diabetes following admission to intensive care units. FUTURE PLANS: Commissioned NDA reports will continue to inform service development in England and Wales. The same data, with or without linkages to other external datasets, are also a rich resource for clinically orientated research.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Clinical Audit , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 1/epidemiology , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/epidemiology , SARS-CoV-2 , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Blood Pressure , Child , Child, Preschool , Cohort Studies , Comorbidity , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 1/physiopathology , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/physiopathology , England/epidemiology , Female , Follow-Up Studies , Glycated Hemoglobin A/analysis , Humans , Hypoglycemic Agents/therapeutic use , Infant , Male , Middle Aged , Quality of Health Care , Treatment Outcome , Wales/epidemiology , Young Adult
12.
Int J Clin Pract ; 75(8): e14319, 2021 Aug.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1223493

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The impact of lockdown measures can be widespread, affecting both clinical and psychosocial aspects of health. This study aims to assess changes in health services access, self-care, behavioural, and psychological impact of COVID-19 and partial lockdown amongst diabetes patients in Singapore. METHODS: We conducted a cross-sectional online survey amongst people with diabetes with the Diabetes Health Profile-18 (DHP-18). Hierarchical regression analyses were performed for each DHP-18 subscale (Psychological Distress, Disinhibited Eating and Barriers to Activity) as dependent variables in separate models. RESULTS: Among 301 respondents, 45.2% were women, 67.1% of Chinese ethnicity, 24.2% were aged 40 to 49 years, 68.4% have Type 2 diabetes and 42.2% on oral medications alone. During the pandemic and the lockdown, nearly all respondents were able to receive care safely from the clinics they attend (94%) and obtain their medications and diabetes equipment and supplies (97%) when needed. Respondents reported less frequent engagement in physical activity (38%), checking of blood pressure (29%) and blood glucose (22%). Previous diagnosis of mental health conditions (ß = 9.33, P = .043), Type 1 diabetes (ß = 12.92, P = .023), number of diabetes-related comorbidities (ß = 3.16, P = .007) and Indian ethnicity (ß = 6.65, P = .034) were associated with higher psychological distress. Comorbidities were associated with higher disinhibited eating (ß = 2.49, P = .014) while ability to reach their doctor despite not going to the clinic is negatively associated with psychological distress (ß = -9.50 P = .002) and barriers to activity (ß = -7.53, P = .007). CONCLUSION: Health services access were minimally affected, but COVID-19 and lockdown had mixed impacts on self-care and management behaviours. Greater clinical care and attention should be provided to people with diabetes with multiple comorbidities and previous mental health disorders during the pandemic and lockdown.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2 , Self-Management , Communicable Disease Control , Cross-Sectional Studies , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/epidemiology , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/therapy , Female , Health Services Accessibility , Humans , SARS-CoV-2 , Singapore
13.
Lancet Diabetes Endocrinol ; 9(6): 350-359, 2021 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1208494

