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2.
J Policy Pract Intellect Disabil ; 17(3): 256-269, 2020 Sep.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1949684

ABSTRACT

The current COVID-19 pandemic is a pressing world crisis and people with intellectual disabilities (IDs) are vulnerable due to disparity in healthcare provision and physical and mental health multimorbidity. While most people will develop mild symptoms upon contracting severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2), some will develop serious complications. The aim of this study is to present guidelines for the care and treatment of people with IDs during the COVID-19 pandemic for both community teams providing care to people with IDs and inpatient psychiatric settings. The guidelines cover specific issues associated with hospital passports, individual COVID-19 care plans, the important role of families and carers, capacity to make decisions, issues associated with social distancing, ceiling of care/treatment escalation plans, mental health and challenging behavior, and caring for someone suspected of contracting or who has contracted SARS-CoV-2 within community or inpatient psychiatric settings. We have proposed that the included conditions recommended by Public Health England to categorize someone as high risk of severe illness due to COVID-19 should also include mental health and challenging behavior. There are specific issues associated with providing care to people with IDs and appropriate action must be taken by care providers to ensure that disparity of healthcare is addressed during the COVID-19 pandemic. We recognize that our guidance is focused upon healthcare delivery in England and invite others to augment our guidance for use in other jurisdictions.

3.
Sex Disabil ; 40(1): 3-20, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1881511

ABSTRACT

Multiple Sclerosis (MS) is a neurological condition which usually manifests between the ages of 20-40 years. This is a critical period for developing relationships, particularly romantic relationships. People with MS can experience sexual dysfunction, limb weakness, fatigue, pain, reduced mood and bladder/bowel dysfunction; potentially affecting their ability to participate in many meaningful activities, including those associated with romantic relationships, dating or engaging in sexual intercourse. Dating or starting romantic relationships can be difficult for people with physical disabilities as they can experience stigma, negative societal attitudes and the fear of requiring care from potential partners. Dating experiences of people with progressive conditions like MS have not been explored in detail. The aim of this study was to develop a rich understanding of how living with MS interacts with/influences dating and developing romantic relationships. The study used a descriptive phenomenological design and a purposive sampling strategy. Colaizzi's descriptive phenomenological method was used to analyze the data (Colaizzi, 1978). Five females and two males, aged 23-51, participated in two online focus groups. Dating with a diagnosis of MS is a highly personal phenomenon, characterized by individual differences in values and experiences. Core to the phenomenon was personal decision-making about disclosure of the diagnosis and ongoing adaptation to the fluctuating nature of the condition with partners in new/developing relationships. The findings will help health professionals working with adults with MS understand this important aspect of their lives.

4.
Eur J Neurol ; 28(10): 3375-3383, 2021 Oct.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1604393

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: In multiple sclerosis (MS), disease-related factors and dysfunctional coping might favor the development of mental distress induced by COVID-19 containment measures. Aim of this study was exploring the relationship between disability, coping strategies, daily life reorganization and neuropsychiatric symptoms in an Italian MS population during the COVID-19 lockdown, in order to identify potentially modifiable factors that could inform clinical management of mental distress in people with MS. METHODS: We explored the relationship between mental distress, disability and coping strategies in the Italian MS population under lockdown. Structural equation modeling was applied to information collected via web survey to identify modifiable factors that could account for mental distress. RESULTS: A total of 845 participants (497 with MS and 348 controls) were included in the study. The MS group had higher scores than the control group for depression (p = 0.005), but not for anxiety, emotional dyscontrol or sleep disturbances. The structural equation modeling explained 74% of the variance observed in depression score. Within the model, three latent factors were characterized from measured variables: motor disability and cognitive dysfunction contributed to disability (ß = 0.509 and ß = 0.836; p < 0.001); positive attitude and exercise contributed to active attitude (ß = 0.386 and ß = 0.297; p < 0.001); and avoidance, social support and watching television contributed to passive attitude (ß = 0.301, ß = 0.243 and ß = 0.212; p < 0.001). With regard to the relationship between latent factors and their influence on depression, disability contributed to passive attitude (ß = 0.855; p < 0.001), while both passive and active attitude significantly influenced depression (ß = 0.729 and ß = -0.456; p < 0.001). CONCLUSION: As a practical implication of our model, favoring exercise would enhance active attitude and its positive impact on mental well-being while, at the same time, reducing the negative impact of disability on depression, representing a valuable tool in facing COVID-19-related mental distress.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Disabled Persons , Motor Disorders , Multiple Sclerosis , Anxiety , Communicable Disease Control , Depression/epidemiology , Humans , Multiple Sclerosis/epidemiology , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , Surveys and Questionnaires
6.
Public Adm Rev ; 81(6): 1192-1196, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1526400

