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1.
Clin Infect Dis ; 73(11): e4113-e4123, 2021 12 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1561415

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The relationship between common patient characteristics, such as sex and metabolic comorbidities, and mortality from coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) remains incompletely understood. Emerging evidence suggests that metabolic risk factors may also vary by age. This study aimed to determine the association between common patient characteristics and mortality across age-groups among COVID-19 inpatients. METHODS: We performed a retrospective cohort study of patients discharged from hospitals in the Premier Healthcare Database between April-June 2020. Inpatients were identified using COVID-19 ICD-10-CM diagnosis codes. A priori-defined exposures were sex and present-on-admission hypertension, diabetes, obesity, and interactions between age and these comorbidities. Controlling for additional confounders, we evaluated relationships between these variables and in-hospital mortality in a log-binomial model. RESULTS: Among 66 646 (6.5%) admissions with a COVID-19 diagnosis, across 613 U.S. hospitals, 12 388 (18.6%) died in-hospital. In multivariable analysis, male sex was independently associated with 30% higher mortality risk (aRR, 1.30, 95% CI: 1.26-1.34). Diabetes without chronic complications was not a risk factor at any age (aRR 1.01, 95% CI: 0.96-1.06), and hypertension without chronic complications was a risk factor only in 20-39 year-olds (aRR, 1.68, 95% CI: 1.17-2.40). Diabetes with chronic complications, hypertension with chronic complications, and obesity were risk factors in most age-groups, with highest relative risks among 20-39 year-olds (respective aRRs 1.79, 2.33, 1.92; P-values ≤ .002). CONCLUSIONS: Hospitalized men with COVID-19 are at increased risk of death across all ages. Hypertension, diabetes with chronic complications, and obesity demonstrated age-dependent effects, with the highest relative risks among adults aged 20-39.

2.
Ann Intern Med ; 174(8): 1073-1080, 2021 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1456490

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Assessing the evolution of SARS-CoV-2 immune response among patients receiving dialysis can define its durability in a highly clinically relevant context because patients receiving dialysis share the characteristics of persons most susceptible to SARS-CoV-2 infection. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the persistence of SARS-CoV-2 receptor-binding domain (RBD) IgG in seroprevalent patients receiving dialysis. DESIGN: Prospective. SETTING: Nationwide sample from dialysis facilities. PATIENTS: 2215 patients receiving dialysis who had evidence of SARS-CoV-2 infection as of July 2020. MEASUREMENTS: Remainder plasma from routine monthly laboratories was used to measure semiquantitative RBD IgG index value over 6 months. RESULTS: A total of 2063 (93%) seroprevalent patients reached an assay detectable response (IgG index value ≥1). Most (n = 1323, 60%) had responses in July with index values classified as high (IgG ≥10); 1003 (76%) remained within this stratum. Adjusted median index values declined slowly but continuously (July vs. December values were 21 vs. 13; P < 0.001). The trajectory of the response did not vary by age group, sex, race/ethnicity, or diabetes status. Patients without an assay detectable response (n = 137) were more likely to be White and in the younger (18 to 44 years) or older (≥80 years) age groups and less likely to have diabetes and hypoalbuminemia. LIMITATION: Lack of data on symptoms or reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction diagnosis, cohort of persons who survived infection, and use of a semiquantitative assay. CONCLUSION: Despite impaired immunity, most seropositive patients receiving dialysis maintained RBD antibody levels over 6 months. A slow and continual decline in median antibody levels over time was seen, but no indication that subgroups with impaired immunity had a shorter-lived humoral response was found. PRIMARY FUNDING SOURCE: Ascend Clinical Laboratories.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Viral/blood , COVID-19/immunology , Immunoglobulin G/blood , Protein Domains/immunology , Renal Dialysis , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/immunology , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Antibodies, Neutralizing/immunology , Female , Follow-Up Studies , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Prospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Young Adult
3.
Diabetes Care ; 44(6): 1451-1453, 2021 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1204179

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: The impact of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV2) on the incidence of new-onset type 2 diabetes and diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA) is unclear. It is unknown whether the coincidence of DKA noted in adult patients with type 2 diabetes is an issue for youth during the coronavirus disease 2019 pandemic. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: A retrospective single-center medical record review was conducted in a large, urban children's hospital of pediatric subjects presenting with new-onset type 2 diabetes between March and August of 2018 to 2020. RESULTS: The proportion of subjects presenting with new-onset type 2 diabetes in DKA dramatically increased in 2020 (9% in 2018, 3% in 2019, and 20% in 2020, P = 0.029). CONCLUSIONS: In 2020, youth with new-onset type 2 diabetes had a greater incidence of DKA at presentation than previously observed. Future studies should examine the impact of SARS-CoV2 exposure on the presentation of type 2 diabetes in all age-groups to inform better patient care.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 1 , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2 , Diabetic Ketoacidosis , Adolescent , Adult , Child , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 1/epidemiology , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/complications , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/epidemiology , Diabetic Ketoacidosis/epidemiology , Diabetic Ketoacidosis/etiology , Humans , Pandemics , RNA, Viral , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2
4.
Diabetes Res Clin Pract ; 172: 108626, 2021 Feb.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1139479