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Obesity is a major risk factor for adverse outcomes after infection with SARS-CoV-2. We aimed to examine this association, including interactions with demographic and behavioural characteristics, type 2 diabetes, and other health conditions. METHODS: In this prospective, community-based, cohort study, we used de-identified patient-level data from the QResearch database of general practices in England, UK. We extracted data for patients aged 20 years and older who were registered at a practice eligible for inclusion in the QResearch database between Jan 24, 2020 (date of the first recorded infection in the UK) and April 30, 2020, and with available data on BMI. Data extracted included demographic, clinical, clinical values linked with Public Health England's database of positive SARS-CoV-2 test results, and death certificates from the Office of National Statistics. Outcomes, as a proxy measure of severe COVID-19, were admission to hospital, admission to an intensive care unit (ICU), and death due to COVID-19. We used Cox proportional hazard models to estimate the risk of severe COVID-19, sequentially adjusting for demographic characteristics, behavioural factors, and comorbidities. FINDINGS: Among 6 910 695 eligible individuals (mean BMI 26·78 kg/m2 [SD 5·59]), 13 503 (0·20%) were admitted to hospital, 1601 (0·02%) to an ICU, and 5479 (0·08%) died after a positive test for SARS-CoV-2. We found J-shaped associations between BMI and admission to hospital due to COVID-19 (adjusted hazard ratio [HR] per kg/m2 from the nadir at BMI of 23 kg/m2 of 1·05 [95% CI 1·05-1·05]) and death (1·04 [1·04-1·05]), and a linear association across the whole BMI range with ICU admission (1·10 [1·09-1·10]). We found a significant interaction between BMI and age and ethnicity, with higher HR per kg/m2 above BMI 23 kg/m2 for younger people (adjusted HR per kg/m2 above BMI 23 kg/m2 for hospital admission 1·09 [95% CI 1·08-1·10] in 20-39 years age group vs 80-100 years group 1·01 [1·00-1·02]) and Black people than White people (1·07 [1·06-1·08] vs 1·04 [1·04-1·05]). The risk of admission to hospital and ICU due to COVID-19 associated with unit increase in BMI was slightly lower in people with type 2 diabetes, hypertension, and cardiovascular disease than in those without these morbidities. INTERPRETATION: At a BMI of more than 23 kg/m2, we found a linear increase in risk of severe COVID-19 leading to admission to hospital and death, and a linear increase in admission to an ICU across the whole BMI range, which is not attributable to excess risks of related diseases. The relative risk due to increasing BMI is particularly notable people younger than 40 years and of Black ethnicity. FUNDING: NIHR Oxford Biomedical Research Centre.


Subject(s)
Body Mass Index , COVID-19/epidemiology , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/epidemiology , Independent Living/trends , Severity of Illness Index , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , COVID-19/diagnosis , Cohort Studies , Databases, Factual , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/diagnosis , England/epidemiology , Female , Follow-Up Studies , Hospitalization/trends , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Prospective Studies , Risk Factors , Young Adult
15.
J Clin Endocrinol Metab ; 106(5): e2025-e2034, 2021 04 23.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1199961

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: Comorbidities making up metabolic syndrome (MetS), such as obesity, type 2 diabetes, and chronic cardiovascular disease can lead to increased risk of coronavirus disease-2019 (COVID-19) with a higher morbidity and mortality. SARS-CoV-2 antibodies are higher in severely or critically ill COVID-19 patients, but studies have not focused on levels in convalescent patients with MetS, which this study aimed to assess. METHODS: This retrospective study focused on adult convalescent outpatients with SARS-CoV-2 positive serology during the COVID-19 pandemic at NewYork Presbyterian/Weill Cornell. Data collected for descriptive and correlative analysis included SARS-COV-2 immunoglobin G (IgG) levels and history of MetS comorbidities from April 17, 2020 to May 20, 2020. Additional data, including SARS-CoV-2 IgG levels, body mass index (BMI), hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) and lipid levels were collected and analyzed for a second cohort from May 21, 2020 to June 21, 2020. SARS-CoV-2 neutralizing antibodies were measured in a subset of the study cohort. RESULTS: SARS-CoV-2 IgG levels were significantly higher in convalescent individuals with MetS comorbidities. When adjusted for age, sex, race, and time duration from symptom onset to testing, increased SARS-CoV-2 IgG levels remained significantly associated with obesity (P < 0.0001). SARS-CoV-2 IgG levels were significantly higher in patients with HbA1c ≥6.5% compared to those with HbA1c <5.7% (P = 0.0197) and remained significant on multivariable analysis (P = 0.0104). A positive correlation was noted between BMI and antibody levels [95% confidence interval: 0.37 (0.20-0.52) P < 0.0001]. Neutralizing antibody titers were higher in COVID-19 individuals with BMI ≥ 30 (P = 0.0055). CONCLUSION: Postconvalescent SARS-CoV-2 IgG and neutralizing antibodies are elevated in obese patients, and a positive correlation exists between BMI and antibody levels.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Neutralizing/immunology , COVID-19/immunology , Immunoglobulin G/immunology , Metabolic Syndrome/immunology , Adult , Antibodies, Neutralizing/blood , COVID-19/blood , COVID-19/complications , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/blood , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/immunology , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/virology , Female , Humans , Immunoglobulin G/blood , Male , Metabolic Syndrome/blood , Metabolic Syndrome/virology , Middle Aged , Obesity/blood , Obesity/immunology , Obesity/virology , Retrospective Studies
16.
Diabetes Obes Metab ; 23(7): 1624-1630, 2021 Jul.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1175046

