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1.
Int J Gen Med ; 14: 2407-2412, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1581589

ABSTRACT

Introduction: The management of COVID-19 patients requires efficiency and accuracy in methods of detection, identification, monitoring, and treatment feasible in every hospital. Aside from clinical presentations and laboratory markers, chest x-ray imaging could also detect pneumonia caused by COVID-19. It is also a fast, simple, cheap, and safe modality used for the management of COVID-19 patients. Established scoring systems of COVID-19 chest x-ray imaging include Radiographic Assessment of Lung Edema (RALE) and Brixia classification. A modified scoring system has been adopted from BRIXIA and RALE scoring systems and has been made to adjust the scoring system needs at Dr. Soetomo General Hospital, Indonesia. This study aims to determine the value of scoring systems through chest x-ray imaging in evaluating the severity of COVID-19. Methods: Data were collected from May to June of 2020 who underwent chest x-ray evaluation. Each image is then scored using three types of classifications: modified score, RALE score, and Brixia score. The scores are then analyzed and compared with the clinical conditions and laboratory markers to determine their value in evaluating the severity of COVID-19 infection in patients. Results: A total of 115 patients were males (51.1%) and 110 were females (48.9%). All three scoring systems are significantly correlated with the clinical severity of the disease, with the strengths of correlation in order from the strongest to weakest as Brixia score (p<0.01, correlation coefficient 0.232), RALE score (p<0.01, correlation coefficient 0.209), and Dr. Soetomo General Hospital score (p<0.01, correlation coefficient 0.194). All three scoring systems correlate significantly with each other. Dr. Soetomo General Hospital score correlates more towards Brixia score (p<0.01, correlation coefficient 0.865) than RALE score (p<0.01, correlation coefficient 0.855). Brixia to RALE score correlates with a coefficient of 0.857 (p<0.01). Conclusion: The modified scoring system can help determine the severity of the disease progression in COVID-19 patients especially in areas with shortages of facilities and specialists.

2.
J Am Soc Nephrol ; 32(1): 99-114, 2021 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1496673

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: C3 glomerulopathy (C3G) is characterized by the alternative-pathway (AP) hyperactivation induced by nephritic factors or complement gene mutations. Mice deficient in complement factor H (CFH) are a classic C3G model, with kidney disease that requires several months to progress to renal failure. Novel C3G models can further contribute to understanding the mechanism behind this disease and developing therapeutic approaches. METHODS: A novel, rapidly progressing, severe, murine model of C3G was developed by replacing the mouse C3 gene with the human C3 homolog using VelociGene technology. Functional, histologic, molecular, and pharmacologic assays characterize the presentation of renal disease and enable useful pharmacologic interventions in the humanized C3 (C3hu/hu) mice. RESULTS: The C3hu/hu mice exhibit increased morbidity early in life and die by about 5-6 months of age. The C3hu/hu mice display elevated biomarkers of kidney dysfunction, glomerulosclerosis, C3/C5b-9 deposition, and reduced circulating C3 compared with wild-type mice. Administration of a C5-blocking mAb improved survival rate and offered functional and histopathologic benefits. Blockade of AP activation by anti-C3b or CFB mAbs also extended survival and preserved kidney function. CONCLUSIONS: The C3hu/hu mice are a useful model for C3G because they share many pathologic features consistent with the human disease. The C3G phenotype in C3hu/hu mice may originate from a dysregulated interaction of human C3 protein with multiple mouse complement proteins, leading to unregulated C3 activation via AP. The accelerated disease course in C3hu/hu mice may further enable preclinical studies to assess and validate new therapeutics for C3G.


Subject(s)
Complement C3/genetics , Disease Models, Animal , Glomerulonephritis, Membranoproliferative/genetics , Kidney Diseases/genetics , Animals , Complement C3/metabolism , Complement Pathway, Alternative/genetics , Exons , Gene Expression Regulation , Glomerulonephritis, Membranoproliferative/metabolism , Humans , Kidney Diseases/metabolism , Liver/metabolism , Male , Mice , Mice, Knockout , Microscopy, Fluorescence , Phenotype , Polymorphism, Single Nucleotide , Renal Insufficiency/genetics , Renal Insufficiency/metabolism
3.
Adv Nutr ; 11(4): 1002-1015, 2020 07 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1455233