ABSTRACT

While Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) does not discriminate against particular groups, our social structures and systems mean some people are more at risk in a pandemic context-from both the disease and the social and policy responses to the pandemic. This is particularly so for people with disability, in part because they often have poorer health outcomes from underlying conditions but also due to discrimination and social exclusion. Here, we draw from a survey about the impacts of the COVID-19 pandemic on Australian children and young people with disability and their families. Respondents faced a range of inequities prior to the pandemic, and COVID-19 has further exposed and often exacerbated them. We conclude that recent developments in the Australian disability context to personalize services have arguably made people with disability and their families less safe within a pandemic context, and we outline some ways in which these issues might be addressed.

7.
J Public Health Manag Pract ; 28(1): E299-E306, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1526218

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: In response to the COVID-19 pandemic, hospitals have developed visitor restriction policies in order to mitigate spread of infection. We reviewed hospital visitor restriction policies for consistency and to develop recommendations to highlight fair and transparent restrictions, exceptions, and appeals in policy development and implementation. DESIGN: Collection and analysis of public-facing visitor restriction policies during the first 3 months of the pandemic. SETTING: General acute care hospitals representing 23 states across all 4 major regions of the United States. PARTICIPANTS: A cohort of the 70 largest hospitals by total bed capacity. MEASUREMENTS: Characteristics of visitor restriction policies including general visitor restriction statement, changes/updates to policies over time, exceptions to policies, and restrictions specific to COVID-19-positive patients. RESULTS: Sixty-five of the 70 hospitals reviewed had public-facing visitor restriction policies. Forty-nine of these 65 policies had general "no-visitor" statements, whereas 16 allowed at least 1 visitor to accompany all patients. Sixty-three of 65 hospitals included exceptions to their visitor restriction policies. Setting-specific exceptions included pediatrics, obstetrics/gynecology, emergency department, behavioral health, inpatient rehabilitation, surgery, and outpatient clinics. Exceptions that applied across settings included patients at end of life and patients with disabilities. CONCLUSION: Visitor restriction policies varied significantly among hospitals in this review. These variances create challenges in that their fair application may be problematic and ethical issues related to allocation may arise. Five recommendations are offered for hospitals revising or creating such policies, including that offering transparent, accessible, public-facing policies can minimize ethical dilemmas. In addition, hospitals would benefit from communicating with each other in the development of visitor policies to ensure uniformity and support patients and family members as they navigate hospital visitation.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pandemics , Child , Female , Hospitals , Humans , Policy , Pregnancy , SARS-CoV-2 , United States , Visitors to Patients
8.
Syst Rev ; 9(1): 215, 2020 09 17.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1456002

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: A growing body of research highlights the pervasive harms of adverse childhood experiences (ACEs) on health throughout the life-course. However, findings from prior reviews and recent longitudinal studies investigating the association between types of ACEs and persistent pain have yielded inconsistent findings in the strength and direction of associations. The purpose of this review is to appraise and summarize evidence on the relationship between ACEs and persistent pain and disability outcomes in adulthood. The specific aims are (1) to determine whether there is a relationship between exposure to ACE and persistent pain and disability in adults and (2) to determine whether unique and cumulative ACEs exposures (number and type) increase the risk of developing persistent pain and disability in adulthood. METHOD: A systematic review and meta-analysis of observational studies will be conducted. Our eligibility criteria are defined following a PECOS approach: population, adults with persistent (≥ 3 months) musculoskeletal and somatoform painful disorders exposed to single or cumulative direct ACEs alone (i.e., physical, sexual, emotional abuse or neglect) or in combination to indirect types of ACE (e.g., parental death, exposure to domestic violence) in the first 18 years of life; comparators, unexposed individuals; outcomes, measurements for persistent pain (≥ 3 months) and disability using discrete and/or continuous measures; and settings, general population, primary care. A comprehensive search of MEDLINE (Ovid) and nine other pertinent databases was conducted from inception to 29 August 2019 using a combination of key words and MeSh terms (the search will be updated prior to conducting the analyses). Pairs of reviewers will independently screen records and full text articles, and a third reviewer will be consulted in cases of disagreement. Data will be extracted using Endnote and Covidence and a meta-analysis will be conducted using Review Manager (RevMan) Version 5.3. The Scottish Intercollegiate Guidelines Network (SIGN) and the Joanna Briggs Institute (JBI) checklists will be used to assess the quality of the included studies. If heterogeneity is high, the findings will be presented in narrative form. DISCUSSION: The present review will help consolidate knowledge on persistent pain and disability by evaluating whether frequency and type of adverse childhood experiences produces the most harm. Findings may help inform practitioners and policy-makers who endeavor to prevent and/or mitigate the consequences of ACEs and promote healthy development and well-being of children, youth, and families. SYSTEMATIC REVIEW REGISTRATION: PROSPERO CRD42020150230.