ABSTRACT

AIM: To assess the effect of the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) lockdown on glycaemic control in subjects with type 2 diabetes (T2D). MATERIALS AND METHODS: In this observational, multicentre, retrospective study conducted in the Lazio region, Italy, we compared the differences in the HbA1c levels of 141 subjects with T2D exposed to lockdown with 123 matched controls with T2D who attended the study centres 1 year before. Basal data were collected from 9 December to 9 March and follow-up data from 3 June to 10 July in 2020 for the lockdown group, and during the same timeframes in 2019 for the control groups. Changes in HbA1c (ΔHbA1c) and body mass index (ΔBMI) during lockdown were compared among patients with different psychological well-being, as evaluated by tertiles of the Psychological General Well-Being Index (PGWBS). RESULTS: No difference in ΔHbA1c was found between the lockdown and control groups (lockdown group -0.1% [-0.5%-0.3%] vs. control group -0.1% [-0.4%-0.2%]; p = .482). Also, no difference was found in ΔBMI (p = .316) or ΔGlucose (p = .538). In the lockdown group, subjects with worse PGWBS showed a worsening of HbA1c (p = .041 for the trend among PGWBS tertiles) and BMI (p = .022). CONCLUSIONS: The COVID-19 lockdown did not significantly impact glycaemic control in people with T2D. People with poor psychological well-being may experience a worsening a glycaemic control because of restrictions resulting from lockdown. These findings may aid healthcare providers in diabetes management once the second wave of COVID-19 has ended.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2 , Blood Glucose , Communicable Disease Control , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/epidemiology , Glycemic Control , Humans , Italy/epidemiology , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2
17.
Diabetes Obes Metab ; 23(4): 886-896, 2021 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1171152

ABSTRACT

AIMS: Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is caused by a novel severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2. It can lead to multiorgan failure, including respiratory and cardiovascular decompensation, and kidney injury, with significant associated morbidity and mortality, particularly in patients with underlying metabolic, cardiovascular, respiratory or kidney disease. Dapagliflozin, a sodium-glucose cotransporter-2 inhibitor, has shown significant cardio- and renoprotective benefits in patients with type 2 diabetes (with and without atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease), heart failure and chronic kidney disease, and may provide similar organ protection in high-risk patients with COVID-19. MATERIALS AND METHODS: DARE-19 (NCT04350593) is an investigator-initiated, collaborative, international, multicentre, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study testing the dual hypotheses that dapagliflozin can reduce the incidence of cardiovascular, kidney and/or respiratory complications or all-cause mortality, or improve clinical recovery, in adult patients hospitalized with COVID-19 but not critically ill on admission. Eligible patients will have ≥1 cardiometabolic risk factor for COVID-19 complications. Patients will be randomized 1:1 to dapagliflozin 10 mg or placebo. Primary efficacy endpoints are time to development of new or worsened organ dysfunction during index hospitalization, or all-cause mortality, and the hierarchical composite endpoint of change in clinical status through day 30 of treatment. Safety of dapagliflozin in individuals with COVID-19 will be assessed. CONCLUSIONS: DARE-19 will evaluate whether dapagliflozin can prevent COVID-19-related complications and all-cause mortality, or improve clinical recovery, and assess the safety profile of dapagliflozin in this patient population. Currently, DARE-19 is the first large randomized controlled trial investigating use of sodium-glucose cotransporter 2 inhibitors in patients with COVID-19.