ABSTRACT

The prevalence of chronic kidney disease (CKD) is increasing and dietary interventions may be a strategy to reduce this burden. In the general population, higher potassium intake is considered protective for cardiovascular health. Due to the risk of hyperkalemia in CKD, limiting potassium intake is often recommended. However, given that poor cardiovascular function can cause kidney damage, following a low-potassium diet may be deleterious for patients with CKD. The aim of this systematic review was to summarize the evidence on dietary potassium intake and CKD progression. Multiple databases were searched on 7 June 2019 and data were managed with Covidence. No intervention trials met the inclusion criteria. Eleven observational studies met the inclusion criteria (10 post hoc analyses, 1 retrospective cohort), representing 49,573 stage 1-5 predialysis patients with CKD from 41 different countries. Of the 11 studies, 6 studies reported exclusively on early CKD (stage 1-2), 4 studies separately reported analyses on both early and late (stage 3-5) CKD, and 2 studies reported exclusively on late CKD. A total of 9 studies reported risk of disease progression in early CKD; in 4 studies high potassium intake was associated with lower risk, while in 2 studies the low intake showed a higher progression of risk, and 3 studies reported no relation. In late CKD, results are mixed: 2 studies suggested benefit of higher potassium intake and 1 suggested benefit of lower potassium intake, whereas 3 studies were neutral. These results should be interpreted with caution, as considerations preventing firm conclusions include 1) the overall low range of dietary potassium intake, with all studies reporting an average intake below the 2004 Kidney Disease Outcomes Quality Initiatives guidelines, and 2) the method used to assess potassium intake in most studies (i.e., urine) in late stages of CKD. Ideally, well-controlled intervention studies are needed to understand how dietary potassium intake is linked to CKD progression.


Subject(s)
Potassium, Dietary , Renal Insufficiency, Chronic , Humans , Kidney , Nutritional Status , Retrospective Studies
4.
Adv Radiat Oncol ; 6(6): 100725, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1432710

ABSTRACT

Purpose: To report real-world compliance to radiation in gynecologic cancers during the complete lockdown phase of COVID-19 pandemic. Methods and Materials: From March 23, 2020, until June 30, 2020, complete lockdown was imposed in India. During this period there was restructuring of cancer care and radiation oncology department due to operational policies prevalent in the institution, and the care for gynecological cancer was based on the evolving international recommendations. Institutional review board approval was obtained to audit patterns of care during the complete lockdown phase. Descriptive variables were used to report on patient characteristics, compliance, delays, toxicity, and observed deviations in recommended care. Results: During the lockdown period spanning 100 days, treatment of 270 and telephonic follow-up of 1103 patients with gynecological cancer was undertaken. Of 270 new patients, due to travel restrictions, 90 patients were referred to the facilities in vicinity of their residence. Of the remaining 180 patients, 138 were planned for complete treatment at our institution and 42 were referred to our center for brachytherapy. Of 138 patients, only 106 (76%) completed the planned external radiation. Twenty-four (26%) patients completed full course of concurrent chemotherapy, 11 (12%) received chemotherapy dose reduction, and 57 (62%) received no concurrent chemotherapy. Treatment delay of up to 3 weeks was noted in 8.6% patients due to COVID-19 infection. No grade 4 to 5 acute sequelae were observed. No excess adverse effects were observed in high-risk population. Low rate of symptom burden was observed among 1103 patients on telephonic follow-up. With 100 (9.6%) patients reporting symptoms, among these, 54% (54 of 100) had complete resolution of symptoms within 4 weeks of teleconsultation, and 10% had disease progression. Conclusions: Low compliance with planned treatment was observed for radiation and concurrent chemotherapy due to lockdown and fear of contracting COVID-19 and will likely lead to increased risk of cancer-related mortality. Rapid restructuring of care is needed to prevent the same as COVID-19 pandemic further evolves.

5.
Retrovirology ; 18(1): 13, 2021 06 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1257950

ABSTRACT

Humanized mice model human disease and as such are used commonly for research studies of infectious, degenerative and cancer disorders. Recent models also reflect hematopoiesis, natural immunity, neurobiology, and molecular pathways that influence disease pathobiology. A spectrum of immunodeficient mouse strains permit long-lived human progenitor cell engraftments. The presence of both innate and adaptive immunity enables high levels of human hematolymphoid reconstitution with cell susceptibility to a broad range of microbial infections. These mice also facilitate investigations of human pathobiology, natural disease processes and therapeutic efficacy in a broad spectrum of human disorders. However, a bridge between humans and mice requires a complete understanding of pathogen dose, co-morbidities, disease progression, environment, and genetics which can be mirrored in these mice. These must be considered for understanding of microbial susceptibility, prevention, and disease progression. With known common limitations for access to human tissues, evaluation of metabolic and physiological changes and limitations in large animal numbers, studies in mice prove important in planning human clinical trials. To these ends, this review serves to outline how humanized mice can be used in viral and pharmacologic research emphasizing both current and future studies of viral and neurodegenerative diseases. In all, humanized mouse provides cost-effective, high throughput studies of infection or degeneration in natural pathogen host cells, and the ability to test transmission and eradication of disease.