Subject(s)
Adverse Childhood Experiences , Disabled Persons , Pain , Adolescent , Adult , Child , Cross-Sectional Studies , Humans , Meta-Analysis as Topic , Retrospective Studies , Systematic Reviews as Topic
9.
J Intern Med ; 289(6): 807-830, 2021 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1447945

ABSTRACT

Ageing of the population, together with population growth, has brought along an ample increase in the number of older individuals living with dementia and disabilities. Dementia is the main cause of disability in old age, and promoting healthy brain ageing is considered as a key element in diminishing the burden of age-related disabilities. The World Health Organization recently launched the first risk reduction guidelines for cognitive impairment and dementia. According to recent estimates, approximately 40% of dementia cases worldwide could be attributable to 12 modifiable risk factors: low education; midlife hypertension and obesity; diabetes, smoking, excessive alcohol use, physical inactivity, depression, low social contact, hearing loss, traumatic brain injury and air pollution indicating clear prevention potential. Dementia and physical disability are closely linked with shared risk factors and possible shared underlying mechanisms supporting the possibility of integrated preventive interventions. FINGER trial was the first large randomized controlled trial indicating that multidomain lifestyle-based intervention can prevent cognitive and functional decline amongst at-risk older adults from the general population. Within the World-Wide FINGERS network, the multidomain FINGER concept is now tested and adapted worldwide proving evidence and tools for effective and easily implementable preventive strategies. Close collaboration between researchers, policymakers and healthcare practitioners, involvement of older adults and utilization of new technologies to support self-management is needed to facilitate the implementation of the research findings. In this scoping review, we present the current scientific evidence in the field of dementia and disability prevention and discuss future directions in the field.


Subject(s)
Cognitive Dysfunction , Dementia , Aged , Cognitive Dysfunction/epidemiology , Cognitive Dysfunction/prevention & control , Dementia/epidemiology , Dementia/prevention & control , Humans , Life Style , Randomized Controlled Trials as Topic , Risk Factors , Risk Reduction Behavior
10.
Autism ; 25(6): 1627-1639, 2021 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1416764

ABSTRACT

LAY ABSTRACT: Autistic children who speak few or no words or who have an intellectual disability are the most in need of new understandings and treatments, but the most often left out of the research that can bring these benefits. Researchers perceive difficulties around compliance with instructions, testing, challenging behaviours and family stress. Although research with these children can indeed be difficult, their continuing exclusion is unethical and unacceptable. Drawing on our experiences testing a possible treatment for children with profound autism, we provide 10 practical guidelines related to (1) interacting physically, (2) combining play and testing, (3) responding to challenging behaviour, (4) finding suitable tests, (5) relationships with parents, (6) relationships with siblings, (7) involving stakeholders, (8) planning the testing times, (9) the role of the clinical supervisor and (10) recruiting and retaining participants. We hope that these guidelines will prepare and embolden other research teams to work with profoundly autistic children, ending their historical exclusion from research. These guidelines also could be useful for conducting research with children with intellectual disabilities.