Subject(s)
Benzhydryl Compounds/therapeutic use , COVID-19/drug therapy , Cardiovascular Diseases/prevention & control , Glucosides/therapeutic use , Kidney Diseases/prevention & control , Mortality , Respiratory Insufficiency/drug therapy , Sodium-Glucose Transporter 2 Inhibitors/therapeutic use , Atherosclerosis/epidemiology , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/epidemiology , Cardiometabolic Risk Factors , Cardiovascular Diseases/etiology , Cause of Death , Comorbidity , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/epidemiology , Disease Progression , Double-Blind Method , Heart Failure/epidemiology , Humans , Hypertension/epidemiology , Kidney Diseases/etiology , Multicenter Studies as Topic , Randomized Controlled Trials as Topic , Renal Insufficiency, Chronic/epidemiology , Respiratory Insufficiency/etiology , SARS-CoV-2 , Treatment Outcome
18.
JMIR Diabetes ; 6(1): e25295, 2021 Feb 22.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1161018

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Translation of diabetes self-management education and support (DSMES) into a digital format can improve access, but few digital programs have demonstrated outcomes using rigorous evaluation metrics. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to evaluate the impact of a digital DSMES program on hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) for people with type 2 diabetes. METHODS: A single-arm, nonrandomized trial was performed to evaluate a digital DSMES program that includes remote monitoring and lifestyle change, in addition to comprehensive diabetes education staffed by a diabetes specialist. A sample of 195 participants were recruited using an online research platform (Achievement Studies, Evidation Health Inc). The primary outcome was change in laboratory-tested HbA1c from baseline to 4 months, and secondary outcomes included change in lipids, diabetes distress, and medication adherence. RESULTS: At baseline, participants had a mean HbA1c of 8.9% (SD 1.9) and mean BMI of 37.5 kg/m2 (SD 8.3). The average age was 45.1 years (SD 8.9), 70% were women, and 67% were White. At 4-month follow up, the HbA1c decreased by 0.8% (P<.001, 95% CI -1.1 to -0.5) for the total population and decreased by 1.4% (P<.001, 95% CI -1.8 to -0.9) for those with an HbA1c of >9.0% at baseline. Diabetes distress and medication adherence were also significantly improved between baseline and follow up. CONCLUSIONS: This study provides early evidence that a digitally enhanced DSMES program improves HbA1c and disease self-management outcomes.

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Front Cell Dev Biol ; 9: 630242, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1158344

ABSTRACT

Coronaviruses have lipid envelopes required for their activity. The fact that coronavirus infection provokes the formation of cubic membranes (CM) (denoted also as convoluted membranes) in host cells has not been rationalized in the development of antiviral therapies yet. In this context, the role of bioactive plasmalogens (vinyl ether glycerophospholipids) is not completely understood. These lipid species display a propensity for non-lamellar phase formation, facilitating membrane fusion, and modulate the activity of membrane-bound proteins such as enzymes and receptors. At the organism level, plasmalogen deficiency is associated with cardiometabolic disorders including obesity and type 2 diabetes in humans. A straight link is perceived with the susceptibility of such patients to SARS-CoV-2 (severe acute respiratory syndrome-coronavirus-2) infection, the severity of illness, and the related difficulty in treatment. Based on correlations between the coronavirus-induced modifications of lipid metabolism in host cells, plasmalogen deficiency in the lung surfactant of COVID-19 patients, and the alterations of lipid membrane structural organization and composition including the induction of CM, we emphasize the key role of plasmalogens in the coronavirus (SARS-CoV-2, SARS-CoV, or MERS-CoV) entry and replication in host cells. Considering that plasmalogen-enriched lung surfactant formulations may improve the respiratory process in severe infected individuals, plasmalogens can be suggested as an anti-viral prophylactic, a lipid biomarker in SARS-CoV and SARS-CoV-2 infections, and a potential anti-viral therapeutic component of lung surfactant development for COVID-19 patients.

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