Subject(s)
Disease Models, Animal , Immunity, Innate , Mice, SCID , Neurodegenerative Diseases/immunology , Animals , HIV-1/immunology , Mice
6.
BMJ Open ; 11(6): e047007, 2021 06 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1270892

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: To investigate the risk factors contributing to severity on admission. Additionally, risk factors of worst severity and fatality were studied. Moreover, factors were compared based on three points: early severity, worst severity and fatality. DESIGN: An observational cohort study using data entered in a Japan nationwide COVID-19 inpatient registry, COVIREGI-JP. SETTING: As of 28 September 2020, 10480 cases from 802 facilities have been registered. Participating facilities cover a wide range of hospitals where patients with COVID-19 are admitted in Japan. PARTICIPANTS: Participants who had a positive test result on any applicable SARS-CoV-2 diagnostic tests were admitted to participating healthcare facilities. A total of 3829 cases were identified from 16 January to 31 May 2020, of which 3376 cases were included in this study. PRIMARY AND SECONDARY OUTCOME MEASURES: Primary outcome was severe or nonsevere on admission, determined by the requirement of mechanical ventilation or oxygen therapy, SpO2 or respiratory rate. Secondary outcome was the worst severity during hospitalisation, judged by the requirement of oxygen and/orinvasive mechanical ventilation/extracorporeal membrane oxygenation. RESULTS: Risk factors for severity on admission were older age, men, cardiovascular disease, chronic respiratory disease, diabetes, obesity and hypertension. Cerebrovascular disease, liver disease, renal disease or dialysis, solid tumour and hyperlipidaemia did not influence severity on admission; however, it influenced worst severity. Fatality rates for obesity, hypertension and hyperlipidaemia were relatively lower. CONCLUSIONS: This study segregated the comorbidities influencing severity and death. It is possible that risk factors for severity on admission, worst severity and fatality are not consistent and may be propelled by different factors. Specifically, while hypertension, hyperlipidaemia and obesity had major effect on worst severity, their impact was mild on fatality in the Japanese population. Some studies contradict our results; therefore, detailed analyses, considering in-hospital treatments, are needed for validation. TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBER: UMIN000039873. https://upload.umin.ac.jp/cgi-open-bin/ctr_e/ctr_view.cgi?recptno=R000045453.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Aged , Cohort Studies , Disease Progression , Hospitalization , Humans , Japan/epidemiology , Male , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2 , Treatment Outcome
8.
Front Mol Biosci ; 8: 648180, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1268265

ABSTRACT

Purpose: By analyzing the CT manifestations and evolution of COVID in non-epidemic areas of southeast China, analyzing the developmental abnormalities and accompanying signs in the early and late stages of the disease, providing imaging evidence for clinical diagnosis and identification, and assisting in judging disease progression and monitoring prognosis. Methods: This retrospective and multicenter study included 1,648 chest CT examinations from 693 patients with laboratory-confirmed COVID-19 infection from 16 hospitals of southeast China between January 19 and March 27, 2020. Six trained radiologists analyzed and recorded the distribution and location of the lesions in the CT images of these patients. The accompanying signs include crazy-paving sign, bronchial wall thickening, microvascular thickening, bronchogram sign, fibrous lesions, halo and reverse-halo signs, nodules, atelectasis, and pleural effusion, and at the same time, they analyze the evolution of the abovementioned manifestations over time. Result: There were 1,500 positive findings in 1,648 CT examinations of 693 patients; the average age of the patients was 46 years, including 13 children; the proportion of women was 49%. Early CT manifestations are single or multiple nodular, patchy, or flaky ground-glass-like density shadows. The frequency of occurrence of ground-glass shadows (47.27%), fibrous lesions (42.60%), and microvascular thickening (40.60%) was significantly higher than that of other signs. Ground-glass shadows increase and expand 3-7 days after the onset of symptoms. The distribution and location of lesions were not significantly related to the appearance time. Ground-glass shadow is the most common lesion, with an average absorption time of 6.2 days, followed by consolidation, with an absorption time of about 6.3 days. It takes about 8 days for pure ground-glass lesions to absorb. Consolidation change into ground glass or pure ground glass takes 10-14 days. For ground-glass opacity to evolve into pure ground-glass lesions, it takes an average of 17 days. For ground-glass lesions to evolve into consolidation, it takes 7 days, pure ground-glass lesions need 8 days to evolve into ground-glass lesions. The average time for CT signs to improve is 10-15 days, and the first to improve is the crazy-paving sign and nodules; while the progression of the disease is 6-12 days, the earliest signs of progression are air bronchogram signs, bronchial wall thickening, and bronchiectasis. There is no severe patient in this study. Conclusion: This study depicts the CT manifestation and evolution of COVID in non-epidemic origin areas, and provides valuable first-hand information for clinical diagnosis and judgment of patient's disease evolution and prediction.