Subject(s)
Autism Spectrum Disorder , Autistic Disorder , Intellectual Disability , Autism Spectrum Disorder/therapy , Autistic Disorder/therapy , Child , Communication , Humans , Intellectual Disability/therapy , Parents
11.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 17(24)2020 12 19.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1362362

ABSTRACT

Informal caregivers are people providing some type of unpaid, ongoing assistance to a person with a chronic illness or disability. Long-term care measures and policies cannot take place without taking into account the quantitatively crucial role played by informal caregivers. We use the European Health Interview Survey (EHIS), the European Quality of Life Survey (EQLS), and the Study on Health and Ageing in Europe (SHARE) to measure the prevalence of informal caregivers in the European population, and analyze associated socio-demographic factors. This rate ranges between about 13 percent in Portugal and Spain, and more than 22 percent in Luxembourg, Belgium, and Denmark. It declines in older age groups and, on average, is lower in men than in women in all countries studied, and lower among the poorly educated compared to those with higher levels of education. However, large variance was observed in the average share of informal caregivers for most countries between the three surveys. Our findings, estimated through the three surveys, reveal common trends, but also a series of disparities. Additional research will be needed to enable policy makers to access a richer and more harmonized body of data, allowing them to adopt truly evidence-based and targeted policies and interventions in this field.


Subject(s)
Caregivers/statistics & numerical data , Patient Care/statistics & numerical data , Quality of Life/psychology , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Caregivers/psychology , Europe , Female , Humans , Male , Patient Care/psychology , Prevalence
12.
J Headache Pain ; 22(1): 53, 2021 Jun 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1346198

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: To assess the impacts of social situation changes due to the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic on headache-related disability and other symptoms in patients with migraine in Japan. METHODS: We conducted a multicentre, cross-sectional study including 659 outpatients with migraine diagnosed by headache specialists. The participants were asked about the impacts of the first wave of the COVID-19 pandemic on headache-related disability, headache days, headache intensity, stress, physical activity, hospital access and their work and home lives. For headache-related disability, the total Migraine Disability Assessment (MIDAS) score and part A and B scores were analysed. Multivariate stepwise linear regression analysis was performed to identify the clinical predictors of changes in the total MIDAS score before and during the COVID-19 pandemic. Logistic regression analysis was performed to determine the factors related to new-onset headache during the COVID-19 pandemic. RESULTS: Finally, 606 migraine patients (73 M/533 F; age, 45.2 ± 12.0 years) were included in the study, excluding those with incomplete data. Increased stress, substantial concern about COVID-19 and negative impacts of the first wave of the COVID-19 pandemic on daily life were reported in 56.8 %, 55.1 and 45.0 % of the participants, respectively. The total MIDAS and A and B scores did not significantly change after the first wave of the COVID-19 pandemic. New-onset headache, which was observed in 95 patients (15.7 %), was associated with younger age and worsened mood and sleep in the logistic regression analysis. The multivariate stepwise linear regression analysis of changes in the total MIDAS score before and during the first wave of COVID-19 pandemic identified worsened sleep, increased acute medication use, increased stress, medication shortages, comorbidities, the absence of an aura and new-onset headache were determinants of an increased total MIDAS score during the first wave of the COVID-19 pandemic. CONCLUSIONS: In this multicentre study, clinical factors relevant to headache-related disability, such as new-onset headache, stress and sleep disturbances, were identified, highlighting the importance of symptom management in migraine patients during the first wave of the COVID-19 pandemic.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Migraine Disorders , Adult , Cross-Sectional Studies , Disability Evaluation , Humans , Japan/epidemiology , Middle Aged , Migraine Disorders/epidemiology , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2
14.
Chemistry ; 27(41): 10489-10494, 2021 Jul 21.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1318687

ABSTRACT

Scientists and students with disabilities have been severely affected by the COVID-19 pandemic, and this must be urgently addressed to avoid further entrenching existing inequalities. The need for rapid decision-making, often by senior colleagues without lived experience of disabilities, can lead to policies which discriminate against scientists with disabilities. This article reflects on disability declaration statistics and research in critical disability studies and social science to explore the challenges experienced by disabled scientists before and during the COVID-19 pandemic and highlights recommendations and examples of good practice to adopt in order to challenge ableism in STEM communities and workplaces. It is vital that disabled staff and students are fully involved in decision making. This is particularly important as we continue to respond to the challenges and opportunities associated with the ongoing COVID-19 pandemic and plan for a post-COVID-19 future. This time of great change can be used as an opportunity to listen, learn, and improve working conditions and access for scientists with disabilities, and by doing so, for everyone.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Disabled Persons , Humans , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , Students
16.
Int J Clin Pract ; 75(10): e14528, 2021 Oct.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1285029