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: The DaR Global survey was conducted to determine the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on the intentions to fast and the outcomes of fasting in <18 years versus ≥18 years age groups with type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM). METHODS: Muslim people with T1DM were surveyed in 13 countries between June and August 2020, shortly after the end of Ramadan (23rd April-23rd May 2020) using a simple questionnaire. RESULTS: 71.1% of muslims with T1DM fasted during Ramadan. Concerns about COVID-19 were higher in individuals ≥18 years (p = 0.002). The number of participants who decided not to fast plus those who received Ramadan-focused education were significantly higher in the ≥18-year group (p < 0.05). Hypoglycemia (60.7%) as well as hyperglycemia (44.8%) was major complications of fasting during Ramadan in both groups irrespective of age. CONCLUSION: COVID-19 pandemic had minor impact on the decision to fast Ramadan in T1DM cohort. This was higher in the age group of ≥18 years compared to those <18 years group. Only regional differences were noted for fasting attitude and behavior among T1DM groups. This survey highlights the need for Ramadan focused diabetes education to improve glucose control and prevent complications during fasting.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 1/epidemiology , Fasting/physiology , Health Education/methods , Islam , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , Adolescent , Adult , COVID-19/psychology , Cohort Studies , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 1/psychology , Female , Global Health , Humans , Hypoglycemic Agents , Male , Middle Aged , Surveys and Questionnaires , Young Adult
5.
Clin Infect Dis ; 73(11): e4113-e4123, 2021 12 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-990585

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The relationship between common patient characteristics, such as sex and metabolic comorbidities, and mortality from coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) remains incompletely understood. Emerging evidence suggests that metabolic risk factors may also vary by age. This study aimed to determine the association between common patient characteristics and mortality across age-groups among COVID-19 inpatients. METHODS: We performed a retrospective cohort study of patients discharged from hospitals in the Premier Healthcare Database between April-June 2020. Inpatients were identified using COVID-19 ICD-10-CM diagnosis codes. A priori-defined exposures were sex and present-on-admission hypertension, diabetes, obesity, and interactions between age and these comorbidities. Controlling for additional confounders, we evaluated relationships between these variables and in-hospital mortality in a log-binomial model. RESULTS: Among 66 646 (6.5%) admissions with a COVID-19 diagnosis, across 613 U.S. hospitals, 12 388 (18.6%) died in-hospital. In multivariable analysis, male sex was independently associated with 30% higher mortality risk (aRR, 1.30, 95% CI: 1.26-1.34). Diabetes without chronic complications was not a risk factor at any age (aRR 1.01, 95% CI: 0.96-1.06), and hypertension without chronic complications was a risk factor only in 20-39 year-olds (aRR, 1.68, 95% CI: 1.17-2.40). Diabetes with chronic complications, hypertension with chronic complications, and obesity were risk factors in most age-groups, with highest relative risks among 20-39 year-olds (respective aRRs 1.79, 2.33, 1.92; P-values ≤ .002). CONCLUSIONS: Hospitalized men with COVID-19 are at increased risk of death across all ages. Hypertension, diabetes with chronic complications, and obesity demonstrated age-dependent effects, with the highest relative risks among adults aged 20-39.

6.
Adv Exp Med Biol ; 1307: 85-114, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-935228

ABSTRACT

Emergency admissions due to acute metabolic crisis in patients with diabetes remain some of the most common and challenging conditions. DKA (Diabetic Ketoacidosis), HHS (Hyperglycaemic Hyperosmolar State) and recently focused EDKA (Euglycaemic Diabetic Ketoacidosis) are life-threatening different entities. DKA and HHS have distinctly different pathophysiology but basic management protocols are the same. EDKA is just like DKA but without hyperglycaemia. T1D, particularly children are vulnerable to DKA and T2D, particularly elderly with comorbidities are vulnerable to HHS. But these are not always the rule, these acute conditions are often occur in different age groups with diabetes. It is essential to have a coordinated care from the multidisciplinary team to ensure the timely delivery of right treatment. DKA and HHS, in many instances can present as a mixed entity as well. Mortality rate is higher for HHS than DKA but incidences of DKA are much higher than HHS. The prevalence of HHS in children and young adults are increasing due to exponential growth of obesity and increasing T2D cases in this age group. Following introduction of SGLT2i (Sodium-GLucose co-Transporter-2 inhibitor) for T2D and off-label use in T1D, some incidences of EDKA has been reported. Healthcare professionals should be more vigilant during acute illness in diabetes patients on SGLT2i without hyperglycaemia to rule out EDKA. Middle aged, mildly obese and antibody negative patients who apparently resemble as T2D without any precipitating causes sometime end up with DKA which is classified as KPD (Ketosis-prone diabetes). Many cases can be prevented by following 'Sick day rules'. Better access to medical care, structured diabetes education to patients and caregivers are key measures to prevent acute metabolic crisis.


Subject(s)
Diabetic Ketoacidosis , Hyperglycemia , Aged , Child , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 1 , Diabetic Ketoacidosis/diagnosis , Diabetic Ketoacidosis/epidemiology , Diabetic Ketoacidosis/therapy , Emergencies , Humans , Middle Aged , Obesity/complications , Sodium-Glucose Transporter 2 Inhibitors/therapeutic use , Young Adult
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