9.
Front Cell Infect Microbiol ; 11: 667487, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1268236

ABSTRACT

Background: Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has posed a great threat to global public health. There remains an urgent need to address the clinical significance of laboratory finding changes in predicting disease progression in COVID-19 patients. We aimed to analyze the clinical and immunological features of severe and critically severe patients with COVID-19 in comparison with non-severe patients and identify risk factors for disease severity and clinical outcome in COVID-19 patients. Methods: The consecutive records of 211 patients with COVID-19 who were admitted to Zhongnan Hospital of Wuhan University from December 2019 to February 2020 were retrospectively reviewed. Results: Of the 211 patients with COVID-19 recruited, 111 patients were classified as non-severe, 59 as severe, and 41 as critically severe cases. The median age was obviously higher in severe and critically severe cases than in non-severe cases. Severe and critically severe patients showed more underlying comorbidities than non-severe patients. Fever was the predominant presenting symptom in COVID-19 patients, and the duration of fever was longer in critically severe patients. Moreover, patients with increased levels of serum aminotransferases and creatinine (CREA) were at a higher risk for severe and critical COVID-19 presentations. The serum levels of IL-6 in severe and critically severe patients were remarkably higher than in non-severe patients. Lymphopenia was more pronounced in severe and critically severe patients compared with non-severe patients. Lymphocyte subset analysis indicated that severe and critically severe patients had significantly decreased count of lymphocyte subpopulations, such as CD4+ T cells, CD8+ T cells and B cells. A multivariate logistic analysis indicated that older age, male sex, the length of hospital stay, body temperature before admission, comorbidities, higher white blood cell (WBC) counts, lower lymphocyte counts, and increased levels of IL-6 were significantly associated with predicting the progression to severe stage of COVID-19. Conclusion: Older age, male sex, underlying illness, sustained fever status, abnormal liver and renal functions, excessive expression of IL-6, lymphopenia, and selective loss of peripheral lymphocyte subsets were related to disease deterioration and clinical outcome in COVID-19 patients. This study would provide clinicians with valuable information for risk evaluation and effective interventions for COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Aged , China/epidemiology , Humans , Male , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Severity of Illness Index
10.
Neurobiol Dis ; 156: 105422, 2021 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1267874

ABSTRACT

Synthetic glucocorticoids (sGCs) such as dexamethasone (DEX), while used to mitigate inflammation and disease progression in premature infants with severe bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD), are also associated with significant adverse neurologic effects such as reductions in myelination and abnormalities in neuroanatomical development. Ciclesonide (CIC) is a sGC prodrug approved for asthma treatment that exhibits limited systemic side effects. Carboxylesterases enriched in the lower airways convert CIC to the glucocorticoid receptor (GR) agonist des-CIC. We therefore examined whether CIC would likewise activate GR in neonatal lung but have limited adverse extra-pulmonary effects, particularly in the developing brain. Neonatal rats were administered subcutaneous injections of CIC, DEX or vehicle from postnatal days 1-5 (PND1-PND5). Systemic effects linked to DEX exposure, including reduced body and brain weight, were not observed in CIC treated neonates. Furthermore, CIC did not trigger the long-lasting reduction in myelin basic protein expression in the cerebral cortex nor cerebellar size caused by neonatal DEX exposure. Conversely, DEX and CIC were both effective at inducing the expression of select GR target genes in neonatal lung, including those implicated in lung-protective and anti-inflammatory effects. Thus, CIC is a promising, novel candidate drug to treat or prevent BPD in neonates given its activation of GR in neonatal lung and limited adverse neurodevelopmental effects. Furthermore, since sGCs such as DEX administered to pregnant women in pre-term labor can adversely affect fetal brain development, the neurological-sparing properties of CIC, make it an attractive alternative for DEX to treat pregnant women severely ill with respiratory illness, such as with asthma exacerbations or COVID-19 infections.