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Increased coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) incidence and mortality in hospitalised patients with psychiatric and neurologic disorders have been reported. METHODS: The clinical records of 198 patients with psychiatric and neurological disorders hospitalised in the Dr Rafael Serrano Psychiatric Hospital in Puebla during the peak of the first wave of the COVID-19 pandemic in Mexico were analysed for psychiatric or neurologic diagnosis, gender, age, medical diagnosis, and COVID-19 prevalence. For patients with COVID-19, the effects of gender, and medical diagnosis were explored. RESULTS: There was an increased COVID-19 prevalence in the studied population (43.94%), compared with the national Mexican (~0.21% to 0.63%) and worldwide average in the general population (~0.13% to 4.28%). However, the mortality rate (5.75%) was lower than that reported in Mexico (11.28%-13.55%), which was higher than the worldwide average (2.95%-4.98%). We detected increased COVID-19 prevalence in patients with comorbidities (odds ratios [OR] 0.4; 95% CI: 0.2-1, P = .0447). Moreover, patients with schizophrenia spectrum disorders have a decreased predisposition to COVID-19 (OR 0.4, 95% CI: 0.2-0.8; P = .0250), as opposed to patients with intellectual disability that are predisposed to COVID-19 (OR 2.2, 95% CI: 0.2-0.8; P = .0434), in comparison with the rest of the hospital population. CONCLUSION: The prevalence of COVID-19 in hospitalised patients with psychiatric disorders is increased compared with that of the general population; however, a lower mortality rate was detected. Also, an increased risk of COVID-19 was detected in patients with comorbidities. Interestingly, the observed variation in COVID-19 prevalence in patients with schizophrenia and intellectual disability was not associated with age or other specific medical diagnoses.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Nervous System Diseases , Schizophrenia , Hospitalization , Humans , Mexico/epidemiology , Nervous System Diseases/epidemiology , Pandemics , Prevalence , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Schizophrenia/complications , Schizophrenia/epidemiology
17.
Neurol Ther ; 10(2): 539-555, 2021 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1274995

ABSTRACT

This article describes consensus recommendations from an expert group of neurologists from the Arabian Gulf region on the management of relapsing multiple sclerosis (RMS) in the COVID-19 era. MS appears not to be a risk factor for severe adverse COVID-19 outcomes (though patients with advanced disability or a progressive phenotype are at higher risk). Disease-modifying therapy (DMT)-based care appears generally safe for patients with MS who develop COVID-19 (although there may be an increased risk of adverse outcomes with anti-CD20 therapy). Interferon-ß, teriflunomide, dimethyl fumarate, glatiramer acetate, natalizumab and cladribine tablets are unlikely to increase the risk of infection; fingolimod, anti-CD20 agents and alemtuzumab may confer an intermediate risk. Existing DMT therapy should be continued at this time. For patients requiring initiation of a DMT, all currently available DMTs except alemtuzumab can be started safely at this time; initiate alemtuzumab subject to careful individual risk-benefit considerations. Patients should receive vaccination against COVID-19 where possible, with no interruption of existing DMT-based care. There is no need to alter the administration of interferon-ß, teriflunomide, dimethyl fumarate, glatiramer acetate, natalizumab, fingolimod or cladribine tablets for vaccination; new starts on other DMTs should be delayed for up to 6 weeks after completion of vaccination to allow the immune response to develop. Doses of the Oxford University/AstraZeneca vaccine may be scheduled around doses of anti-CD20 or alemtuzumab. Where white cell counts are suppressed by treatment, these should be allowed to recover before vaccination.