Subject(s)
Cerebellum/drug effects , Cerebral Cortex/drug effects , Glucocorticoids , Lung/drug effects , Pregnenediones/pharmacology , Prodrugs/pharmacology , Signal Transduction/drug effects , Animals , Animals, Newborn , Anti-Inflammatory Agents/pharmacology , Body Weight/drug effects , Brain/drug effects , Brain/growth & development , COVID-19/drug therapy , Dexamethasone/pharmacology , Female , Mice , Mice, Inbred C57BL , Myelin Basic Protein/biosynthesis , Organ Size/drug effects , Pregnancy , Rats , Rats, Sprague-Dawley , Receptors, Glucocorticoid/drug effects
11.
Int J Clin Pract ; 75(9): e14490, 2021 Sep.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1266327

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: To evaluate the impact of delay in cystoscopic surveillance on recurrence and progression rates in non-muscle-invasive bladder cancer (NMIBC). MATERIALS AND METHODS: A total of 407 patients from four high-volume centres with NMIBC that applied for follow-up cystoscopy were included in our study prospectively. Patients' demographics and previous tumour characteristics, the presence of tumour in follow-up cystoscopy, the pathology results of the latest transurethral resection of bladder tumour (if tumour was detected) and the delay in cystoscopy time were recorded. Our primary outcomes were tumour recurrences detected by follow-up cystoscopy and progression. Multivariate logistic regression analysis was performed using the possible factors identified with univariate analyses (P values ≤ .2). RESULTS: A total of 105 patients (25.8%) had tumour recurrence in follow-up cystoscopy, and 20 (5.1%) of these patients had disease progression according to grade or stage. In multivariate analysis, the number of recurrences (OR: 1.307, P < .001) and the cystoscopy delay time (62-147 days, OR: 2.424, P = .002; >147 days, OR: 4.883, P < .001) were significant risk factors for tumour recurrence on follow-up cystoscopy; the number of recurrences (OR: 1.255, P = .024) and cystoscopy delay time (>90 days, OR: 6.704, P = .002) were significant risk factors for tumour progression. CONCLUSIONS: This study showed that a 2-5 months of delay in follow-up cystoscopy increases the risk of recurrence by 2.4-fold, and delay in cystoscopy for more than 3 months increases the probability of progression by 6.7-fold. We suggest that cystoscopic surveillance should be done during the COVID-19 pandemic according to the schedule set by relevant guidelines.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Urinary Bladder Neoplasms , Cystoscopy , Humans , Neoplasm Invasiveness , Neoplasm Recurrence, Local , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , Urinary Bladder Neoplasms/epidemiology , Urinary Bladder Neoplasms/surgery
12.
Comput Math Methods Med ; 2021: 9926249, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1263963

ABSTRACT

Objectives: This study is aimed at exploring the relationship of the viral load of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) with lymphocyte count, neutrophil count, and C-reactive protein (CRP) and investigating the dynamic change of patients' viral load during the conversion from mild COVID-19 to severe COVID-19, so as to clarify the correlation between the viral load and progression of COVID-19. Methods: This paper included 38 COVID-19 patients admitted to the First Hospital of Jiaxing from January 28, 2020, to March 6, 2020, and they were clinically classified according to the Guidelines on the Novel Coronavirus-Infected Pneumonia Diagnosis and Treatment. According to the instructions of the Nucleic Acid Detection Kit for the 2019 novel coronavirus (SARS-CoV-2), respiratory tract specimens (throat swabs) were collected from patients for nucleic acid testing. Patients' lymphocyte count and neutrophil count were determined by blood routine examination, and CRP was measured by biochemical test. Results: The results of our study suggested that the cycle threshold (Ct) value of Nucleocapsid protein (N) gene examined by nucleic acid test was markedly positively correlated with lymphocyte count (p = 0.0445, R 2 = 0.1203), but negatively correlated with neutrophil count (p = 0.0446, R 2 = 0.1167) and CRP (p = 0.0393, R 2 = 0.1261), which indicated that patients with a higher viral load tended to have lower lymphocyte count but higher neutrophil count and CRP. Additionally, we detected the dynamic change of Ct value in patients who developed into a severe case, finding that viral load of 3 patients increased before disease progression, whereas this phenomenon was not found in 2 patients with underlying diseases. Conclusion: The results of this study demonstrated that viral load of SARS-CoV-2 is significantly negatively correlated with lymphocyte count, but markedly positively correlated with neutrophil count and CRP. The rise of viral load is very likely to be the key factor leading to the overloading of the body's immune response and resulting in the disease progression into severe disease.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/virology , SARS-CoV-2 , Viral Load , C-Reactive Protein/metabolism , COVID-19/blood , COVID-19/immunology , China/epidemiology , Computational Biology , Coronavirus Nucleocapsid Proteins/genetics , Disease Progression , Genes, Viral , Humans , Leukocyte Count , Lymphocyte Count , Neutrophils , Pandemics , Phosphoproteins/genetics , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification
13.
Drug Dev Res ; 82(7): 873-879, 2021 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1263077

ABSTRACT

COVID-19 manifests as a mild disease in most people but can progress to severe disease in nearly 20% of individuals. Disease progression is likely driven by a cytokine storm, either directly stimulated by SARS-CoV-2 or by increased systemic inflammation in which the gut might play an integral role. SARS-CoV-2 replication in the gut may cause increased intestinal permeability, alterations to the fecal microbiome, and increased inflammatory cytokines. Each effect may lead to increased systemic inflammation and the transport of cytokines and inflammatory antigens from the gut to the lung. Few interventions are being studied to treat people with mild disease and prevent the cytokine storm. Serumderived bovine immunoglobulin/protein isolate (SBI) may prevent progression by (1) binding and neutralizing inflammatory antigens, (2) decreasing gut permeability, (3) interfering with ACE2 binding by viral proteins, and (4) improving the fecal microbiome. SBI is therefore a promising intervention to prevent disease progression in COVID-19 patients.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/drug therapy , Immunization, Passive/methods , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/metabolism , Animals , COVID-19/complications , Cattle , Cytokine Release Syndrome/etiology , Cytokine Release Syndrome/prevention & control , Gastrointestinal Microbiome , Gastrointestinal Tract/pathology , Humans , Permeability
14.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 11591, 2021 06 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1253986

ABSTRACT

Making timely assessments of disease progression in patients with COVID-19 could help offer the best personalized treatment. The purpose of this study was to explore an effective model to predict the outcome of patients with COVID-19. We retrospectively included 188 patients (124 in the training set and 64 in the test set) diagnosed with COVID-19. Patients were divided into aggravation and improvement groups according to the disease progression. Three kinds of models were established, including the radiomics, clinical, and combined model. Receiver operating characteristic curves, decision curves, and Delong's test were used to evaluate and compare the models. Our analysis showed that all the established prediction models had good predictive performance in predicting the progress and outcome of COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/diagnostic imaging , Tomography, X-Ray Computed , Aged , COVID-19/etiology , Diagnosis, Computer-Assisted/methods , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Models, Theoretical , Prognosis , ROC Curve
15.
Mult Scler Relat Disord ; 53: 103070, 2021 Aug.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1253409

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: During the current COVID-19 pandemic there are studies that have suggested a negative impact of the pandemic on the mental health of patients with multiple sclerosis (PwMS). In this sense, several factors may be related to the increase in experiences of anxiety and depression in PwMS during the current pandemic. OBJECTIVE: In this study we first explored the reactions of anxiety, depression and fear to COVID-19 in a group of PwMS that belong to the Ibero-American region. Besides, we explored whether having been positive to COVID-19, fear of COVID-19, the obstacles to attend medical appointments during the outbreak and subjective experience of MS progression, could predict the anxiety and depression reactions in our PwMS sample. MATERIALS AND METHODS: An online cross-sectional survey was conducted on 202 MS patients from six countries (Argentina, Mexico, Spain, Dominican Republic, Venezuela and Cuba). For comparisons between variables an independent-samples t-test and one-way analysis of variance were used. Multiple linear regression was used to evaluate the effects of potential predictor variables over emotional reactions. RESULTS: Our results showed that PwMS who were positive for COVID-19 reported higher levels of fear of COVID-19 (p<.001) and also higher levels of anxiety (p<.001) compared to non-positive patients. Those patients who had difficulties attending their medical appointments during the outbreak showed higher levels of depression (p=.03) and anxiety (p=.019). Levels of anxiety (p<.001) and depression (p=.006) were also higher among patients with the subjective experience of MS disease progression. The reactions of fear of COVID-19, having been positive to COVID-19, problems attending medical appointments, and subjective experience of MS disease progression showed a high association with the negative impact of the pandemic on mental health of PwMS. CONCLUSIONS: Our results show that the situation generated by the COVID-19 pandemic has had a negative impact on the mental health of PwMS in our sample. Our results also alert to the importance of offering psychological care to patients with multiple sclerosis during the current outbreak, regardless of whether they have been positive for COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Multiple Sclerosis , Anxiety/epidemiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Depression/epidemiology , Disease Progression , Fear , Humans , Multiple Sclerosis/complications , Multiple Sclerosis/epidemiology , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2
16.
Medicine (Madr) ; 13(33): 1917-1931, 2021 May.
Article in Spanish | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1253370

ABSTRACT

The immune system is capable of adequately controlling SARS-CoV-2 infection in 81% of patients, whose disease is asymptomatic or who experience moderate symptoms. However, 19% of infected patients develop severe disease which can become critical or fatal. This review article intends to provide an overview of the epidemiological antecedents of ß-coronaviruses, describe the mechanisms of SARS-CoV-2 infection, and summarize the rational immunological underpinnings known at present which allow for a better understanding of the immunopathology of COVID-19. The SARS-CoV-2 virus is capable of profoundly altering the behavior of molecular and cellular components of the immune system. The initial decisions of the innate immune system are responsible for a proper or improper response of the adaptive immune system and, along with comorbidities, are directly associated with disease progression.