18.
N Engl J Med ; 384(24): 2283-2294, 2021 06 17.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1275997

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Targeted temperature management is recommended for patients after cardiac arrest, but the supporting evidence is of low certainty. METHODS: In an open-label trial with blinded assessment of outcomes, we randomly assigned 1900 adults with coma who had had an out-of-hospital cardiac arrest of presumed cardiac or unknown cause to undergo targeted hypothermia at 33°C, followed by controlled rewarming, or targeted normothermia with early treatment of fever (body temperature, ≥37.8°C). The primary outcome was death from any cause at 6 months. Secondary outcomes included functional outcome at 6 months as assessed with the modified Rankin scale. Prespecified subgroups were defined according to sex, age, initial cardiac rhythm, time to return of spontaneous circulation, and presence or absence of shock on admission. Prespecified adverse events were pneumonia, sepsis, bleeding, arrhythmia resulting in hemodynamic compromise, and skin complications related to the temperature management device. RESULTS: A total of 1850 patients were evaluated for the primary outcome. At 6 months, 465 of 925 patients (50%) in the hypothermia group had died, as compared with 446 of 925 (48%) in the normothermia group (relative risk with hypothermia, 1.04; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.94 to 1.14; P = 0.37). Of the 1747 patients in whom the functional outcome was assessed, 488 of 881 (55%) in the hypothermia group had moderately severe disability or worse (modified Rankin scale score ≥4), as compared with 479 of 866 (55%) in the normothermia group (relative risk with hypothermia, 1.00; 95% CI, 0.92 to 1.09). Outcomes were consistent in the prespecified subgroups. Arrhythmia resulting in hemodynamic compromise was more common in the hypothermia group than in the normothermia group (24% vs. 17%, P<0.001). The incidence of other adverse events did not differ significantly between the two groups. CONCLUSIONS: In patients with coma after out-of-hospital cardiac arrest, targeted hypothermia did not lead to a lower incidence of death by 6 months than targeted normothermia. (Funded by the Swedish Research Council and others; TTM2 ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT02908308.).


Subject(s)
Fever/therapy , Hypothermia, Induced , Out-of-Hospital Cardiac Arrest/therapy , Aged , Body Temperature , Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation/methods , Coma/etiology , Coma/therapy , Female , Fever/etiology , Humans , Hypothermia, Induced/adverse effects , Kaplan-Meier Estimate , Male , Middle Aged , Out-of-Hospital Cardiac Arrest/complications , Out-of-Hospital Cardiac Arrest/mortality , Single-Blind Method , Treatment Outcome
19.
BMC Res Notes ; 14(1): 233, 2021 Jun 14.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1269889

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: The main aim of the study was to assess the impact of COVID-19 pandemic on athletes preparing for the Tokyo 2021 Paralympic Games during 1 month of lockdown in Poland. The study involved 166 athletes (106 male, 66 female), members of either the Polish Paralympic Committee or the Polish Sports Association for the Disabled'Start', two organizations responsible for managing and regulating sports played by persons with disabilities in Poland. RESULTS: Athletes with disabilities have been strongly affected by the pandemic and the resultant lockdown. The majority of respondents reported that they trained at home (88.6%), whereas 60.2% of athletes trained outdoors, and 12% suspended their training regimens altogether. Only 5.4% of athletes had some access to sport facilities. The athletes reduced their weekly training time by almost half (9.4 h/week vs. 5.3 h/week), a statistically significant difference (t = 16.261, p < 0.001).


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Disabled Persons , Athletes , Communicable Disease Control , Female , Humans , Male , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , Tokyo/epidemiology
20.
CBE Life Sci Educ ; 20(3): ar36, 2021 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1266517

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 pandemic caused nearly all colleges and universities to transition in-person courses to an online format. In this study, we explored how the rapid transition to online instruction during the COVID-19 pandemic affected students with disabilities. We interviewed 66 science, technology, engineering, and math (STEM) undergraduates with disabilities at seven large-enrollment institutions during Spring 2020. We probed to what extent students were able to access their existing accommodations, to what extent the online environment required novel accommodations, and what factors prevented students from being properly accommodated in STEM courses. Using inductive coding, we identified that students were unable to access previously established accommodations, such as reduced-distraction testing and note-takers. We also found that the online learning environment presented novel challenges for students with disabilities that may have been lessened with the implementation of accommodations. Finally, we found that instructors making decisions about what accommodations were appropriate for students and disability resource centers neglecting to contact students after the transition to online instruction prevented students from receiving the accommodations that they required in STEM courses during the COVID-19 pandemic. This study illuminates current gaps in the support of students with disabilities and pinpoints ways to make online STEM learning environments more inclusive for students with disabilities.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Disabled Persons , Humans , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , Students , Technology
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