17.
J Steroid Biochem Mol Biol ; 212: 105928, 2021 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1253267

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: Currently, there are no definitive data on the relationship between low levels of vitamin D in the blood and a more severe disease course, in terms of the need for hospital admission, intensive care unit (ICU) stay, and mortality, in patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), the disease caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). We aimed to study the association between levels of circulating 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) and adverse clinical outcomes linked to SARS-CoV-2 infection. We further aimed to observe the incidence of low, below-average, and normal levels of 25(OH)D in patients hospitalized for COVID-19 between March 12, 2020, and May 20, 2020, and assess whether these values differed between these patients and a normal population. Finally, we determined whether the need for transfer to the intensive care unit (ICU) and the mortality rate were related to low levels of 25(OH)D. STUDY DESIGN: Retrospective observational study. SETTING: Quironsalud Hospitals in Madrid, Spain. PARTICIPANTS: We analyzed 1549 patients (mean age, 70 years; range, 21-104 years); 835 were male (53.9 %; mean age, 73.02 years), and 714 were female (46.1 %; mean age, 68.05 years). Subsequently, infected patients admitted to the ICU (n = 112) and those with a fatal outcome (n = 324) were analyzed. PROCEDURES: Serum concentrations of 25(OH)D were measured by electrochemiluminescence. RESULTS: More hospitalized patients (66 %, n = 1017) had low baseline levels of 25(OH)D (<20 ng/mL) than normal individuals (45 %) (p < 0.001). An analysis by age group revealed that COVID-19 patients between the ages of 20 and 80 years old had significantly lower vitamin D levels than those of the normal population (p < 0.001). Patients admitted to the ICU tended to have lower levels of 25(OH)D than other inpatients (p < 0.001); if we stratified patients by 25(OH)D levels, we observed that the rate of ICU admission was higher among patients with vitamin D deficiency (p < 0.001), indicating that higher vitamin D levels are associated with a lower risk of ICU admission due to COVID-19. ICU admission was related to sex (higher rates in men, p < 0.001) and age (p < 0.001). When using a logistic regression model, we found that vitamin D levels continued to show a statistically significant relationship with ICU admission rates, even when adjusting for sex and age. Therefore, the relationship found between vitamin D levels and the risk of ICU admission was independent of patient age and sex in both groups. Deceased patients (n = 324 tended to have lower levels of 25 (OH)D that normal population of the same age (p < 0.001). CONCLUSION: Vitamin D deficiency in patients with COVID-19 is correlated with an increased risk of hospital admission and the need for critical care. We found no clear relationship between vitamin D levels and mortality.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/etiology , COVID-19/mortality , Vitamin D/analogs & derivatives , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Female , Humans , Intensive Care Units/statistics & numerical data , Male , Middle Aged , Retrospective Studies , Spain/epidemiology , Vitamin D/blood , Vitamin D Deficiency/blood , Vitamin D Deficiency/epidemiology , Vitamin D Deficiency/virology , Young Adult
18.
Ophthalmol Retina ; 5(12): 1245-1253, 2021 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1249051

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: We describe the large-scale self-initiated recruitment of patients to a self-monitoring initiative for macular pathologic features during the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic. DESIGN: Observational study with retrospective analysis. PARTICIPANTS: A total of 2272 patients from the Singapore National Eye Centre (SNEC) whose visits were rescheduled over lockdown (April 13-June 1, 2020) were offered participation in a self-monitoring initiative administered by SNEC with the Alleye application (Switzerland) as the testing instrument. METHODS: This was an observational study with retrospective analysis. Demographics and characteristics were compared between those who signed up and those who did not. Similar comparisons were made between patients who complied with the initiative versus those who did not. Outcomes were tracked for 6 months starting from the commencement of lockdown. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Participation and compliance rates and characteristics of patients who were more likely to participate and comply with the initiative. RESULTS: Seven hundred thirty-two patients (32%) participated in this self-monitoring initiative. Those who participated were younger (62 years of age vs. 68 years of age; P < 0.001), men, and living with family. Patients not receiving treatment and those with poorer vision in the worse-seeing eye were more likely to participate. When grouped according to diagnosis, the proportion who participated was highest for diabetic macular edema (52%), nonneovascular age-related macular degeneration (AMD; 42%), diabetic retinopathy (35%), retinal vein occlusions (18%), and neovascular AMD (15%; P < 0.001). Testing compliance rate was 43% (315/732). Patients who complied with the initiative were older, were receiving treatment, and had poorer vision in the worse-seeing eye. Trigger events occurred in 33 patients, with 5 patients having clinically verified disease progression (1.6%). CONCLUSIONS: We provide clinical data on characteristics of patients with stable retinal diseases who were offered, participated in, and complied with a self-monitoring program. The lower participation rate compared with standardized clinical studies reflects the difficulties in implementation for such initiatives in clinical settings. Despite this, self-monitoring continues to show promise in relieving clinic resources, suggesting the feasibility of scaling such programs beyond the COVID-19 pandemic.

19.
Front Immunol ; 12: 684142, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1247870

ABSTRACT

Background: Lung histopathology demonstrates vasculopathy in a subset of deceased COVID19 patients, which resembles histopathology observed in antibody-mediated lung transplant rejection. Autoantibodies against angiotensin II type 1 receptor (AT1R) and Endothelin receptor Type A (ETAR) have been demonstrated in antibody-mediated rejection and may also be associated with severe COVID19 infection. Objective To assess AT1R and ETAR auto-antibodies in COVID19 patients and controls, and explore their association with disease course. Methods: 65 hospitalized patients with COVID19 infection were included. Clinical and laboratory findings were retrospectively assessed. Patients with unfavorable disease course, admitted at the intensive care unit and/or deceased during hospital admission (n=33) were compared to admitted COVID19 patients with favorable disease course (n=32). The presence of antinuclear antibodies (ANA) and auto-antibodies against AT1R or ETAR in peripheral blood were compared between COVID19 with unfavorable and favorable disease course and age matched controls (n=20). Results: The presence of ANA was not significantly different between COVID19 patients with unfavorable (n=7/33; 21%) and favorable disease course (n=6/32; 19%) (p= 0.804) and controls (n=3/20; 15%). Auto-antibodies against AT1R were significantly increased in unfavorable disease course (median 14.59 U/mL, IQR 11.28 - 19.89) compared to favorable disease course (median 10.67 U/mL, IQR 8.55 - 13.0, p< 0.01). ETAR antibody titers were also significantly increased in unfavorable disease course (median 7.21, IQR 5.0 - 10.45) as compared to favorable disease course (median 4.0, IQR 3.0 - 6.0, p <0.05). Conclusion: Auto-antibodies against AT1R and ETAR are significantly increased in COVID19 patients with an unfavorable disease course.


Subject(s)
Autoantibodies/blood , COVID-19/immunology , Receptor, Angiotensin, Type 1/immunology , Receptor, Endothelin A/immunology , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , COVID-19/blood , Female , Humans , Intensive Care Units , Male , Middle Aged , Netherlands , Receptor, Angiotensin, Type 1/blood , Receptor, Endothelin A/blood , Retrospective Studies , Risk Assessment , Severity of Illness Index
20.
J Am Geriatr Soc ; 69(9): 2412-2418, 2021 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1247239

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Older adults are at greater risk of both infection with and mortality from COVID-19. Many U.S. nursing homes have been devastated by the COVID-19 pandemic, yet little has been described regarding the typical disease course in this population. The objective of this study is to describe and identify patterns in the disease course of nursing home residents infected with COVID-19. SETTING AND METHODS: This is a case series of 74 residents with COVID-19 infection in a nursing home in central Indiana between March 28 and June 17, 2020. Data were extracted from the electronic medical record and from nursing home medical director tracking notes from the time of the index infection through August 31, 2020. The clinical authorship team reviewed the data to identify patterns in the disease course of the residents. RESULTS: The most common symptoms were fever, hypoxia, anorexia, and fatigue/malaise. The duration of symptoms was extended, with an average of over 3 weeks. Of those infected 25 died; 23 of the deaths were considered related to COVID-19 infection. A subset of residents with COVID-19 infection experienced a rapidly progressive, fatal course. DISCUSSION/CONCLUSIONS: Nursing home residents infected with COVID-19 from the facility we studied experienced a prolonged disease course regardless of the severity of their symptoms, with implications for the resources needed to care for and support of these residents during active infection and post-disease. Future studies should combine data from nursing home residents across the country to identify the risk factors for disease trajectories identified in this case series.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/pathology , Homes for the Aged/statistics & numerical data , Nursing Homes/statistics & numerical data , SARS-CoV-2 , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , COVID-19/mortality , Female , Humans , Indiana/epidemiology , Male , Risk Factors , Severity of Illness Index
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